In accordance with its Statute of Autonomy, the Valencians are a nation. 4 ] Its origin goes back to the Aragonese-Catalan colonisation of the Moorish Taifa of Valencia, which was taken by James I of Aragon during the Reconquista in 1238. Under the Crown of Aragon, the new Kingdom of Valencia received broad self-government.
The Valencian city entered its golden era in the fifteenth quarter, when it became the crown's commercial centre and the most important centre of Catalan mediaeval music. The self-administration resumed after the reunification of the Spanish Kingdom, but was abandoned in 1707 by Philip V of Spain as a consequence of the War of the Spanish Succession.
Valencia was reborn at the end of the nineteenth centuary, which resulted in the contemporary concept of the Valencia country. Selfgovernment under the Generalitat Valenciana was eventually restored in 1982 after Spain's democratic upheaval. Most Valencians know Catalan, a variant of the western Catalan group standardized by the Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua.
5 ] Valencian is a diglossian that was suppressed during Franco's dictatorship in favor of Spanish. Valencia has been re-established in the civil service and educational system since it was officially re-established in 1982, which appears to have led to an explicit rise in agronomy. The Romans established Valencia under the name "Valentia Edetanorum", which means "Valiance (or courage) of the land of the Lamb".
When the Taifa of Valencia was founded, the name evolved into ?????? (Balans?yah), which finally became Valencia after the Moors were expelled. "The " Valencian Community " is the Valencian community's default name, recognised by the Autonomy Statute of 1982 (Comunitat Valenciana). 4 ] This name is most frequently used in the fields of civil service, travel, publishing and the literary world.
The" Valentine's Country" (País Valencià) variation, which emphasises the nationalities of the Valentine nation, is, however, still favoured by left-wing political groups, citizens' groups, the Catalan literary system and large scientific institutes such as the University of Valencia. "The" Community of Valencia" is a neo-logism adopted specifically after the process of democratization to resolve the dispute between two rival names:
"and the Former Kingdom of Valencia." b ] On the one side, "Valencian Country" represents the contemporary concept of nationhood that developed in the nineteenth and nineteenth centuries. In the Second Spanish Republic and later with the works of Joan Fuster in the 1960', which implies the presence of the "Catalan countries" (Països Catalans).
These nationalistic subtexts were rejected by anti-Catalan Blaverist, who instead suggested "Former Kingdom of Valencia" (Antic Regne de València) to emphasise Valencia's autonomy from Catalonia. At the moment the Blueists have adopted the name. Valencia is the autonomic union and its capitol. 7 ] However, this could be a disregard for the counties of Alicante and Castellón.
Further anecdote translation are "Land Valencia", "Region Valencia" and "Region Valencia". However, the word "region" has many Valencians' unfavourable connotations because it could disavow their nationalities. In the Valencian community, the pre-Roman autochthons were the Iberians, who were subdivided into several groups (the Contestani, the Edetani, the Ilercavones and the Bastetani).
Controversy over the dominance of Saguntum, a Hellenized Spanish seaside town with privileged ties to Rome, which was annihilated by Hannibal in 219 BC, sparked off the Second Punic War, which ended with the region's integration into the Roman Empire. In 138 BC the Romans established the town of Valentia, which gained in importance over the years.
Following the collapse of the Western Roman Empire, during the invasions of the Barbarians in the fifth A. D., the area was first conquered by the Alans and eventually governed by the Visigoths, until the Arabs arrived in 711, who exerted a wide influence on the area, which is still evident today in the Valentinean countryside and people.
Following the collapse of the Caliphate of Córdoba, two autonomous typhoons were founded in the area, Balansiya and Dénia, as well as the small and short-lived typhoons of Orihuela, Alpuente, Jérica and Sagunt and the brief Christmas reconquest of Valencia by El Cid. The Valencian origin, however, dates back to the Kingdom of Valencia, which was founded in the thirteenth cent.
James I of Aragon spearheaded the Catholic occupation and colonisation of the Muslim typha with Aragonese and Catalan colonisers in 1208; they established the Valencian Empire as the third autonomous nation within the Crown of Aragon in 1238. It evolved intensely in the fourteenth and fifteenth century, known as the golden age of Valencian culture, with important works such as the knightly romanticism of Tirant lo Blanch.
