What is the History of Myanmar

So what's the story of Myanmar?

Find out more about the different periods of history that have made Myanmar (Burma) the country it is today. It has experienced an apparently endless series of conquerors and suffered decades of isolation. The history of Myanmar is inextricably linked to that of one of the world's most important cereals: rice. Burma has opened its arms to the perceptive traveler and rewards all who enter. Photodocumentary about the culture and people of Myanmar and their use of Thanaka during the most important period of this recently opened nation.

Myanmar's (Burma) short history

The history of Myanmar is one of the most complicated in Asia. The best memory, as all Myanmar history textbooks claim, is that the first civilisation took place in 300 BC. They are the Mon who are not natives of the land, but immigrants from the area who established themselves in the town of Thaton and called their kingdom Suwarnabhumi.

In the early seventh centuries, they were followed by the Pyu, who also built their own empires in the mountains and plain of the now famous towns of Binnaka, Mongamo, Sri Ksetra and Halingyi. Throughout this period, Burma or now Myanmar has been part of the China-India cross-country itinerary.

Until 849, the Burmese emptied the Pyu empires by establishing their own in the town of Bagan. This mighty Burmese empire was in isolation until the rule of Anawrahta between 1044 and 77. Myanmar's general unit was reached through the 1057 defeat of the Mon by Anawrahta.

In 1364, after the breakdown of Bagan's authorities, Myanmar re-established its empire in the Ava town. Until 1753 Burma's Alaungpaya, the F├╝hrer, gathered all the towns of Myanmar and built a strong capitol in Rangoon, now Yangon. Though Burma, as was known at the times, is already known in the Western world, it was Marko Polo who spotted Myanmar and led it to the North.

Burma - History

The first Arakanesian Indo-Aryan monarchs from the Ganges Valley, according to old Arakanicchronics. It is said that the first of these was King Marayu, who is said to have established the first Dhanyawaddy city in 3325 BC. In 1483 BC - 2nd Danyawaddy Dynasty - In 1483 BC King Kan Raza Gri is said to have established the second Dhanyawaddy city, which was used as the king's capitol until 580 BC.

The Tagaung Kingdom - 850 BC - 600 BC - Tagaung is said to be the very first city of Burma according to the proverb Myanmar asa Tagaung ga (Myanmar begins in Tagaung), and it was the old Pyu capitol, which were the precursors of the Myanmar population. Hill Thuwunna Bonmi (Ramanya) Thaton City State The first identified civilisation in later Burma is that of the Mon.

It is probable that the Mon began to migrate to the area around 300 BC, and their first empire of Suwarnabhumi was established around the harbour of Thaton, which is situated in the south of Myanmar near Beelin, at the base of Mount Kaylartha. Dhanyawaddy Dynasty of 580 B.C. - 3rd Danyawaddy Dynasty - The third Dhanyawaddy city, whose remains have been preserved to this date, was built between 580 B.C. and 326 A.D. and is thus the centre of one of the oldest civilisations of South-East Asia.

Prome Dynaesty - 483 B.C. - 95 A.D. - The main empires of Prome and Toungoo seem to have been only a very early Dynaesty or a relatively young offshoot from the realm of Burma, to which they were later reintegrated. Prome Dynaesty was created in 483 BC by Maha Thambawa in Thare Kettara and ended with the deaths of Thu Pinya in 95 AD, soon after a new Dynaesty was formed in Pagan, 108 AD, by Thamakdarit.

{187-1044 - Pyu Kingdom - Pyu city-states were small and thinly populated, often confronted by the aggressive and invasive races of their neighborhood. In the Pyu period of ancient Myanmar the technology of growing rices was already used. AD 327-957 - Chandra Dynasty - A state, or a set of states, was founded as early as the 4th AD in present-day Ardan State (formerly Arakan State), opposite the Bay of Bengal.

A. D., the Burmese in most of today's Upper Burma; the Mon on the Lower Irrawaddy, the Sittang and the Salween; while the Khmer were at the peak of their might, with splendid cities and shrines in Cambodia.

Arakan State - A state, or a group of states, was already formed in the 4th A. D. in today's Ardan State (formerly Arakan State) opposite the Bay of Bengal. In 849, the Myanmar tribe had formed a mighty empire focused on the town of Bagan, filling the emptiness the Pyu bequeathed.

The Myanmar civilisation in Bagan reached a high stage of prosperity from the half of the eleventh to the end of the thirteenth cent. It is said that Bagan was established by the Thamoddarites in 107 AD and governed by a line of 55 monarchs, but evidence is only available from Anawrahta (1044-1077).

Anawrahta ('1044-77), who successfully united all Myanmar by conquering the Mon town of Thaton in 1057. Myanmar's first unitary, Anawrahta, founded Theravada Buddhism with the help of Buddhist missionary Shin Arahan and layed the foundations for Bagan's grandeur.

