Toungoo

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About the Toungoo period / style in Burma. Toungoo is considered the golden age of Burma. DYNASTY (1510 The Mon began a revolt in Lower Burma in 1740 and established the restored Kingdom of Hanthawaddy. Hanthawaddy Army conquered Ava in 1752 and ended 266-year-old Toungoo family. Mingyinyo established the First Taungoo Dynaesty (1486-1599) in Taungoo, high up on the Sittang River just South of Ava, towards the end of the Ava Dynaesty in 1510.

Following the Shan invaders' 1527 capture of Ava, many people from Burma emigrated to Taungoo, which became a new centre of Burma's domination. Mohnyin Shan tribes in the north of Burma were captured by the family. Mingyinyo's king Tabinshwehti's boy united most of Burma, consolidated his might and pushed south, overrun the Irrawaddy Delta and destroyed the Mon capitol Bago (Pegu).

Tabinshwehti was coronated in 1544 in the old capitol Bagan as head of all Burma. The Taungoo dynasties retreated from the south of Myanmar and established a second ruling family in Ava, the Nyaungyan or Restored Taungoo dynasties (1597-1752). Bayinnaung's grandchild, Anaukpetlun (1605-1628), united Myanmar again in 1613 and vanquished the portugese efforts to take over Myanmar, but the kingdom slowly collapsed.

Mahadammayaza lived in the Taungoo family for another hundred and a half centuries, until his passing in 1752. Bayinnaung went against the Shan chieftains who invaded the old Myanmar city Ava. It was recorded the following year. Bayinnaung was able to assault his most mighty foe, Siam, by placing the Shans under Myanmar's sovereignty.

Bayinnaung in 1563 took as an excuse for the conflict the Siameses' rejection to recognize his supremacy. In the following year he conquered the Thai capitol Ayutthaya and took the Thai king couple hostage to Myanmar. Ayutthaya was not taken prisoner until August 1569 because the Siameses fiercely resisted.

Myanmar's new vassals were put on the crown and thousand Siames es were enslaved in Myanmar. Myanmar ruled Siam for more than 15 years; they were driven out by a liberating struggle under the leadership of a Thai princ. However, his battles pushed Myanmar to the limit of its natural resource, and both Manipur and Ayutthaya, who were under Myanmar rule for 15 years, soon became self-sufficient again.

In other parts of the empire, his sons Nanda Bayin and his followers were compelled to suppress uprisings, and Arakan was never beaten. Nanda. When Nanda Bayin came to the crown, he was facing a revolt by his uncles the vice-king of Ava, whom he conquered three years later.

1584 Nanda Bayin invaded Siam, who was a minion of his fathers to subdue the Thai patriots Naresuan. In 1593 the Siames es went on the offensives and took Tavoy and Tenasserim. The problems of Nanda Bayin were exacerbated when another group of his father's subdued people rose up in the south of Myanmar and asked the Siames es to invade Martaban and Moulmein on the Salween River.

1595 Nanda Bayin had to withdraw to Pegu and protect the town from Siam. They rebelled in 1599 against Nanda Bayin's brethren, the vice-kings of Toungoo, Prome and Ava, and after they had invited the Kings of Arakan to join the battle, they sieged Pegu, captured Nanda Bayin and cut up the last remains of Bayinnaung's state.

The rule of Nanda Bayin had been a succession of disasters, but this was less due to a shortage of effort and commitment on his part than to his father's exaggerated ambitions, who had established too great an empire to rule. The last of the Taungoo dynasties was Binnya Dala (reigned 1747-57).

It reigned from Pegu in the south of Myanmar, whose sovereignty from the north of Myanmar was briefly restored between 1740 and 1757. Binnya Dala followed Smim Htaw Buddhaketi in 1747, who seven years after the triumphant uprising against the Myanmarns had been appointed Mon Emperor in the new capitol Pegu.

Mr Binnya Dala, who was the head of his forerunner and a more able soldier, carried out many attacks in the north of Myanmar, going beyond the Ava. He set up a large force in 1751 for the North Burma invasion and conquered Ava in April 1752. Then two years later he executes the last of the Toungoo family.

Finally Binnya Dala was dismissed by Alaungpaya, the creator of the Myanmarn Alaungpaya family, who took Pegu in 1757. The New York Times, Washington Post, Los Angeles Times, Times of London, Lonely Planet Guides, The Irrawaddy, Myanmar Travel Information Compton's Encyclopedia, The Guardian, National Geographic, Myanmar Travel Information, The New Yorker, Time, Newsweek, Reuters, AP, AFP, Wall Street Journal, The Atlantic Monthly, The Economist, Global Viewpoint (Christian Science Monitor), Foreign Policy, Burmallibrary, United States.

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