As a result of the mercantile silks business, Valencia became an important European empire. With the ascent of the Crown of Aragon, in which the Valencian Empire had reached the greatest populations and the greatest economies of that time, and the ascent of the Valencian house of Borja in Rome, it also took political hegemony.
Following a gradual demise following the dynasty unification of the Crown of Aragon with the Kingdom of Castile, the success of Valencia's position ended with the expulsion of the Moriscos by the Spanish monarchy in 1609, which meant the disappearance of up to a third of the Kingdom of Valencia's people and the removal of its most important people.
During the War of Spanish Succession in 1707, by the Nova Planta Decree, Philip V of Spain eliminated the Kingdom of Valencia and the other states of the former Crown of Aragon, which had maintained a certain degree of independence, and placed it under the rule of the Kingdom of Castile and its rules and traditions.
Consequently, the Furs de València established bodies and legislation were repealed and the use of the Valencia languages in formal authorities and in school. Consequently, with the House of Bourbon, a new Kingdom of Spain was established, which introduced a more centralist rule and a more absolutistic system than the former Habsburg Spain.
Valencia's Statute of Autonomy makes it clear that Valencia should be the contemporary concept of self-government of the Valencia country by the first autonomous movement during the Second Spanish Republic, but also the conventional concept of Valencia's identities as the successors of the historic kingdom of Valencia.
b ] Following a cross-party revision of the Statute of Autonomy of Valencia in 2006, the concept of civilian justice is based on the tradition of a realm and, on the other side, Valencia is also recognised as a national state according to the contemporary concept. Its interior is rugged, with some of the highest summits in the Valencia and Castellón counties, which belong to the Ibérico mountains.
Alicante Province's hills are part of the Sub Baetic Massif. Penyagolosa in Alcalatén is the most symbolic hill of the Valencia community. The highest summit is generally assumed to be 1,813 metres, but the highest is the Calderón (1,839 metres) in the Rincón de Ademuz, a Valencia enclave between Aragon and Castile-La Mancha.
Aitana (.558 m) is the most symbolic hill in the south. This rather thin coastline is a very fruitful plateau, mainly free of noteworthy peaks, with the exception of those around the Cap de la Nau area in the north of the provinces of Alicante and Peñíscola (Peníscola) in the provinces of Castellón.
This coastline is characterised by wetland and bogs such as L'Albufera near Valencia, El Fondo in Elche (Elx) and Crevillent, La Marjal near Pego, Albufera of Gayanes in Gayanes or El Prat in Cabanes, but also the former wetland and saline lakes in the Santa Pola and Torrevieja regions.
They are all important RAMSAR locations that make Valencia important for migrating birds as well as for local marine birds and waterfowl. Besides the Valencia continent, the Valencia region manages the minute Columbretes Islands and the populated Tabarca isle. The general temperate weather in Valencia is strongly affected by the Mediterranean.
The route runs approximately along the coast from the most northern frontier through the Benidorm area (including Castellón de la Plana, Gandia and Valencia). The route runs approximately along the coast of Villajoyosa through the most southern boundary of the area ("towns" include Alicante, Elche, Orihuela and Torrevieja).
This shortage of rainfall is due to the pronounced rainy shade effect created by the hilly terrain in the western part of the provinces of Alicante (and to a smaller extent in the north of the provinces, which in turn reinforce the reverse buoyancy effect of the orography around Cap de la Nau).
The Segura in the province of Alicante, whose spring is in Andalusia, and the Júcar (Xúquer) in the province of Valencia, whose spring is in Castilla-La Mancha. The Serpis and Sénia are other Valencia creeks. Valencia, Spain's third biggest town, leads the ranking of the biggest cities:
The people of Valencia are mainly found in places with fruitful crops and lowland areas on the main waterways (Júcar, Turia, Segura, Vinalopó), also in port towns important for agribusiness. Indeed, the populations along the coasts and in the main and southerly areas of the area are particularly close and less populated around the inner and north.
Major historic towns are Sagunt and Dénia in ancient Rome, Valencia, Alicante, Xàtiva, Orihuela, Elche, Gandia and Villarreal (Vila-real) later in the story and more recently Alzira and Castellón de la Plana. After Valencia, Alicante-Elche is the 8th largest conurbation in Spain. Recognising the Valencian country as a national of Spain and in accordance with the second paragraph of the Constitution, which gives independence to the "nationalities and regions" that make up the country, Valencia was founded as an independent state in 1982 with the proclamation of its first Statute of Independence, the fundamental constitutional organism which was later adopted by the courts of Spain.
