Where is Burma Located on the World MapWhat is Burma on the world map?
Burma railways, also known as the Death Road, the Siam-Burma Road, the Thai-Burma Road and similar titles, were a 415-kilometer railroad between Ban Pong, Thailand, and Thanbyuzayat, Burma, constructed in 1943 by the Empire of Japan to assist its armed services in the Burma Second World War campaigns.
The railroad completes the connection between Bangkok, Thailand, and Rangoon, Burma (now Yangon). Some 180,000 to 250,000 South East Asiatic civil workers (r?musha) and approximately 61,000 prisoner of war in allied countries were subject to hard labor during work. In 1885, the UK authorities of Burma had already measured a railroad line between Burma and Thailand that crosses the Three-Pagoda Pass and follows the Kwhae Noi Riviera in Thailand, but the suggested course of the line - through undulating jungles separated by many streams - was deemed too intricate.
Its aim was to link Ban Pong in Thailand with Thanbyuzayat in Burma and to link the current railroads at both locations. His itinerary led over the Three Pagodas Pass at the Thai-Burma-Frontier. The railroad was 69 nautical mile ( "111 km") in Burma and the other 189 nautical mile ( "304 km") in Thailand.
Following preparatory work at airports and infrastructures, work began on the railroad in Burma on September 15, 1942 and in Thailand in November. The majority of building material, as well as track and ties, was taken from disassembled sections of the Malaysian Federated Malaysian Railways and the various East Indian Railways.
This track was finished prematurely. Building bands from Burma working in the southern hemisphere gathered with building bands from Thailand working in the northeast on October 17, 1943. On May 14, 1942, the first 3,000 Australians who went to Burma abandoned Changi Jail in Singapore and travelled by ship to Thanbyuzayat, the railroad's northmost terminal.
Before they started building the railroad in October 1942, they worked at airports and other infrastructures. In June 1942, the first POWs working in Thailand, 3,000 policemen, disembarked from Changi by rail to Ban Pong, the railroad's end station to the south. 18 ] More POWs were brought in from Singapore and the Dutch East Indies than the building progressed.
Every five to ten kilometres (8 to 17 km) of the line, building storage facilities were constructed, each with at least 1,000 employees. The employees were shifted up and down as needed. They were made of open huts made of reed-roofed wooden canes. The bearings were usually designated according to the kilometer in which they were used.
H. Robert Charles, a U.S. Navy naval survivalist at the time of the USS Houston disaster, wrote in detail in his latest publication Last Man Out about a medical practitioner from the Netherlands, Henri Hekking, a prisoner of war who probably rescued the life of many people who worked on the "death train". Apart from the hardest time of the building phase, the "Speedo" (mid Frühling to Mid October 1943), the Allied prisoners of war asked, among other things, one of the prisoners of war in their ranks to perform his own instrument or accordion, or to have them join a group, or to ask their camping comedian to tell a joke or dress up for a sketch.
When the railroad was finished, the prisoners of war had to live almost two years before they were liberated. Prisoners of Wars and Asiatic laborers were also deployed to construct the Kra Isthmus railroad from Chumphon to Kra Buri and the Sumatra or Palembang railroad from Pekanbaru to Muaro. Burma railroad is considered a Japanese military offence in Asia.
Lt. Hiroshi Abe, the senior officer who overseen the building of the railroad at Sonkrai, where 1400 1,600 UK detainees from 1600 were killed within 3 month of suffering from harassment and other illnesses, was condemned to their deaths. He was later converted to 15 years in jail as a B/C student martial artist. The ones who remained to keep the line alive were still suffering from horrific life circumstances and increased aerial attacks by the Allies by Leo Rawlings, a prisoner of war involved in the line's building (sketch from 1943).
The picture shows four prisoners of war lying waist-high in the sea and supporting a large tree trunk during the building of the first one. The most noteworthy part of the whole railroad line is the 277 Kwai-Brücke, which was constructed over a section of the Mae Klong riverbank.
