Where's MyanmarMyanmar? Where's Myanmar?
Myanmar is not a poverty-stricken state. Until 1989, Myanmar was known as Burma, a complex state.
We travelled from Yangon to Mandalay, once the King's city. It was hard for Mandalay. Mandalay was severely bombarded by the Japanese during the Second World War before they transformed the building into a shelter. Then, the Allies bombarded the palace which has since been reconstructed.
We drove by ferry down the Irrawaddy to Bagan and stopped in Yandobo. About 800 years ago Bagan was the capitol of an imperium, during which they considered it appropriate to build over 10,000 churches, palagodas and cloisters. It is difficult, from Yangon to Bagan, to avoid the idea that state funds have been and are being channelled into strangely eye-catching work.
UNO Children Recruiting Lists for 2017
There is a gradual ban on recruiting troops, but this is still allowed in 50 states. A large number of non-state gunmen also enlist the help of child soldiers. Each year, the UN Secretary-General releases a "list of shame" showing which state and non-state armed groups are recruiting and deploying child soldiers. The 2017 Schedule includes the armies of seven nations (Afghanistan, Myanmar, Somalia, Southern Sudan, Sudan, Syria and Yemen).
At least 43 state troops, however, educate kids for military conflicts, but normally only deploy them in this way at the age of 18. Significantly, the Congo military, FARDC, has been struck off the UN 2017 census. There are 54 non-state armoured groups on the shortlist for the same reasons.
Examples are the May-May Nyatura in the Democratic Republic of Congo and the Kachin Independence Army in Myanmar. Taliban people in Afghanistan and the'Islamic State' in Iraq and Syria use large numbers of them, even for committing suicide attacks. Below you can see (in red) the nations where troops or groups are recruiting babies, according to the UN Pubic Lists for 2017.
Afghanistan, Central African Republic, Colombia, Democratic Republic of Congo, Iraq, Mali, Myanmar, Nigeria, Philippines, Somalia, Southern Sudan, Sudan, Syria and Yemen. Besides the UN listed nations, non-governmental armored groups also enlist kids in India, Pakistan, Israel/Palestine, Libya, the Philippines and Thailand. They are shown in the top in orange.
It is probably not a comprehensive listing, as commands who use kids often try to avoid attention. It is good to know that most states and some non-state gunmen now recognize the damage that child recruitment causes. The number of nations limiting their armies to adult soldiers rose from 83 to 126 between 2001 and 2016, representing 71 percent of states with armies.
A minimum of 60 non-governmental arms groups have also undertaken to stop or limit the recruiting of child soldiers. As a result of this advancement, coupled with a certain reinforcement of public policy, the so-called "Straight 18" standards are gradually becoming the norm: no recruiting of persons under 18 years of age. 3. It is the worst part of the story that some troops and groups still persist that they need kids to fill their lines.
The states that still allow the recruiting of children are usually bigger and richer than normal, and they are spending more on their warfare. Brazil, Canada and the UK are among the few nations that are setting the benchmark even lower at 16. Whereas most of Africa (with a few blatant exceptions) have now established the Straight 18 standards, only two of the G7 - the biggest global economy - have done the same (Italy and Japan).
Global attempts to stop the recruiting of child labour will be eroded if the world's most potent states do not make a commitment themselves. In the meantime, most European and African countries have adopted the Straight 18 standards (in green), and a number of countries that have signed up from the ages of 16 have increased their recruiting ages to 17 (in orange).
Notice that these two cards do not show where kids are enlisted by non-governmental gunmen. Nor do they show any Cadets or army colleges spread all over the whole time. Russia, for example, does not permit draft drafting until the eighteenth year of life, but runs a system of army colleges that train the use of weapons and warfare.
What is the harm of child recruitment? Report of the UN Secretary-General on the situation of refugees with regard to armed conflicts (2002 and 2017): In the last 40 years, public international laws have evolved to better defend the rights of minors against armed plunder. What is the harm of child recruitment? What are the reasons why they are used in war and conflicts?