Situated at the top of the Gulf of Trieste, Trieste has historically been affected by its position at the interface between Latin, Slavic and Teutonic culture. As of 2009, it had about 205,000 inhabitants and is the capitol of the Friuli Venezia Giulia Regional Authority.
Trieste has a total of 410,000 residents and 240,000 people. From 1382 to 1918, Trieste was one of the oldest parts of the Habsburg Empire. It was one of the great powers of Europe in the nineteenth centuries and Trieste was the most important sea port.
Trieste became the forth biggest town in the Austro-Hungarian Empire (after Vienna, Budapest and Prague) as a prospering Mediterranean sea port. In the 1930' Trieste experienced an economical recovery, and Trieste was an important place in the fight between East and West after the Second World War.
Originally pre-Roman name of the town, Gergeste, with the Illyric style extension, is conjectured to be related to a Venetian *terg- "market", an etymological term from the old Church Slavic term for " market" (from which from Slovenia, Serbia and Croatia come tons, tr?nica and the Nordic lender torg). Among the contemporary name of the town are: "The old town":
Italians: Trieste, Slovenian: Trst, German: Trieste, Hungarian: Trieszt, Croatian: It is located in the most northern part of the High Adige in the northeast of Italy, near the Slovenian frontier. Situated on the Gulf of Trieste. Trieste's metropolitan area, mostly situated on a hill that becomes a hill, is situated at the bottom of an impressive steep slope that drops off suddenly from the karst plateau towards the ocean.
Karstic landscapes near the cities are 458 meters above sealevel. Situated on the border of the geographic area of Italy, the Balkan Peninsula and Central Europe. Trieste has several different climatic areas, according to the distances from the coast and the altitude.
There is a damp sub-tropical environment in the town ( Cfa according to Köppen classification). The Trieste and Istra peninsulas have evenly spread the precipitation over a whole 1,000 mm (39 in); it is remarkable that there is no real dry year. Trieste is subdivided into 8a-10a areas, corresponding to the USDA hardness zone; Villa Opicina (320 to 420 MSL) with 8a in the higher suburb area to 8a in specially protected and wind-proof lowlands near the Adriatic coast.
The administrative structure of Trieste is subdivided into seven districts: Piazza Unità d'Italia is the legendary centre of the village, situated between the great alleys of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries and the old mediaeval centre with its many winding alleys. The Venetians invaded the area in the 10th to 9th centuries BC and seem to have given the Venetian capital its name TERGESTES, since terg* is a Venetian term for Markt (market) (see Oderzo, whose old name was Opitergium).
Trieste flourished further in the early days of Christianity. The area was extended between 138 and 161 AD and the neighbouring cities of Carni and Catali received from the Roman Senate and Emperor Antoninus Pius at the request of a senior Tergestin burgher, the urban treasurer Fabius Severus, German Roman nationality. It witnessed the Battle of Frigidus in the Vipava Valley in 394 AD, when Theodosius vanquished Eugene.
In spite of the removal of Romulus Augustulus from Ravenna in 476 and the seizure of Odoacer's powers in Italy, Trieste remained for a while in the hands of the Roman Emperor, based in Constantinople, and thus became a Burmese army post. The Byzantines joined the Exarchate of Ravenna in 539 and kept it until the arrival of the Franks, although Trieste was briefly invaded by the Longobards in 567 during the war.
Trieste subjected itself to Charles the Great in 788, who placed it under the jurisdiction of his district archbishop, who in turn stood under the Duke of Friùli. In 1081 the town was detached from the Patriarchate of Aquileia and developed into a free municipality by the end of the twelfth cenury. Under the Habsburgs, the town retained a high level of independence, but lost more and more of its commercial importance, both at the cost of Venice and Ragusa.
1463 a number of Israeli municipalities asked Venice to assault Trieste. Pope Pius II, who had previously been Archbishop of Trieste, intervened to save Trieste from destruction. Venice, however, restricted the Trieste area to three nautical miles outside the town ( 4.8 kilometres). In the years 1468-1469 Trieste was attacked again by the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick III.
