Toungoo EmpireCity of Toungoo
The pagan empire and the Khmer empire in the eastern part were two major forces on the southeast Asian continent in the twelfth and thirteenth century.
Pagan empires and empires constructed over 10,000 buddhistic churches in the pagan area. Kyansittha, the second pagan (or Bagan) dynasty kings, is considered a great emperor who consolidates the Bagan Kindom established by his fathers, Anawrahta, and he is considered a great heir. In 1077 AD, when Anawrahta passed away, the construction of the great Shwezigon Pagoda in 1050 in Nyaung-Oo near Bagan was not completed.
The Buddhist primate Shin Arahan and the King's master asked King Kyansittha to finish this pageant soon after his accession to the crown. Kyinsittha organised all the echelons of his subject to work together and to help their work as an act of meritoriousness. "Pagan Empire, wall paintings from the fifteenth and eighteenth centuries.
Pagan's demise as a centre of politics in the thirteenth centur y led to a time of almost three hundred years of inner divisions and war. Established in 1364 by Thado Minbya, Ava saw herself as the new pagan kingdom. The arts and architectures followed those of pagan times.
Slowly, the Hindu influences refused to be substituted by a Myanmar dialect that dates back to pagan times, but was unique to Burma. Since Prome was in league with the Confederation, only Toungoo in the southeast edge, just south of the Bago Yoma Mountains, was the last denier of the Bamar population.
In 1486, after Mingyi-Nyo took the monarchy of Toungoo, he established an ever-increasing empire in Upper Burma. In the 1490s he captured the Pyinmana area and invaded the rebel state of Jamethin in the name of its sovereign, the Ava' s reign. In 1501-03, the battle of Ava' s inheritance, together with an incursion and occupancy of the north part of the Mu River Valley, brought the new Kings of Ava nearer to Min-gyi-nyo by providing him with a matrimony and a present of strategic land near Kyaukse.
Toungoo' s kings allied with Prome and assaulted cities in the Myingyan area near Pagan. By 1510, the Shan troops were attacking the Ave Emperor almost constantly. Until 1523 Mingyi Nyo stayed in Toungoo, where he constructed a new city. At that time he felt safe enough to invade Pegu in the southern part of the country with little luck.
Tabinshwehti, the next Rabinshwehti, was borne in Toungoo by Mingyinyo of Toungoo and his Conkungkung. His 56-year-old son called him after the "Unified Gold Umbrella", the holy emblem of Burma's monarch. This prophesy says that Tabinshwehti would be the incarnation of a princely Minyekyawswa who was executed by his sire, Dhammazedi of Hanthawaddy.
It is said that Taborshwehti said to have said the same prayers as Prince Bawlawkyantaw of Hanthawaddy before he was killed by his own fathers King Razadarit in 1390. Tabinswehti, felt to be the reinkarnate of Minyekyawswa of Hanthawaddy, the prophecy alleged, would be the neemesis of Hanthawaddy. In the beginning of his rule, King Tabinswehti decided in Pegu (Bago), the then capitol of his foe Mons.
It is said that Bayinnaung chose the five hundred troops who would escort the emperor by inserting a needle through their right thumbs and selecting only those who did not twitch, beginning with themselves. 1535 König Tabinshwehti pursued his father's expansion plan by marching into the Pegu empire and taking the town of Bassein in the Irrawaddy River Basse.
Pegu died four years later, and Takayutpi, the Pegu kings, escaped to Prome. By toppling Pegu, Tabinshwehti transferred the centre of his empire from the land of Toungoo to the coast of Pegu, giving him entry to the world of sea trading, guns and alien warriors. Not only did the move of his capitol to Pegu change the mandalas or fields of influence of King Tabinshwehti, but it also led him to adjust to the difference in cultures between the Burmese and Mon cultures.
Long before the first Toungoo empire rose, it was the centre of political, economic, cultural, artistic and Buddhist life for the Mon nationalities. BY-SA 3. 0, After his loss in Ayutthaya, King Tabinshwehti was brought into the vineyard by a portugese warrior.
Tabinshwehti was an addict and his condition quickly became poor. When the king ceased to go to battle, he ceased to lead the land and gave his winegrower a Myanmar princess as his spouse. Courtiers tried to get Bayinnaung to enter and ascend the kingdom, but because of his great esteem and allegiance to King Tabinshwehti he did not want it.
But not everyone was so faithful and on 30 April 1550 the king was decapitated in the marquee by two attackers. He' had named Bayinnaung as his successor, but the Toungoo empire quickly disintegrated without his lead. Bayinnaung reestablished the Tabinshwehti empire and led Burma to its greatest regional growth in the coming years.
