Yangon Myanmar HistoryMyanmar Yangon History
A Bagan era vouvant in Tadagale just to the north of Yangon shows that the Lateris, at the end of which Shwedagon was located, was a site of action in the Bagan era and the crest could have created a street south to the Shwedagon Pagoda and the Dagon village behind it.
Myanmar, history of Yangon, history of Bagan, history of Mandalay
The Yangon was established as Dagon in the sixth A. D. by the Mon, who ruled Lower Burma at that age. 1755 King Alaungpaya Dagon took over and re-named it "Yangon". Yangon was taken over by the British during the First Anglo-Burmese Wars (1824-1826), but was given back to the government of Burma after the conflict. In 1841 the town was burned down.
During the 1852 Second Anglo-Burma War, the British Empire conquered Yangon and all of Lower Burma and turned Yangon into the British-Burma trade and politics centre. According to the draft by the military genius Lt. Fraser, the British built a new town on a map of continental terrain bordered to the west by Pazundaung Creek and to the southwest by the Yangon River.
In the 1890s, the growing Yangon people and trade created wealthy suburban areas just off Royal Lake (Kandawgyi) and Inya Lake, and the British also built clinics, such as Rangoon General Hospital and College, among them Rangoon University. The colonial Yangon with its extensive park and lake and a mixture of contemporary building and wood architectural tradition was known as "the Eastern Gardens City".
" At the beginning of the twentieth century, Yangon had shared government service and infrastructures with London. Prior to World War II, almost half of Yangon's inhabitants were either from India or the Southeast. Shortly after Burma's 1948 victory, many of Burma's nicknames were transformed from street and park to more nationalist name.
The name of the town has been renamed "Yangon" in 1989, along with many other changes in the translation of Burma's name. Yangon has extended to the outside world since gaining political sovereignty. Today, the Yangon area covers an area of almost 400 sqm. mile. By November 2005, the army regime appointed the new, recently evolved Naypyidaw, 200 leagues (322 km) south of Mandalay Division, as the new administration town.
Yangon will definitely remain Burma's biggest town and most important trading centre. Most of the building was constructed in the 1000s to 1200s, while Bagan was the capitol of the First Burmese Empire. Only when King Pyinbya transferred the capitol to Bagan in 874 AD did it become a big town.
But in Burma's traditions, the city moved with every rule, and so Bagan was left again until the rule of Anawrahta. King Anawrahta captured the Mon city of Thaton in 1057 and returned the Tripitaka Pali writings, Buddha istists and artisans, all of whom were well used to make Bagan a center of religion and culture.
Anawrahta, with the help of a Lower Burma friar, made Theravada Buddhism a kind of state religion, as well as establishing contact with Sri Lanka. Deserted by the Myanmar Emperor and perhaps plundered by the Mongols, the town disappeared as a center of politics, but flourished further as a place of Buddhist learning.
Established in 1857 by King Mindon Mandalay was the last capitol (1860-1885) of Burma's last remaining sovereign kingdom before its British annexation after the Third Anglo-Burmese War of 1885. Mandalay, unlike other Burma cities, did not develop from a smaller community, although there was a small hamlet of Hti Baunga near it.
The Mandalay was built in an empty area at the base of the 236 metre high Mandalay Hill after a Buddha prophesy that a large town, a Buddhist capital, would be built in this very place on the 2,400th anniversary of Buddhism.
Mindon chose to fulfil the prophesy, and during his rule in the Amarapura Empire he gave a king's order to build a new empire on 13 January 1857. Celebrating the accession ceremony in July 1858, the former imperial seat of Amarapura was taken down by Elephant and taken to its new site at the base of Mandalay Hill.
King Mindon groundbreaking marked the beginning of Mandalay on the sixth declining date of Kason, Burma 1219 (1857). At the same time the king layed the cornerstone for seven buildings: the king lyre with the battlements, the ditch around it, the Maha Lawka Marazein Stupa (Kuthodaw Pagoda), the higher surgery by the name of Pahtan-haw Shwe Thein, the Atumashi cloister, (incomparable),
the Thudhama Zayats or taverns for the proclamation of the Teaching, and the whole kingly town was named Lei Kyun Aung Myei (Victorious Land over the Four Islands) and the kingly palace, Mya Nan San Kyaw (The famous kingly emerald palace). Yadanabon Naypyidaw was the new king's capitol, the Myanmar variant of its Pali name Ratanapura, meaning "The Town of Gems".
The name is a derivation of the Pali term "Mandala", which means "a plain land" - Mandalay should be as shallow as the face of a drums - and also of the Pali term "Mandare", which means "a favourable land". "Mandalay was arrested by the British during the Third Anglo-Burmese War (1885).
The ruling King Thibaw and his Empress Superayalat were compelled to evict the castle and finally banish it to India. Named Dufferin Castle, it was used to house English and Indians and many of its magnificent treasure was loot. The Mandalay region was severely damaged during the Second World War. On May 2, 1942, the Japanese conquered Mandalay and turned the fortress in which the castle was located into a supplies camp.
It was severely bombarded by the Brits before the town was liberated in March 1945. It was burned down and only the brick base of the castle building with some brick walls such as the King's coin and the Hours Tumbleturm ("Drum Tower") was preserved.
Burma became the Mandalay Division headquarters after Burma's liberation from Britain in 1948. "I travelled to Myanmar with my older mother as an exiting example of a truly tailor-made journey.