Its bag through the town will be commemorated as the "Destruction of Trieste". "In 1470 Trieste was lucky enough to be saved from another bag by the Ottomans who burnt the hamlet of Prosecco, just 8.5 km from Trieste, on the way to the Friuli assault. In 1508, after an unlucky Habsburg raid on Venice in the beginning of the war 1508-16 of the Union of Cambrai, the Venetians once again seized Trieste and were permitted to preserve it under the framework of the Freedom War.
A little over a year later, however, when the conflicts flared up again, the Habsburg Empire of Trieste began to recover. Trieste became an important harbour and trading centre for the Austrians in the eighteenth centuary. Emperor Charles VI recognised it as a free harbour within the Habsburg Empire in 1719 and it continued to be a free harbour until 1 July 1891.
He was succeeded by Maria Theresa of Austria, who ruled over the town, marking the beginning of a very successful period for the town. During the Napoleonic Wars of 1797, 1805 and 1809, Trieste was briefly invaded by French imperial forces several times in the following years. Between 1809 and 1813, Trieste was incorporated into Illyrian provinces, which interrupted the free harbour and lost its independence.
Communal independence was not re-established after the town returned to the Republic of Austria in 1813. After the Napoleonic Wars, Trieste flourished further as the Free Imperial Town of Trieste, a statute that allowed commercial liberty but restricted its own administrative power. In 1836, the city's importance as Austria's most important commercial and shipyard harbour was later underlined by the establishment of the commercial navigation company in 1836, whose head office was on the corners of Piazza Grande and Sanità (today Piazza Unità d'Italia).
In 1860, with the advent of institutionalism in the Austrian Empire, the communal independence of the municipality was reestablished and Trieste became the capitol of the Austrian coastal region. During the second half of the nineteenth centuries, Pope Leo XIII thought about relocating his residency to Trieste or Salzburg because he feared a hostile ancient Roman atmosphere in Italy after the conquest of Rome by the new kingdom of Italy in 1870.
Trieste used the Austro-Hungarian navy as a basis and for building ships. 1882 an irredentist campaigner, Guglielmo Oberdan, tried to murder Emperor Franz Joseph, who attended Trieste. Francis Joseph, who ruled for another thirty-five years, never again went to Trieste. In the early twentieth centuries Trieste was a busy, cosmopolitan metropolis attended by painters and thinkers such as James Joyce, Italo Svevo, Sigmund Freud, Zofka Kveder, Dragotin Chain, Ivan Cankar, Scipio Slataper and Umberto Saba.
It was the most important harbour on the Austrian Riviera and perhaps the only true Central European encoderlave southern of the Alps. Vienna architectural style and coffee houses characterise the roads from Trieste to the present days. After the end of the Napoleonic Wars, Italy therefore annexed Trieste in accordance with the terms of the London Treaty of 1915 and the Italian-Yugoslav Treaty of Rapallo of 1920.
Though Trieste had a large number of Italians, it had more Slovenes than even the Slovenian capitol Ljubljana at the end of the nineteenth cent. Fascist rule promoted some of the art and intellect sub-cultures that arose in the twenties, and the town became the seat of a major avant-garde fine art movement concentrated around Tullio Crali, a futureist, and Avgust, a constructionist.
During the same time Trieste strengthened its position as one of the centers of contemporary literary life in Italy with writers such as Umberto Saba, Biagio Marin, Giani Stuparich and Salvatore Satta. A number of non-Italian intelligentsia stayed in the town, such as the Austro-Hungarian novelist Julius Kugy, the Slovenian novelist and author Stanko Vuk, the advocate and defender of fundamentalism Josip Ferfolja and the anti-fascist cleric Jakob Ukmar.
When Italy annexed the province of Ljubljana and subsequently deported 25,000 Slovenes, representing 7.5% of the province's entire populace, the surgery, one of the most dramatic in Europe, occupied the Rab Nazi camps, the Gonars Nazi prisoners, Monigo (Treviso), Renicci d'Anghiari, Chiesanuova and other Nazi centres, where 9,000 Slovenes died, The Second World War came near to Trieste.