The" President" is reliant on the immediate assistance of the electorate whose members choose him by a large majority-the Corts Valencianes (Valencian Parliament), the electorate chosen by at least ninety-two members (diputats) for a four-year term by popular ballot in the right of proportionality; the President of the Generalitat Valenciana, chosen by the courts from which he must receive the trust; the present President is Ximo Puig (from the Socialist Party of the Valencia country).
Its vice-president is Mònica Oltra (of Coalition Commitment, a Valencia party) the Council of the Generalitat Valenciana (Valencian government), a collegial body with implementing authority, which is incorporated by the president herself and the members of the chamber nominated by the president. It can also be incorporated through the bodies set up by the Valencia courts.
Courts have authorised the establishment of the Síndic de Greuges (Ombudsman), the Sindicatura de Comptes (Court of Auditors), the Consell Valencià de Cultura (Valencia Cultural Council), the Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua (Valencian Academy of Language), the Consell Jurídic Consultiu (Legal and Advisory Council) and the Comité Econòmic i Social (Social and Economic Committee).
Podemos supports a left-wing alliance between the Socialist Party of Valencia and the commitment of the Valencian Socialist Party. It is long and small and runs mainly in a north-south direction; from a historical point of view, its rather precipitous and erratic landscape has made it harder to communicate and exploit the land, although the land on the coast is particularly rich.
Valencia has few indigenous sources; the only important source of minerals is Alicante' s quarry of marine marbles. There is also a lack of hydrologic reserves (see geography above): there is a greater need for fresh and clean waters than is available, and this is particularly serious in the Alicante region. Valencia's need for irrigation leads to fierce competition with neighboring areas such as Castilla-La Mancha and Catalonia.
The agricultural sector - especially the growing of lemon fruits for the exports markets - was the main reason for Valencia's first upturn in the latter part of the1900s. There are still a thousand of acres of lemon trees in the Castelló and Valencia counties, and lemon fruits are still an important rural sourrounding.
Alicante also produces lemon fruits, but its farming is more diverse with a higher proportion of vegetable, especially in the Vega Baja del Segura region. High density coastal living space populated by natives, residents from the interior of Spain and other EU states ('British Isles', Benelux, Germany and Scandinavia in particular) promotes the summer populations (and hydrologic needs).
Valencia's 2004 GNP was 93. 9 per cent of the EU average, although this number may be too low due to the strong representation of foreigners from other European countries or as migrants from the economy who are not adequately recorded in government statistical records. Valencia accounted for 9.7% of Spain's GNP in 2008.
Typically Valencia is a small to mid-size enterprise, mainly family-owned and run, although there are some multinational companies. Valencia has significant export activities in this field, ranking second among the self-governing communes in Spain, which account for 12% of the country's population. Its main export markets are agriculture, ceramics tile, marine and automotive goods (Ford has an assembling line in Almussafes), making the Valencia harbour one of the most congested in Europe.
Hispanic ( "Castilian" or "Castellano") has formalities throughout Spain, as well as in the Valencia community. The Statute of Autonomy also recognises Valencia as the lingua franca of the people of Valencia (llengua pròpia) and recommends its defence and settlement to the Acadèmia Valenciana de la Lingua (AVL) under the Generalitat Valenciana.
Valencia is also officially in the Catalan and Balearic Islands, where it is known as Catalan. Sign language in Valencia is often used by the hearing impaired and is also protected by the Statute. The entire Valencia region is not history -wise Valencian-speaking, with 10% of the total 500,000 inhabitants who live in traditional Spanish-speaking inner-cities.
Among these areas are the areas where Estonian and non-Catalan colonists established the Castilian-Aragonese in the historical kingdom of Valencia, and several communities in Castile that joined the Valencian community in the nineteenth cent. The Valencian tradition is one of the more heavily inhabited coastlines where Catalan colonists adopted their languages in the Middle Ages.
In many cases, the Valencian-speaking area is suffering from a period of verbal replacement, especially in the towns of Valencia and Alicante, with a total population of 1 million inhabitants, in which Spanish prevails despite the presence of the Spanish tradition ally spoken in the city. Beyond these areas and the traditionally Spanish-speaking areas of western Valencia dominates or is equally important.
