sspan class="mw-headline" id="History">History
The Topeka (;Kansa: Tó Pee cow) is the capitol of the US state of Kansas and the headquarters of Shawnee County. It is located on the Kansas River in the heart of Shawnee County, northeastern Kansas, CAC. At the time of the 2010 inventory the town had 127,473 inhabitants.
11 ] The Topeka Metropolitan Statistical Area, which comprises Shawnee, Jackson, Jefferson, Osage and Lake Wabaun districts, had a total of 233,870 inhabitants in the 2010 Topeka Metropolitan Statistical Area survey. Topeka is a Kansa-Osage phrase that means "place where we digged potatoes" or "a good place to ditch potatoes". Topeka was first mentioned as a place name in 1826 as the Kansa name for today's Kansas River.
Topeka's founder selected the name in 1855 because it was "novel, indigenous and sonorous". "14 ] The mixed-blood Canaanite Joseph James, known as Jojim, is said to have suggested the name Topeka. Built in 1854, the town was one of the Free State cities established by eastern antislaves immediately after the enactment of the Kansas-Nebraska Law.
Topeka was recognized as a town in 1857. Topeka's Brown vs. Board of Education case, which overthrew Plessy vs. Ferguson and ruled race separation in state-run colleges illegal, is well known in the town. Three U.S. Navy vessels were designated after the town of USS Topeka.
The Great Plains of North America have been populated by Indians for many thousands of years. The kingdom of France purchased large parts of North America from the sixteenth to eighteenth centuries. By 1803, most of the country was purchased for Kansas by the United States of France as part of the 828,000 sq km Louisiana purchase for 2.83 pence per acres.
Approximately 97 kilometers west of Kansas City, Missouri, three half Kansas Indians marrying the French-Canadian Pappan brethren set up a shipping company that enabled travellers to traverse the Kansas Valley along today's Topeka River. Travellers in the 1940s and up to the 1950s could find a reliable way across the stream, but little else was in the area.
During the early 1850s, Oregon Trail trading was complemented by trading on a new army route from Fort Leavenworth via Topeka to the recently formed Fort Riley. 1854, after finishing the first cubicle, nine men founded the community Topeka. Among them was also Cyrus K. Holliday, an "ideas man" who was to become Topeka's major and founding father of Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railroad.
Soon afterwards steamships docked at the Topeka landings on a regular basis, dumped flesh, wood and meal and returned east with potatos, sweetcorn and wheat. At the end of the 1860' Topeka became a trading centre offering many amenities of the viktorian age. In 1861, after a ten-year period of abolition and slave fighting nicknamed Bleeding Kansas, Kansas became the Union's thirty-fourth state.
It was Topeka who was eventually elected to be the country's principal city, with Dr. Charles Robinson as the first to govern. Kansas State Kapitol began in 1866. After 37 years, the Kapitol, first the eastern and then the western wings, and eventually the Kansas main structure was built of Kansas lime stone.
A palisade fortress, later called Simple Fortress, was constructed at the crossroads of Kansas Avenues and Kansas St. in the autumn of 1864 to defend Topeka should the federal armed force in Missouri choose to invade it. Civil servants first used the State Capital in 1869 and departed from Constitution Hall, now 427-429 S. Kansas Avenue.
In addition to being used as Kansas State House from 1863 to 1869, Constitution Hall is the place where 1855 colonists gathered to fight servitude to draft the first of four state constitution, making it the Free State Capitol. "The National Park Service recognises Constitution Hall - Topeka as the home of the Lane Trail to Freedom on the Underground Railroad, the main slaves refuge and free highway.
The Lincoln College, now Washburn University, was founded in Topeka in 1865 by a statute of the State of Kansas and the General Association of Congregational Ministers and Churches of Kansas. From Topeka in 1869, the railroad began to move west, where in 1878 general agencies and machinery workshops of Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railroad were founded.
Topeka experienced a booming phase in the 1880' s which ended with a catastrophe. Topeka, however, doubling its size during the time, survived the depressions of the 1890s. No Topeka was omitted. A separate elementary denomination represented in the historical Brown v. Board of Education ruling by the Brown Foundation, which worked with the Kansas Congressional mission in the early 90s, Monroe Elementary is now Brown v.