After Slovenia was divided into three parts, the first Slovenian partisans arrived in the Trieste region in the winters of 1941, although the opposition did not become involved in the town itself until the end of 1943. Following the September 1943 truce, the capital was invaded by Wehrmacht forces. In nominal terms, Trieste became part of the new constituent Social Republic of Italy, but de facto it was governed by Germany, which established the operational zone of the Adriatic coastal area from the former north-eastern parts of Italy with Trieste as its administration area.
On April 4, 1944, under Germans occupying a Trieste outskirts area on the Risiera di San Sabba, the only crematory encampment on Italy's land was established. Some 5,000 southern Slavs, ancient Italians and Jews were killed at the Risiera, while others were arrested before being moved to other concentrations centres.
It experienced intensive activities of partisans in Italy and Yugoslavia and sustained the bombing attacks of the Allies. The Slovene and ltalian anti-fascist of the Osvobodilna Front and the National Liberation Committee (Comitato di Liberazione Nazionale, short CLN) of Marzari and Savio Fonda, which consisted of about 3,500 voluntary workers, called for an uprising against the National Socialist occupation on April 30, 1945.
Allied members of the Yugoslav partisans' eighth Dalmatian Corps took over most of the town on 1 May, with the exception of the San Giusto Courthouse and Palace, where Germany's garrison forces declined to submit to anyone other than New Zealanders. The Second New Zealand Division under General Freyberg advanced along Route 14 around the north shore of the Adriatic towards Trieste and reached the town the next morning (see Stories of the Italy Campaign and Through the Venetian Line).
Germans capitulated on the night of 2 May, but were then handed over to the Yugoslavian armed force. Following an arrangement between the Yugoslavian commander Josip Broz Tito and Field Marshal Alexander, the Yugoslavian armed force retreated from Trieste, which was under a common British and foreign rule. Julian March was split between the Anglo-American and Yugoslavian armed services until September 1947, when the Paris Peace Treaty founded Trieste.
Between 1947 and 1954, the A-Zone was ruled by the Allied Army Government, which consisted of the Trieste United States Troops (TRUST) under the command of Major General Bryant E. Moore, the 88th Infantry Division's General in Command, and the British Element Trieste Forces in Command (BETFOR) under the command of Sir Terence Airey, the Armed Services Captain and Chief of Staff.
The zone A comprised almost the same area of the present Italian province of Trieste, with the exception of four small towns just outside Muggia (see below), which were handed over to Yugoslavia after the free area was dissolved (see London Memorandum of 1954) in 1954. According to the London Memorandum of 1954, the overwhelming major part of Zone A - Italy, Trieste, and four towns in Zone A (Plavje, Spodnje ?kofije, Hrvatini and Elerji) became part of Yugoslavia and were separated between Slovenia and Croatia.
Here is a shortlist of the major of Trieste since 1949: Trieste developed into one of the most important cities for business, industry and industry in Europe during the Austro-Hungarian period and was the forth-biggest and most important center of the kingdom after Vienna, Budapest and Prague. However, after the city's accession to Italy at the end of the First World War, Trieste's economic system went into ruin, but in the 1930' Fascist Italy encouraged Trieste to develop enormously, with new production operations that even affected the marine and defence industry (such as the renowned Cantieri Aeronautici Navali Triestini (CANT)).
After World War II, the Allied bombing raids devastated the town' s main industry (mainly shipyards). Consequently, Trieste was a mainly marginal town during the Cold War. Trieste, however, has been experiencing a certain amount of recovery since the seventies. In July 2013[update] 204,849 persons lived in Trieste in the Trieste region, Friuli Venezia Giulia, 46 of them.