Most of the Thai section of the Khwae Noi followed the Noi Khwae Rivers or tributaries (Khwae, brook/river or tributaries; Noi, small; Khwae is often misspoken by non-Thai as Kwai or the Thai-speaking buffalo). That is how the name "River Kwai" was created in English.
The part of Mae Klong that goes under the Mae Klong in 1960 was called Khwae Yai because of disparities between real facts and non-reality and notion. (??????? in the Thai. In English "Big Tributary"). Boulle, in an interviewee with former prisoner of war John Coast, who was part of the BBC2 documentation Return to the River Kwai in 1969, sketched out the argumentation that prompted him to conceptualize the film nature of Lt.Col'.
Nicholson, who builds the fictitious viaduct in the movie and finally tries to avoid its demolition by the Allies. For a copy of the entire conversation and the entire feature length movie, see the new issue of John Coast's novel, Trackroad of Death. In February 1943, the first timber railway viaduct over the Khwae Yai was completed, soon followed by a more advanced railway viaduct of cement and iron (consisting of eleven arched trussed bridges built by Japans from Java in 1942 in the Dutch East India, then under Japans like much of Southeast Asia;
It is also the surviving and globally recognized icon of the bridge) in June 1943, both crossing the NNE-SSW-directions. One of the world's first specimens of precision-guided ammunition was to be used to attack this 277 airlift, namely the US VB-1 AZON MCLOS-guided 1,000 lb air cannon on January 23, 1945, but adverse meteorological conditions led to the demolition of the operation and the AZON was never used against the AZON.
There was no full connection between the new line and Burma's rail system, as no rail links were erected to cross the Moulmein Martaban riverbank (the first on the south shore of the stream and the second on the north shore). Only in 2000-2005 was a viaduct erected when the Thanlwin viaduct (which carries both normal roads and rail traffic) was made.
It was in very bad shape after the end of the Great Thai Railways and had to be heavily rebuilt for use by the Royal Thai Railways. Eventually, the train line to Nam Tok (Thai ?????, engl. Sai Yok "Waterfalls") was finished on July 1, 1958. The part used today is about 130 km long.
On the other side of Nam Tok Sai Yok Noi, the line was closed; the rail was recovered for re-use in the expansion of Bangsue Station, the reinforcement of the BKK Banphachi dual lane, the rehabilitation of the Thung Song to Trang line and the construction of the Nong Pla Duk-Suphanburi and Ban Thung Pho-Khirirat Nikhom secondary routes.
From the 1990s, various suggestions were made for the reconstruction of the entire railroad, but from 2014[update] these projects were not implemented. As a large part of the railroad line is now flooded by the Vajiralongkorn dam and the area around it is hilly, it would require a major tunnel construction to connect Thailand with Burma by train again.
Besides undernourishment, bodily harm, the Burma Railway employees were killed by Malaria, Chiolera, dysentery as well as local gangrene. The lower mortality rates among prisoners of war and prisoners of war in the Netherlands compared to those from the United Kingdom and Australia are due to the fact that many people and citizens who were captured and imprisoned in the Netherlands East India were resident there for long periods and/or had Euro-Asian descent; they therefore tend to be more tolerant of tropic disease and to acclimatise better than other Western Allied people.
Losing about 20-30 pounds (9-14 kg) less among the Allied soldiers working on the building site than among the soldiers for Asiatic laborers and prisoners of war who were constructed by the Japan Army Railway Corps in February 1944. Working people in more remote areas experienced a much higher mortality than others.
The Commonwealth War Graves Commission (CWGC) maintains three graveyards containing the great majority of the allied army staff who were killed on the Burma railroad. A number of monuments are devoted to those who were killed in the construction of the railroad. Most of the people were killed at the Hellfire Pass (north of today's final stop Nam Tok).
There is an Aussie monument on Hellfire Pass. Kanchanaburi has two other museums: the Thailand-Burma railroad centre, opened in March 2003, and the JEATH war museum. At the Kwai-Pridge itself there is a commemorative plate and a historical loco from the time of the Wars. Rivett, Australia's Singapore military secretary Rohan Rivett; after 700 km of travel, mostly by rowing boat, taken prisoner from Singapore; Rivett worked for three years on the Burmese railroad and later on, written a script about the series.