After Brown, Topeka also had to struggle with the weight of raceism. Recent complaints tried without success to compel sub-urban schools that call the town to take part in racist assimilation with the inner-town area. A group of individuals emerged in the latter part of the eighties, who called themselves the Task Forces to Overcome Racism in Topeka, to tackle the issue in a better organised way.
Topeka was hit by an F5 graded torado on 8 June 1966 according to the Fujita scales. There is a locally based Indian myth that this hill should have protected the town from the tornados if it remained intact. It was a big event that hit the inner cities and Washburn University.
The Topeka twister is still considered one of the most expensive in its history, taking into account price increases. It is home to a National Weather Service Forecast Office serving 23 districts in Northern Kansas, Northeastern Kansas and East-Central Kansas. Recovering from the 1966 cyclone, Topeka recorded continued strong momentum.
1974 Forbes Air Force base shut down and more than 10,000 troops abandoned Topeka, affecting the city's pattern of expansion for years to come. In the 1980' the Topeka residents approved the construction of a new airfield and congress centre and a modification of the municipal administration. Topeka became a motorsport metropolis with the opening of Heartland Park Topeka in 1989.
Topeka Performing Arts Center was opened in 1991. During the early 90s, the town saw growing commercial activity with Reser's Fine Foods in Topeka and extensions for Santa Fe and Hill's Pet Nutrition. The electorate also sanctioned a quarter-cent sale levy on a new law enforcement center and in 1996 sanctioned an extension of the sale levy on the East Topeka Interchange linking the Oakland Expressway, K-4, I-70 and Kansas Turnpike.
Throughout the 90s, constituents of the Shawnee county authorized fiscal action to develop the Topeka and the Shawnee Public Library. Kansas Legislature and the Governor also passed laws to substitute the vast majority of land taxes supported by Washburn University for a nationwide VAT. During 2000, residents again cast their votes for the extension of the quarter-cent retail income taxes, this year for the business growth of Topeka and shawnee counties.
The Shawnee County residents in August 2004 approved the abolition of the 2000-cent sale levy and its replacement by a 12-year half-cent sale levy for commercial redevelopment, road and bridge use. It is planned to further rehabilitate the areas along the Kansas River, which flows through Topeka from westward to eastward.
Downtown Topeka has seen the emergence of apartments and condominiums in the Kansas Valley Corridor through the city centre, as well as facade and street enhancements. Across the other side of the Danube, the historic north of Topeka has profited from a large street scene scheme and the refurbished Great Overland Station, considered the best example of classical railway architectural in Kansas.
Great Overland Station is located directly opposite the State Capitol, which is currently being renovated for eight years at a cost of 283 million dollars. There was a distributed populace in the town, with 24. Mean life in the town was 36 years. There were 47 sexes in the town. By the 2000 referendum, 122,377 persons, 52,190 homes and 30,687 homes were living in the town.
There was a total of 2,185 inhabitants. Breed composition of the town was 78. 9 percent of the populace. There is a distributed populace in the town, with 24. From 2000, the average wage for a house in the town was $35,928, and the average wage for a single member of the community was $45,803.
Per capita revenue for the town was $19,555. 4 per cent of the populace were below the breadline, 16 per cent below. More than one in ten of the labour force (11.5%) is employed in retailing, with Wal-Mart and Dillons accounting for the largest part. In May 2012, Jostens heralded a plan to relocate manufacturing from Topeka to Clarksville, Tennessee, with approximately 372 employees.
The Southwest Publishing & Mailing Corporation, a smaller company, is headquartered in Topeka. Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Kansas is the biggest insurer with around 1,800 people. Approximately one in ten of the labour force is engaged in government employment (9.9%). Further important enterprises with seat in Topeka are:
The Topeka is sometimes called the home of the Pentecostal craft because it was the site of the Bethel Bible College of Charles Fox Parham, where for the first time ever George L. was invoked as proof of a religious event called the Holy Spirit's 1901aptism. First Presbyterian Church in Topeka is one of the few sanctuaries in the USA whose shrine is fully Tiffany painted (another is St. Luke's United Methodist in Dubuque, Iowa).
It has a large Latin Catholics and the town hosts nine Latin Catholics communities, five of which have primary schooling. The Cathedral of Grace of the Episcopal Diocese of Kansas is a great Gothic revival building in the town. To Topeka also has a pretension in the prehistory of the Baha'i faith in Kansas.