As of the seventies, Trieste had been losing around of its populace to the slump in the historic industries of iron and steel construction and shipbuilding, caused by a drastic fall in productivity and a rapidly ageing workforce. In comparison, the Italy averages 18. Ever since the annexion of Italy after the First World War, the metropolitan demographics of Trieste have been steadily decreasing in comparison with other towns.
Trieste was the fourth biggest town of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in 1911 (third biggest in the monarchy). Trieste was the eighth biggest town in the country in 1921, the twelfth in 1961, the fourteenth in 1981, and fell to fifteenth place in 2011.
6 per cent in the inner town ( 15 per cent with Austria residents only), 47 per cent in the north. They were the biggest ethnical group in 9 of the 19 districts of Trieste and made up a major part of 7 of them. On the other side, the Italian-speaking persons accounted for 60 persons. 1 per cent of the downtown populace, 38.
These were the biggest language group in 10 of the 19 metropolitan areas and made up the majorities in 7 of them (including all 6 in the downtown area). Out of the 11 towns that belonged to the border of the town, the Slovenes had an enormous majority of 10, and the Germans in one (Miramare).
Germans accounted for 5% of the urban populace, with the highest shares in the inner cities. Trieste's small part of the populace speaks Serbian (about 1.3% in 1911), and the town also had several other smaller ethnical groups, among them Czechs, Istro-Romanians, Serbs and Greeks, who for the most part adapted to either the Roman or Slovenian-speaking world.
Castello Miramare, or Miramare castle, on the water 8 km from Trieste, was constructed between 1856 and 1860 according to a design by Carl Junker under Archduke Maximilian. A lot later the fortress was also the home of Prince Amedeo, Duke of Aosta, the last commandant of the last command of the armed force of Italy in East Africa during the Second World War.
For the duration of the use of the Instrument for the Provisional Regime of the Free Territory of Trieste, as laid down in the Peace Treaty with Italy (Paris, 10.02.1947), the Palace was the seat of the United States Army Loyalty Forces. Symbolic of the Trieste during the Risorgimento. Synagogue of Trieste (1912).
There are 10 groups of speleologists in the whole province of Trieste out of 24 in the whole Friuli Venezia Giulia area. Altopiano Triestino (Trieste Plateau), known as Kras or the Karst, covers an area of around 200 km2 in Italy and has around 1,500 caverns of various size (such as that of Basovizza, now a memorial to the Foibe massacres).
Some of the most popular are the Grotta Gigante, the biggest touristic cavern in the whole wide open space of the planet, with a unique hollow large enough to accommodate St. Peter's in Rome, and the Trebiciano cavern, 350 meters below the Timavo stream. It submerges in the caves of ?kocjan in Slovenia (UNESCO-listed and only a few kilometers away from Trieste) and runs for about 30 kilometers, before reaching the caves of ?kocjan in Slovenia at about 1 kilometer (0.
Half of the capital was constructed under Austro-Hungarian rule, so there is a very large number of alleys and buildings reminiscent of Vienna. Trieste has an ample old town: there are many small and sloping alleys with characteristic mediaeval cottages.
Unità d'Italia Piazza, the main stately plaza of Trieste, encircled by nineteenth centuries architectural style, and the biggest seaside plaza in Europe. Rosandra Valley, a nature reserve on the boundary between the province of Trieste and Slovenia. The Caffè San Marco, historic café in the center of the town. The cafes played an important part in the Trieste economic system, as Trieste flourished under the Austro-Hungarian Empire and is still known today as "the Italian main café". Opened in 1839, it is one of the most popular in Trieste.
The city has a vibrant culture with various theaters. These include the opera theater Lirico Giuseppe Verdi, Politeama Rossetti, the Teatro La Contrada, the Slovenian Theater in Trieste (Slovensko Stalno since 1902), the Teatro Miela and some smaller ones. The Civico Museo di Storia Naturale di Trieste (Natural Science Museum) with fossil remains of early man.
Established in 1924, the University of Trieste is a medium-sized, state-funded university with 12 departments and offers a broad and almost comprehensive programme of studies. It is also home to the Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati (SISSA), a major educational and research institute in the fields of math, theory, and neurosciences, and the MIB School of Management Trieste, one of the top five Italian language learning institutions.
