Toungoo Dynasty

After Dynasty

chip class="mw-headline" id="Mingyinyo">Mingyinyo Toungoo ( "Toungoo Dynasty", 1486-1752) was one of Burma's most mighty empires, ruled by seven monarchs for 155 years. Mingyinyo (1486-1531) established the First Toungoo Dynasty (1486-1599) in Taungoo (Kaytumadi), high on the Sittang River, just South of Ava, towards the end of the Ava Dynasty in 1510 C.E. Mingyinyo's boy King Tabinshwehti (1531-1550) united most of Burma, rolled over the Irrawaddy River and destroyed the capitol of Bago (Pegu).

Tabinshwehti was coronated in 1544 in the old capitol Bagan as head of all Burma. At the same epoch, the arrival of Europe's merchants had made Burma an important commercial centre again, and Tabinshwehti relocated its capitol to Pegu due to its strategically important trade location. Tabinshwehti's brother-in-law, Bayinnaung (1551-1581), an active ruler and efficient army commandant, made Toungoo the most influential state in Southeast Asia and expanded its boundaries from Laos to Ayutthaya, near Bangkok.

When Bayinnaung passed away in 1581, he was ready to launch a last, crucial attack on the Aracanese. Arakan' s grandson, Nanda Bayin, and his followers were compelled to suppress insurgencies in other parts of the empire, and the defeat of Arakan was never attained. In the face of the revolt of several towns and repeated Portugese ideas, the Toungoo monarchs retired from the south of Myanmar and established a second dynasty in Ava, the Nyaungyan dynasty or the restored Toungoo dynasty (1597-1752).

Bayinnaung's grandchild, Anaukpetlun (1605-1628), united Myanmar again in 1613 and vanquished the portugese efforts to take over Myanmar, but the kingdom slowly collapsed. For another one and a half centuries, until the year 1752 when Mahadammayaza died, the Toungoo dynasty never reigned all over Myanmar again. Mingyinyo (1486-1531) established the First Toungoo Dynasty (1486-1599) in Taungoo (Kaytumadi), high up on the Sittang River, just south of Ava, towards the end of the Ava Dynasty in 1510.

Following the Shan invaders' 1527 capture of Ava, many people from Burma emigrated to Toungoo, which became a new centre of Burma's domination. Mohnyin Shan tribes in the north of Burma were captured by the dynasty. Mingyinyo's grandson King, Tabinshwehti (1512-1550) (reigned 1531-1550), united most of Burma (now Myanmar) and is known as the founding father of the Second Myanmar Empire.

Tabinshwehti walked from Toungoo between 1535 and 1538 in a row of four army campaigns against Pegu. Having conquered the west deltas around Bassein in 1538 and strengthened his armed force with armed force and armor, Tabinshwehti conquered the defense of Pegu and invaded the state.

In 1539 he relocated his capitol from Toungoo to Pegu. Tabinswehti was the crowning glory of all Burma in the old city of Bagan. While the Shan won in a new northern empire, Ayutthaya (Siam), the Portuguese had reached the southern part and captured Malacca. Burma was an important trade centre again with the arrival of Europe's merchants.

1545 Tabinshwehti invaded the northern part and took Pagan and Salin and left a troop in Salin. Tabinshwehti Nat is one of the 37 ghosts worshipped in Myanmar alongside Buddhism. In 1550, after Tabinshwehti was murdered by Mon members of his farm in Pegu, Bayinnaung struggled to regain Tabinshwehti's empire, taking back Toungoo and Prome in 1551, Pegu, Martaban and Bassein in 1552 and Ava in 1555.

Bayinnaung reconquered both Upper and Lower Burma and embarked on a northern army mission to the Shan area, taking Mong Mit, Hsipaw, Yawnghwe, Mong Yang and Mogaung in 1557. In the following year he walked to Mong Nai (1557) and then to the Lanna empire of Chiang Mai (Zin Mè, 1558).

Bayinnaung started another anti-Ayutthaya struggle in 1563 and conquered the city in 1569, despite the Siamese's popular drag. Siam became a minion state of the Toungoo empire, and tens of thousands were returned to Burma as prisoners of war. 2. From the end of the 1560' several travellers from Europe such as Cesar Fedrici and Gaspero Balbi travelled to Pegu, the Burmese capitol, leaving behind in their reports detail accounts of Bayinnaung's empire.

During the 1570s Bayinnaung walked against the empire of Lan Chang (Lin Zin) in present-day Laos. Setthathirat, and the people of the capitol Vientiane escaped into the jungles where they defied the incursion. Without the crucial command of Lan Chang, Bayinnaung went back to Burma.

After Bayinnaung came back to Lan Chang in 1574, he tried to attract the people to the city and to reconstruct the empire under a sovereign of his own will. She beat his uncles, but could not subdue Ayutthaya Siam, then a Myanmar state. She was confronted by another rebellion in the south of Myanmar, backed by Siam.

Nanda Bago, the imperial capitol, was defending from a Siamian invasion in 1595. In the face of the rebellions of several towns and repeated Portugese ideas, the Toungoo monarchs retreated from the south of Myanmar and established a second dynasty in Ava, the Nyaungyan dynasty or the restored Toungoo dynasty (1597-1752). After his brethren received the assistance of the Rakhine emperor and sieged Bago, Nanda was captured.

He tightened his grip on Burma until he was assassinated in 1628 by his own boy, who was afraid of retaliation for an incident with one of his father's Concubines. But the Toungoo-Impire was slowly decaying. For another one and a half centuries, until the year 1752 when Mahadammayaza died, the Toungoo dynasty never reigned all over Myanmar again.

Thalun ('1629-1648), Anaukpetlun's successors, restored the principals of the ancient pagan empire, but focused his effort on earning merits and paying little consideration to the south. Emboldened by the French in India, Pegu eventually revolted against Ava and further weakened the state, which had fallen in 1752.

we-? D.G.E. Hall, Burma (Hutchinson University Library, 1960). "In the Journal of Burma Studies. Min-gyi-nyo, the Shan invasions of Ava (1524-27) and the beginnings of the expansion war in Toungoo Burma: 1486-1539. Soa' s Bulletin of Burma Research 3. 2 Fall. The story of Burma from the early days until March 10, 1824, the beginning of the English conquest.

Europeans, Trade and the Union of Burma, c. 1540-1620. The first Toungoo empire grew in the 16th century. The biography of King Bayinnaung (r. 1551-1581), by U Thaw Kaung.

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