Partition and Shan rule period - 1287-1365 - After the fall of Bagan, Myanmar was again division. 1289-1553- Waytharlee Kingdom - Situated about 6 leagues west of Myanmar just off Myauk Oo. 1360-1309 - Pinya Dynasty - Situated in the centre of Myanmar. 1415-1364 - Legaing Dynasty - Situated in the High Myanmar in Legaing.

13565-1552 Ava (Inwa) Kingdom - - - - The fall of Pagan was followed by the creation of two kingdoms: Thado Minbya in 1364 created a new Myanmar ruling family, who deposed the then Panya and Sagaing dynasties and created his capitol in Ava. There were nineteen monarchs reigning in Inwa from 1365 to 1552.

However, the empire had no easy to defend boundaries and was overwhelmed by the Shan of the Toungoo family. Hanthawady (Bago) was established in 1369 by Banya U. Elf monarchs reigned in Hanthawady from 1369 to 1538. Burma enters a new era of grandeur as the Monarchs of Toungoo relocated their capitol from Toungoo to Bago and three of their kingdoms reigned there from 1538 to 1599.

Myanmar's Second Empire with its capitol in Bago (Pegu) was established in the middle of the 16th cent. by King Bayinnaung. Bayintinaung (1552-1581), also known as Lord of the White Elephants and Conquerors of the Ten Directions, reunified the empire, established the huge Hanthawady Empire and built Bago up again to a great extent. At Tagaung, one of them followed the Shweli River, traversed the Irrawaddy at Tagaung, followed the Chindwin River northwards, and traversed the Imphal Passport to Manipur.

From 1431-1783 - Arakan State - In 1785 the Rakhine / Arakan Empire, whose main city was Mrauk-U, was created in 1430 by Minsawmun (1430-1433) and had a line of 49 monarchs who ruled from 1430 to 1785, part of the Konbaung Empire. 1586-1550 - TaungNgoo / Taungoo Dynasty - In 1531 the Innwa devastation surviveants finally formed a new empire focused on Taungoo in Centrally Myanmar, headed by Tabinshwehti (reigned 1531-50), which reunited much of Myanmar.

15-99-1752 - Nyaung Yan dictatorship - Since 1599, when Nyaung Yan Min, a younger offspring of Bayin Naung, took the reign of the "King of Kings", the Ava and Pegu dynasties ruled, with the sole exemption of Arakan. After the disintegration of the Hanthawady Empire, Nungyan (1598-1606) founded a new Myanmar empire, and ten monarchs ruled in Inwa from 1598 to 1752.

Thalun ('1629-1648), the most renowned of the Inwa-king, constructed the Kaunghmudaw Pagoda near Sagaing. In 1752, a revolt that began in Pago caused the fall of the empire. Myanmar's Third and last empire was established in 1752 by King Alaungpaya. By 1753 a beloved Myanmar guide by the name of Alaungpaya had driven the Bago troops out of the north of Myanmar, and by 1759 he had reconquered Bago and South Burma while re-gaining Pyogor.

It was in Yangon that he formed his capitol. Alaungpaya ('1752-1760) united Myanmar in the traditions of Anawrahta and Bayintnaung and formed the last 11 royalty, reigning from 1752 to 1885. It had a number of major cities, among them Shwebo, Inwa and Amarapura, the last of which, Mandalay, was formed in 1859 by Mindon (1852-1878).

Burma waged three battles against the Brits and in 1826 was defeated by Rakhine and Taninthayi, in 1852 by Sub-Myanmar and its autonomy on 1 January 1886. Brittany colonial domination - 1885-1948 - The Brits began to reign in 1826 parts of Myanmar and in 1886 the whole area. During the nineteenth and eighteenth centuries, at the height of colonization, Myanmar was invaded by the English in three phases after three Anglo-Myanmar battles in 1825, 1852 and 1885.

Burma was first placed under a chief commissioner, then a lieutenant governor in 1897 and then a governor in 1923, and reigned as part of Britain -India until its division in 1937. Myanmar itself has managed Shan states, Kayah (Karenni) states and mountain areas separate from Myanmar Proper.

A nominated Council was set up in 1897, a partly elective Council on Legislation in 1923 and two-chamber legislation with an elective House of Representatives in 1937. It underwent an economical transition under UK domination with the industrial output of paddy and the emergence of Myanmar as an important exporter of it.

Myanmar was under Japanese occupation for almost three years during the Second World War until the Allies were reoccupied in 1945. Autonomous Period - 1948-today - On February 12, 1947, Bogyoke Aung San signed the historical Pinlone Agreement with the Chins, Kachin and Shan leadership, which paved the way for the foundation of a unified autonomous Myanmar.

Though Bogyoke Aung San and other Nigerian rulers were murdered on July 19, 1947, Myanmar gained back its sovereignty on January 4, 1948.

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