Located in the Greater Trieste Area, there are three major English language centres that offer elementary and middle school programmes in English: the Trieste School, the European School of Trieste and the United World College of the Adriatic. There are also a number of research institutes in the town, both nationally and internationally. The AREA Science Park, which includes ELETTRA, a free electrons free electrons synergy experiment for research and industry purposes, the Center for Theoretical Physics, which is operating under a trilateral convention between the Government of Italy, UNESCO and the IAEA, the Astronomical Observatory of Trieste, and the Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia and Geofisica Sperimentale (OGS), which conducts research on ocean and earth physics;
Trieste's own racecourse is Triestina, one of the oldest in Italy. Triestina finished second in the Italy First League (Serie A) in the 1947/1948 campaign and lost the title to Turin. During the Free Territory of Trieste era, two teams of players from two different countries took part in the tournaments at the same times, due to the post-war presence of the Schisma in the area.
It was Triestina who won the Serie A in the Italy. Despite being confronted with descent after the first post-war campaign, the FIGC amended the regulations to keep them, as it was considered important to keep a local team in the Italy squad, while Yugoslavia was watching the town.
In the meantime, Yugoslavia purchased A.S.D. Ponziana, a small Trieste side that had been playing in the Yugoslav football for 3 years under a new name, Amatori Ponziana Trst. In the 90s, Triestina went into bankruptcy, but after being re-founded in 2002, she again achieved a place in the 2nd German Bundesliga (Serie B). The Ponziana was re-named "Circolo Sportivo Ponziana 1912" and currently performs in the Friuli Venezia Giulia Group of Promozione, the seventh stage of the Italien-Liga.
There is also a well-known Trieste baseball squad, Pallacanestro Trieste, which culminated in the 1990s under Bogdan Tanjevi?, when it was able to contract names such as Dejan Bodiroga, Fernando Gentile and Gregor Fu?ka, all of whom are celebrities of Euro 2008 thanks to the generous support of Stefanel. There are many sail club that have their origins in the town, contributing to the Trieste traditions of this game.
Barcolana was first held in 1969 and is the world's biggest yacht racing event in terms of number of people. Several portraits of Trieste were made on the big silver canvas, and the movies were often made in the area. 1942 the early neo-realist Alfa Tau! was partially set in the town.
A new interest in the town has recently been aroused with films such as The_Invisible_Boy_(2014_film), the continuation The Invisible Boy - Second Generation and the TV series. The railway came to Trieste early because of the importance of its harbour and the need to carry passengers and goods upcountry. Trieste's first railway line was the Südbahn, which was commissioned by the Austrians in 1857.
Trieste is approached by the town of Villa Opicina, just a few kilometers from the big town, but over 300 meters higher. For this reason, the line makes a 32 kilometre roundabout to the west, which drops off bit by bit before ending at Triest Centrale train station.
1887 the imperial-royal Austrian state railways opened a new line, the Trieste-Hrpelje line, from the new harbour of Trieste to Hrpelje-Kozina, with the Israeli railroad. 59 ] With the opening, Trieste received a second stop just north of the initial one, called Trieste Sant'Andrea.
Originally, the two train stops were linked by a rail line, which had to be a transitional arrangement in the early plans: the Rive line, which existed until 1981 when it was superseded by the Galleria di Circonvallazione, a 5.7 kilometre long rail line in the eastern part of the town.
When the Transalpina line from Vienna, Austria via Jesenice and Nova Gorica was opened in 1906, St. Andrea train station was substituted by a new, more spacious complex called Trieste stazione del Stato (Trieste State Train Station), later Trieste Campo Marzio - today the Rail Museum - and the former train station was called Trieste stazione del Meridionale or Trieste Meridionale (Trieste Southern Train Station).