Work on the railroad was the focus of a novel and an award-winning movie, The Bridge on the River Kwai (itself an adaption of the French-language novel The Bridge over the River Kwai); a novel, The Narrow Road to the Deep North by Richard Flanagan, and a large number of biographical reports on prisoner of war experience.
Recently, the film The Railway Man (based on the eponymous book) also gives an inside look at the barbarous situations and sufferings caused to the railroad builders. Flanagan's The Narrow Road to the Deep North focuses on a group of prisoners of war in Australia and their experience of constructing the railroad as slavery and was honored with the 2014 Man Booker Prize.
Thai Burma Railway. Thai-Burma Railway Centre. p. 10. The Bridges of the Thai Burma Railway. Accessed January 8, 2015. "Bridge over the Kwae River, Bridge over the Kwai River by myonlinetour.com". www.myonlinetour.com. Retracted 2018-06-12. Thai-Burma Railway & Hellfire Pass. Accessed January 9, 2015. "Tales of death train characters to stay alive."
Malay Tamils of the Death Railway". "The Death Railway Movements." Accessed January 6, 2015. Thai-Burma Railway & Hellfire Pass. Accessed January 6, 2015. "Comments on the Thai Burma Railway. Accessed January 9, 2015. The death train. Accessed January 10, 2014. Thai-Burma Railway & Hellfire Pass. Accessed January 6, 2015. Toosey and the bridge at the river Kwai".
Accessed January 6, 2015. "Kwai River Bridge". Accessed January 6, 2015. Accessed March 20, 2012. Historical facts about the Burma Death Railroad Thailand Hellfire Passport detainee conditions". Railroad of Death: Pictures from the building of the Burma-Thailand Railway 1942-1943". Accessed August 31, 2010. National Guardsmen and the Building of the Burma-Thailand Railroad, 1942-1944".
Accessed August 1, 2012. Thai-Burma Railway & Hellfire Pass. Accessed January 21, 2014. Retracted on June 17, 2017. Back from the river Kwai. Over the Kwai River overpass. A flight from the Thailand-Burma Railway, 1943. Survival of the Burma-Thailand orbit: the dead: the Burma-Thailand orbit: The Railway of Death: This is the classic representation of the'River Kwai' railway.
Burma Siam Railway and its cemeteries. That man behind the bridge: Toosey and the Kwai River. Pacific Prisoners of World War II. The Burma-Thailand Railway. In 1942-1945, the Thailand-Burma Railway: a survival strategy based on film, theatre and film. Also known as a Man's Adventure of the Burma Railway ; A Son Son's Quest to Instand.
The Kwai Valley: Burma Siam Railway: Of China Burma India to the Kwai. The River Kwai Railway: History of the Burma Siam Railway. Construction of the Dead Railway: Ordeal of the US prisoners of war in Burma. Burma: That railroad man: The atrocities of Japan and World War II. The Doom Railway:
Merchant Mariner on the Kwai River. Thailand's secret war: The free Thai, OSS and SOE during the Second World War. The Kwai and back: Survive the death train. Reports of 612 to the tshuisfront - Zuidoost-Azië, 1940-1945[Memoirs of a prisoner of war from the Netherlands who lived in 15 refugee camps in Java, Thailand and Japan].
A long way back to the river Kwai: World War II memories. Japanese prisoner in World War II. Burma Road: China-Burma-India Theatre's epic story during the Second World War. Brief on-line movie about the Japanese detainees in World War II. Describes the Burma Railway.
NX43393 AIF Prisoner of War FX Larkin - Detailed website with documentary and photos of Frank Larkin's prisoner of war experience in Malaya, Singapore, Thailand and Japan. Article about Australia's railroad health workers. Len (Snowie) Baynes, The Will to Life, a first-hand report about the work on the railroad.