The majority of the people have at least a good command of Valencian, which allows them to communicate normally in this Valencian community. As a result of its application in government and the educational system in recent years, Valencia's level of awareness has grown phenomenal, both in absolutes and in relation, especially in the case of its writing standards.
It also shows that the level of expertise within the area is very diverse, with the level of expertise in the province of Alicante constantly lower than in Castellón and Valencia. In spite of the growth in Valencia's level of education, the number of people using it for leisure purposes is relatively low, with only one third of the Valencian people using it at home in 2010, according to the Generalitat.
Gathered information differs widely within the Valencian community, with over 50% of use in the Alcoy-Gandia and Júcar-Turia region, around 40% in Castelló and around 15% in Alicante and the Valencia area. In spite of the difference in idiom and confession, Linguistics consider Catalan and Valencian as two variants of the same world.
Reciprocity is between 90 and 95%, which is significantly higher than between the languages of an adopted English dialect (High German). Catalan and Catalan have in practical terms the same writing standards as set by the Spanish Association and the Institut d'Estudis Catalans. A large part of the citation used in the Valencia educational system is Catalan works and Catalan translation, only a few words being replaced by those more common in Valencia.
The Universities of Valencia and Alicante call Valencia linguistics and literary science Catalan philology. Despite these reasons, a significant part of the Valencians refuses to associate Valencians with Catalan. It is often adopted by those who use Castilian more often than Valencian or who do not use the latter with fluency, and who encourage Catalan na-tionalism and resist Catalan independent.
But the younger generation trained in Valencia are much less inclined to share these view. The new Alicante International Airports facility was opened in March 2011. NAT will replace the other two T1 and 2 airports and double the airport's annual traffic to 20 million people.
The Valencia International is also being extended to meet higher customer demands with new flights to the cityscape. Valencia has an extended railway network connecting the main towns with the remainder of Spain, such as the Euromed towards Catalonia and the AVE towards Madrid or North and South Spain, both of which are operated by the RENFE State Railway.
Today's high-speed train stop Valencia-Joaquín Sorolla is a temporary stop on the edge of Valencia. The Madrid-Valencia high-speed line is scheduled to arrive at Valencia Central Railway Terminal in the next few years through an subterranean passage under the new one (Valencia Central Park). A number of medium-term projects are underway for further high-speed links, such as the Valencia-Bilbao connection via Zaragoza or the Mediterranean High Velocities Line.
The Generalitat Valenciana is also planning to build a local high-speed railway along the coastline linking all the main seaside towns such as Valencia, Gandia, Dénia, Benidorm, Villajoyosa, Alicante and Torrevieja. Rodalia in Valencia (Cercanías) is the suburban railway that runs to all three of Valencia's capital towns and their megacities.
Ferrocarrils de la Generalitat Valenciana (FGV) runs a tramway line between Alicante, Benidorm and Dénia. They also operate the Valencia light rail and underground system (Valencia Metro) and Alicante (Alicante tram). In addition, both the Valencia subway and the Alicante tramway will be expanded to cover open areas, such as the new tramway line that will open in the next few moths towards the University of Alicante and San Vicente del Raspeig.
In the Valencia region, preschoolers between the ages of three and five have the opportunity to attend the non-compulsory pre-school level, which is free of cost to all pupils. Valencians between the ages of six and sixteen receive obligatory and free elementary and high schools. Graduates receive a certificate of completion from a lower level higher educational institution, which is required to take up further (optional) training such as university or professional studies.
Valencia is home to a number of renowned institutions such as the University of Valencia, which was established in 1499. In 1246, at the instigation of James I of Aragon, Pope Innocent IV, authorised by a Pontifical cop the construction of Estudi general in Valencia. On 30 April 1499, the University Statutes were adopted by the Municipalities of the City of Valencia; this is regarded as the "foundation" of the University.
Very few reports of the work of the school have been retained. Today, the Polytechnic of Valencia is one of the most renowned colleges in Spain, according to their research technique, several graduates offer a strong relationship with some of the most important colleges in the word such as Cambridge, Oxford and Harvard.
The majority of the departments and higher education institutions are located in the town of Valencia, with a few offices in Gandia and Alcoy. Alicante University, Miguel Hernández University in Elche, Jaume I University and Valencia International University in Castellón de la Plana, the Catholic University of Valencia and CEU Cardenal Herrera University in Valencia are other major institutions.