UPOTATA, the mountain of King Bayinnaung; dressed in leathers, decorated with sacred charms and valuable gems, progressed to Chechnya, the mountain of Smim Htaw. When the fighting at the front was raging, King Bayinnaung and Smim Htaw knew that the result would be final. Bayinnaung and Smim Htaw, who sat on the back of the elephant's head behind his ear, were exchanging looking shots as the mahouts tried to take the edge in their howdah high on the elephant's back.
Myanmar-Thai Historical text book Myannaung in arm, title image (MME 2009). Under his 31-year rule from 1550 to 1581, known as "the greatest blast of man's power in Burma" (G. E. Harvey.), King Billinnaung formed the greatest empire in the country's Southeast Asian past.
In 1557-1563, after the Shan conquered the Shan states, the Emperor established an administration system that diminished the powers of the congenital Shan-Saophas and conformed Shan practices to Dutch standards, thus eliminating the danger of Shan attacks in Upper Burma. Bayinnaung's bell is labeled in 3 different tongues; 43 in Myanmar, 35 in Mon and five in Pali.
The name of the donator, his commitment to the land, his merits, his prayer and the squatted territories are marked on the bells with the date of the ascent and the date of the donation. It is in the Shwezigon Pagoda in Bagan and was founded by King Bayinnaung in 1557.
Inscribed on the bells, King Bayintnaung had "cast a bead and dispensed it in the Shwezigon Pagoda, which was the result of commendable acts of King Anawrahta and Kyansittha on 23 May 1557. "The Bayinnaung bells is 3 foot 8 inches high, the circumference is 3 foot 6 inches.
The King commissioned his First Minister Binnya Dala to design and build the Kanbawzathadi Palace in Pegu. Bayinnaung statue in front of the National Museum of Myanmar. Bayinnaung was a fervent supporter of Theravada Buddhism ("Theory of the Elders"), the oldest and most righteous of the three great Buddhist cults.
Bayinnaung wanted to be Chakravartin. For the first since 1287, King Bayinnaung managed to reunite the Pagan?Kingdom territory and integrate Shan States for the first Shan?States Manipur, Chinese?Shan?States, Siam, Lan Na and Lan?Xang were also represented at the climax of the first Toungoo empire. However, the greatest empire in the annals of Southeast Asia fell apart in the 18 years after Bayinnaung's demise on October 10, 1581, when he was getting ready to march into Arakan, partly motivated by his desire to accomplish the incursion in which King Tabinshwehti was doomed.
Nanda Bayin, his oldest boy and successor to the throne, took over the empire without any incidents, but the empire that Bayinnaung had established on the basis of armed conquest and which he had kept alive through the use of force and private relations with the vassals' lords, was soon to collapse. Nanda Bayin was coronated one months after his father's murder.
Forty-six years old, the new King came into the greatest empire ever seen in Southeast Asia, but it was an empire tied in fidelity to his sire. To safeguard the Toungoo empire, he had to make sure that those who had sworn allegiance to his fathers would also be faithful to him.
In 1584 Prince Naresuan of Ayutthaya, who heard of a conspiracy of Upayaza Mingyi Swa to murder him, proclaimed his autonomy. Naresuan (right) and Mingyi Swa (left) elephants' fight during the Nong Sarai fight, as shown on the Suphan Buri Province cachet. His Majesty King Nanda Bayin sent his armies five time to Ayutthaya, in 1584, 1585, 1586, 1590 and 1592:
During his fifth expedition against Ayutthaya, Nanda Bayin sent his throne to the battle field on the recommendation of one of his masters. Gunfighter was laughing at my dad. Manu asked for an audience with King Naresuan and Upparaja Ekathotsarot, where he reiterated the story and the ban.
"You will have a hard time fulfilling the part of a sovereign. After the Rakhine's devastation, Naresuan enters Pegu. From 1599 to 1605 Nyaungyan Min was royal of the restored Toungoo Dynasty or Nyaungyan Dynasty of Burma. It is considered the originator of the restored Toungoo dynasty for the beginning of the unification processes after the fall of the Toungoo empire.
One of King Bayinnaung's sons, Nyaungyan, was named Ava' King Nanda Bayin's Gouverneur by a minorsess. When in 1597 the vassals gave up their connections to King Nanda Bayinin, he also stopped by confiscating Ava (Inwa). It was his effort that opened the way for his oldest boy and follower Anaukpetlun to rebuild large parts of the Toungoo Empire over the next two centuries.