Union of BurmaBurmese Union
Burma's Union was officially founded on January 4, 1948. It was on this date that Sir Hubert Rance, the last British Governor, surrendered power to Sao Shwe Thaik, the first President of the Burmese Republic; the Cabinet took the official oath and Parliament ratified the agreement with Britain, which provides for Burma's sovereignty as a non-British Majesty sovereign and non-British Majesty's right to shelter.
The agreement was initialled in London on 17 October 1947 and adopted by the British Parliament on 10 December 1947. Constitution of the Union of Burma. The Burma Independence Act, 1947 (11 Geo. VI, chapter 3). Burmese pamphlets. London, 1944 et seq. Burmese Manual. The natural resources of Burma.
London, 1934. Modern Burma. London, 1942. London, 1938. The Myanmar scene: London, 1944. J.S., An introductory talk on Burma's political economy. The new Burma. London, 1940. Early English Intercourse with Burma (D. G. E.), Early English Intercourse with Burma. London, 1928. Europe and Burma: British rule in Burma, 1824-1942.
London, 1946. Modern Burma. Burma. Oxford, 1944. London, 1945. The Burman: His Lifes and Perceptions. London, 1910.
Links in the journal archives..... to a radically different strategy according to which a large bag of Muslims in a geographical bag next to a densely populated Islamic area of what was then Pakistan posed a major challenge to Burma's domestic safety.... A group of World War II vets founded the Kachin Independence Army (KIA) in February 1961 near Lashio. Before 1825....
BURMA UNION FOUNDED BY THE EFFORTS OF THE MOUNTAIN PEOPLE
This memoir, written in Burmese language, lasted two years. It was finished in 1978, when Khun Kya Bu was already 81 years old and approached the end of his world. For his inestimable separation of wisdom and experiences and his children, Khun Kya Oo and Khun Kya Nu, I would like to thank the deceased Khun Kya Bu for their remarks and encourage.
Shanland is a unit separated from Burma," Khun Kya Bu begins his memoir. It' been there without being part of Burma. But we became UK enslaves at the same epoch as the Burmes - while they came under UK supremacy, the Shans came under UK overlordship. The Shans have been annexed to the Burmese for two thirds of their territory, among them Mawlake, Sawngsob (Thaungthut), Wiangsurh (Wuntho), Kardsar (Katha), Banmaw (Bhamo),
Great Britain and later the Japanese knew very well that the Schans were a unit of their own. This is why Burma had become a settlement among the Britons and the Shan states a minor alliance and protection, a fact that Clarence Hendershot backed in his The Shan Struggle (1886-1897).
Japan, in particular Prime Minister Tojo, and Burmese officers Col Nagata and Ichi, had recognised Shans-state. He said in a discourse Tojo gave on January 28, 1943, on the anniversary of Burma's independence: "Concerning the new state of Burma's geographical make-up, the entire area of Burma, with the exceptions of the Shan and Karenni areas, will be included.
" But the theatre chiefs, who bowed to the energetic lobby work of the Myanmar people, included the Shan states and the Karennis on Burma's territories, with the sole exceptio n of Mongpan and Kengtung, who were handed over to the Thais for the war. Some of the commentaries of international travellers on the Shans are also cited:
Young people with guns and blades took part in the celebrations. Shans were also noted as good warriors, especially among capable commando. This is how the Brits won the Shans' adoration and allegiance. In addition to UK troops, many Shans fought France, Egypt and then Asia Minor - an area that now encompasses most of Turkey, Iran and Iraq.
Capt Khun Oong and Sergeant Zampa. The Shan Quota received the hardest assignment during the UK's withdrawal from Burma - to watch the defence. It also cites a piece in a paper about anti-Japanese Shan warriors: "This is what we are reading here: "You ( "Force 136") have proven to be a genuine thorn in the side of the Japan and Thai communication line in north-eastern Burma.
The rank and nudes consisted mainly of Shans and Kachin's, for whom the responsible UK officer has the highest commendation. Even the weak points of Shaan were not euphemised. Citing Sao Saimong Mangrai: "In their relations with the Burmese, he has described the Shans as faithful pals who are willing to use their own means to struggle and perish for the Burmese.
The story shows, he says, that the people of Burma have lost their empires through their own betrayers, although Shan was willing to help. The Shans successfully destroyed the defense of the Thai capitol Ayutthaya (1767), which was handed over to Burma's forces. But the Shans were just happy that it was over and they would soon be back home with their family.
Once again it was the Shans who, after the elections of the new Shan Council of States, which in reality became the Shan Paralel Goverment, convened the Panglong Conference on their own initiatives and financed their costs. The Shans with their Levies and their foreign minister, Sao Khun Khio, also came to the aid of the Myanmar authorities, who were sieged by their own rebel nation in Rangoon in 1949.
Burma's story - "full of legend and lies," according to some international scholars - foundered on acknowledging this (the part of the Shans). Indeed, the downswing in Shan story began with the arrival of the Brahmans (i.e. the Bamars or Burmese) from India. At WW?, many civilian refugees had escaped from Thailand to the northern part of Lower Burma in expectation of the advance by Japan.
This was a series of events in which they were mugged, violated and killed on their way by the outlawful Burmese. During the march down, China's forces saw their vengeance on the population. All" Pai-yis" (Shans) were permitted to move on, but the" Lao Mien" (Burmese) were summary execution. Pai-yi seemed to be the only magical spell against these breakdowns, and Khun Kya Bu recounts with little hidden joy how the people of Burma remembered these words to get out of their misery.
The Khun Kya Bu is really bittern. The name of the Karen PA is not revealed for apparent reason as he presented his memoir to the Burma Socialist Program Party.