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Browse " Academic Journals " Law Journals " Washington International Law Journal " Article details, "Finding Justice Scalia in Burma: International Journal for Media and Culture.
Impact of motorcycle demand management in Yangon, Myanmar
It analyses the possible impact of motorbike demandmanagement and its impact on the transport sector in Yangon, Myanmar, where motorbikes have been prohibited since 2003. An owner-occupied car style using modality, target selection and journey frequencies is approximated from a data set of 8,289 Yangon homes and 24,373 Yangon journeys prepared by the Japan International Cooperation Agency in 2013.
Subsequently, a transport consumption forecasting system will be devised, integrating a transport allocation system with a car possession system and passenger needs systems to assess the impact of the motorbike prohibition. Subsequently, the anticipated effects of the motorbike prohibition are assessed by comparison of several different motorbike prohibition scenarios for 2013 and 2035.
Results show that the prohibition could cut transport volumes and kilometres driven by around 18.0% and 26.9% respectively in 2013, but only by 4.5% and 6.0% respectively in 2035. To put it another way, the prohibition will make a significant contribution to alleviating the present difficulties in local public transport, but it would encourage the possession of cars and the replacement of motorbikes in line with rising incomes and would eradicate the impact of reducing motorcycling travel in the years to come.
The results suggest that development towns should take into account the long-term dynamic of motorbike demandmanagement.
Freedom of Opinion | The Case of Unity Weekly News
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On July 10, 2014, five Unity Weekly reporters were convicted by Pakokku Townshop Court in Mandalay, Burma, to 10 years in prison with forced labour. On October 2, 2014, the penalty was lowered by the Magwe Division Court from 10 to 7 years of forced-labour. Journals were fined for their participation in the book "A secretive chemicals arms plant of former general, China technician and community commander-in-chief of Pauk".
This case was widely considered a breach of media freedoms. On April 17, 2016, the five reporters and 83 other detainees were freed for president amnesty. Among the five reporters were Tin Hsan (52), Unity Journal Chief Executive Officer, Lu Maw Naing (28), Sithu Soe (22), The Yazar Oo (28) and Aung Thura or Paing Thet Kyaw (25).
The remainder of Lu Maw Naing was apprehended on January 31, 2014, the following morning. Apprehensions were indiscriminate and took place in a secret place before The Voice Journal announced that the reporters were detained in Insein Prison while waiting for trials. Impeachment against the reporters was brought directly by the office of the President of Myanmar, Thien Sein, for violation of sections 3 (1) (a) and 9 of the State Secrets Act of 1923.
Journalist's attorney Robert San Aung noted that this case shows that Myanmar's legislative and judicial bodies are still under the supervision of some individuals. On July 10, 2014, Pakkoku Township Court convicted the reporters to 10 years in prison under the State Secret Act of the Revolution.
On October 2, 2014, the penalty was cut to seven years of forced labour by the Magwe Division Court after the five accused filed an appeal. The Unity Journal had to be closed after the event. They were detained in Pakokku prison. Most of the remaining reporters were convicted under the same conditions for approaching the plant, which is identified as a protected area ( "Sithu Soe and Yazar Oo"), taking pictures of the scenes (Sithu Soe, Yazar Oo and Aung Thura) and writing the newspaper articles (Lu Maw Naing).
The Supreme Court on 15 May 2015 dismissed a "special leave" requested by the five reporters. The direction of the ruling indicates whether the ruling is extended on the basis of an assessment of the case or whether it is contracting the term. In this case, journalists' right to express their opinions is being infringed. That also makes other reporters in the county reticent about the threat of persecution and imprisonment.
Nor is there any domestic legislation that would guarantee the free speech of its people. On October 2, 2014, the Magwe Division Court still gave a 7-year prison sentence to reporters after the Pakokku Townshop court initially gave them a 10 year prison sentence on July 10, 2014.