29 ] Currently, the supply of Veldenian audio-visual material is highly restricted. In Spain, all other independent communes, even the unilingual ones, have their own radio stations under Spanish law, with the Community of Valencia being the only exemption, although it has the 4th largest population. Valencia's cuisine is very varied, although its internationally renowned aròs (rice base ) are prepared in Valencia, like the world famous Valencia cuisine.
Valencia's Mediterranean climatic conditions favour the growing of vegetable and lemon fruit, with the growing of oranges, one of the most important fruit of Valencia's farming tradition. The Horchata (orxata in Valencia), whose traditional product is Alboraya (Alboraia), is a traditional beverage combined with tartons.
Agua de Valencia, in Aigua de València in Valencia, is another one, a coctail of cave or champaign, oranges, wodka and vin. Constante Gil first did it in 1959 at the Café Madrid in Valencia.
Most of the Valencian deserts have their origins in the Arab period and are important for the festivities in Valencia. And Xixona is the place of production of torrón, traditionally made in Valencia (a sweet nougat), eaten during Christmas in Spain and the remainder of the Spanish speaking area.
Valencia's formal Valencia song is the 1909 regional exhibition song (Himne de l'Exposició Regional de 1909 in Valencia; generally known as Himne de Valencia, "Hymn of Valencia"), in whose compositions the old Valencia city song from the sixteenth cent. It is emblematic of the Generalitat of Valencia (coat of arms) and contains the heroic figure of King Peter IV of Aragon, representing the historic kingdom of Valencia, whose sign is sloping to the right, or four beams of Gule.
Aragon' s Royal Señyera (Reial Senyera), also known as Coronada Señyera (Crowned Senyera) or Tricolour Tricolor (Tricolour Senyera), is the same as the city of Valencia, which in turn is a historic derivative of the Señyera, the heroic icon of the Coron of Aragon, which is still used today with few varieties in all the former kingdoms and counties that were part of this coron.
A number of civilian and non-governmental bodies such as unions, culture associations, or government parties also use the Senyera as a Valencia flagg. There are other icons used by Valencia on various scales, such as the coat of arms animal Rats Penate (a bat) and Draco Atlat (a wing-wing kite that was the symbol of James I).
The Muixeranga, an antique musical and dancing traditions of the wooden tower, is one of the most famous and prestigious Valencia icons. It was declared an "immaterial legacy of mankind" by UNESCO during the celebrations of the "La Mare de Déu de la Salut" festival in Algemesí. Valencia folk costume and clothes comprise spardenyes (shoes) and Fallero clothes (the Falles dresses).
Villarreal CF, Valencia CF, Elche CF and Levante UD. The Professional is played by a Valencia Basket top division squad, the ACB Series. Ros Casares Valencia is also a women's basketballplayer, the reigning champions of the Spanish women's football and a EuroLeague Women finale.
Motorcycling is very much in demand, as the Valencia circuit and the Valencia Region Grand Prix show. A further important match is the racing of pigeons with an indigenous breed, the cavatxut valueencià. The Valencian handball team is represented in the women's pro football sector with more than half of the sides such as CE Handbol Marítim (Astroc Sagunto) and CBF Elda (Elda Prestigio) in the honorary national team.
El País valencia pard habants per d'primera vicada des de 1996". The Valencian League. Cort' s Valencianes. Valenciano. La paoblació que sa essriure en choencià es quintuplicas en els ul últim's 25 Years. Third Section, First Chapters of the Statute of Autonomy of the Autonomous Community of Valencia.
Knowledge and social use of Valencia". Ley de Creación de la Entidad Pública Radio Televisión Valenciana" (PDF). See use of the Señyera by a Valencia culture association: See use of Sényera by the EUPV and Bloc Nacionalista Valencià Green Party groups, among others, whose joint turnout in the 2007 Autonomous elections reached 9% of the overall number.
The Valencian Autonomous Community, de Vicente Ruiz Monrabal. Valencian Autonomous Estudic Revista, No. 41/42, 3rd edition 2003 - 4th edition 2003, pp. 372-421. The valencianism of the polish people, 1874-1936, Alfons Cucó i Giner. Historíria del País Valencià, Vicente Boix. Historíria del País Valencià, Antoni Furió i Diego.
The Wikimedia Commons has a Valencian connection to the world. Wiki voyage has a guidebook for Valencia.