Also this train drove over the Villa Opicina to Trieste, but took a somewhat short turn south towards the ocean. Between Trieste and Venice, Verona, Turin, Milan, Rome, Florence, Naples and Bologna there are frequent train connections. There are flights to Trieste from the airport Trieste - Friuli Venezia Giulia (IATA: TRS).
Trieste Airport's train depot connects the passengers terminus directly with the Venice-Trieste line via a 425-metre long air bridge. There is a 16 platforms coach depot, 500 parking spaces in a multi-storey garage and 1000 parking spaces for cars, both domestic and foreign, to provide quick and easy entry to the A4 Trieste-Turin motorway.
Rollers in Trieste are often used for individual traffic. The Secretariat of the Central Europe Initiative, an inter-governmental organisation between Central and South-Eastern Europe, is located in Trieste. Trieste has been selected in recent years to host a number of high-level bi-lateral and multi-lateral events, such as the 2017 Summit of the West Balkans, the 2013 Italy-Russia Bi-lateral Summit (Letta-Putin) and the 2008 Italy-Germany Bi-lateral Summit (Berlusconi-Merkel), and the 2009 and 2001 G8 Foreign and Environment Ministers' Conferences.
Trieste was voted European Science Capital for 2020 by Euroscience in July 2017. is a partnership with Trieste: U.S. Triestina Calcio, Trieste F utsal team. Skip high to: a y "Total resident population on 1 January 2011 by gender and marital status. 1 January 2011 by gender and by age. Trieste Province". Hop up ^ Baldi, Philip (1983).
Cary, Joseph (1993-11-15). GRIFFIN: A spirit in Trieste. Vasmer, Max (1971). Hop up "Climate in Trieste". Skip up to: a by Roberto Pedemonte (May 2012). Italian version of Revista lighure. Hop up "Bora and Ice". Triest Times. <font color="#ffff00" size=14> ;
Vienna : K. k. Court and State Printing Office, p. 1, 3 rd Vienna : K. k. Court and State Printing Office, p. 1, 3 rd. Build Vienna : K. k. Court and State Printing Office, p. 1, 3 rd Vienna : K. k. Court and State Printing Office, p. 1, 3 rd. Build up Thursday, anja, (2009). "A turning point in the story of Trieste, Graz 1382 ? Skip up Mezuli?, Hrvoje; R. Jeli? (2005). Pizzi, Marco (2017). Hop to "La Story, Part 10." triestebraica.it. Skip up to ^ "Faenza, Trieste and home - the Italians' action for NZHistory, New Zealand story online".
Hop up, Kay, Robin. Hop up ^ Anna Bramwell (1988). Hop up ^ Arrigo Petacco (2005). Hop up ^ Feis, Herbert (2015). Cox, Geoffrey (1977). Race for Trieste. Skip up ^ "The current situation in the free Trieste area" (PDF). Skip up British Element Trieste Forces - Order of Battle.
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The municipality is part of the metropolitan region of Zagreb, Ljubljana and the whole of Italy. Hop up ^ Frothingham, A. L. (1904). Hop up to "Trieste Science+Fiction - Festival of Science Fiction " FIFF 1963". Hop up ^ "Triest International Film Festival". Hop up "Set portas rose a trieste".
Skip up to: a by Ammann, Christian; Juvanec, Maj (May 2007). "Discover Trieste". Leap up ^ Alessandro Tuzza; et al. ^ "Prospetto centrologico di tratti di ferrovia aperti all' esercizio di 1839 al 31 discembre 1926" [Chronological survey of the characteristics of the railway lines opened between 1839 and 31 December 1926]. www.trenidicarta. it (in Italian).
Hop up ^ Oberegger, Elmar. Hop up "Trieste Trasporti S.p.A.". Courtesy of Trieste Trasporti S.p.A. Brought back on 27 April 2007. Hop up "Trieste and Gorizia Public Transportation Statistics." Skip up ^ "Twin Town - Graz Online - Deutsch Version". www.graz.at. Commons Wikimedia has created related news in Trieste. Vikivoyage has a guidebook for Trieste.