The town not only has the oldest contiguous Baha'i fellowship in Kansas (from 1906), but this fellowship also has origins in the first Baha'i fellowship in Kansas, Enterprise, Kansas, in 1897. The Topeka is home to the Westboro Baptist Church, a hateful group according to the Southern Poverty Law Center.
" Sometimes they have successfully filed complaints against the town of Topeka. The Heartland Park Topeka, a large street and street race track just South of town. The Reinisch Rose Garden and the Doran Rock Garden, both parts of the Gage Park. The Topeka Zoological Garden is renowned as the home of the first captive white-tailed chick and the nation's first covered rainforest wildlife sanctuary.
The Potwin neighborhood, initially its own city, Potwin has now been encircled by the city of Topeka, although it still has its own burgomaster and its own tradition, as well as the Easter brunches and the July 4th parade. The Kansas Judicial Center, where both the Supreme Court and the Court of Appeals for the State are located. The Cedar Crest, the Kansas Governor's Mansion on a hill with views of the vast MacLennan Park.
The Great Overland Station, home of the Kansas Hall of Fame. Since 1951 C W Porubskys Deli & Tavern's Chilli "has been a bait to northern Topeka". 44 ] There are also other extraordinary building in Topeka much as Bobo's Drive In, which includes a autographed position by Guy Fieri (autographed on the Food Network Hitshow, Diners, Drive-Ins and Dives on 10.04.07), the Blind Tiger Brewery and the building, as excavation as different anesthetic and servant building.
Topeka Symphony Orchestra was established in 1957. The Topeka Civic Theatre and the North Topeka Arts District (NOTO) are the most important places where Topeka has a wide range of visual arts. The Topeka is home to a dailiesheet, the Topeka Capital Journal, and a bi-weekly paper, The Topeka Metro News. In fact, both papers were even updated for the on-line version (The Topeka Metro News - on-line edition and CJOnline).
Topeka licenses the following radios: In addition, most Kansas City locations offer at least Topeka cover in degree B1. Lawrence KANU-FM (in the Kansas City market) also acts as Topeka's NPR member area. Following TV channels are licenced to Topeka: It is the city manager's responsibility to the Topeka City Council.
It is composed of the Mayor and nine members chosen from different areas of the town. Members of the Municipal Assembly elect from among their number the Deputy Mayor, who presides over the General Committee and replaces Topeka on formal occasions when the Mayor is not available. Though Topeka had criminality issues in the 90s, the city's criminality rate has been improving over the past ten years.
It is now breaching trend when it comes to committing violence so much that it has attracted the interest of Michigan State University research. Most towns with more than 100,000 inhabitants have seen an rise in violence since 2000. Topeka's criminality rate is dropping. Scientists value good communications between prosecuting authorities, knowledgeable information channels and a high level of social commitment to Topeka's business development.
The Topeka was one of four towns, along with Chicago, Tampa and El Monte, California, that were investigated. The Topeka project is run by four government education areas, among them: In Topeka there are also several privately run and partly owned colleges such as Topeka Collegiate and Cair Paravel Latinschule. The Hayden High is also a Catholics high-school in Topeka, as is Cornerstone Family Schools, a non-denominational christian organisation offering youth and seniors high-school athletic for home school families in northeastern Kansas.
Throughout the country, Topeka has several college institutes, university departments, technical college departments and branches of other university departments. The Topeka has two large hospital complexes, Stormont-Vail and St. Francis Hospital. They are both located in the centre of Topeka. The Colmery-O'Neil VA Medical Clinic is also located in Topeka. The I-70, I-470 and I-335 all pass through the town of Topeka.
The I-335 is part of the Kansas Turnpike, where it runs through Topeka. One of the most important streets in the town is the NW/SW Topeka Blvd. Kansas Ave. The Topeka Regional Airfield (FOE), formerly known as Forbes Field, is located in the southern part of Topeka in Pauline, Kansas. The Manhattan Regional airport (MHK) in Manhattan, Kansas is the nearest passenger hub; Kansas International KCI in Kansas is the nearest megaport.
The Philip Billard Municipal Airport (TOP) is Topeka's Oakland area. Amtrak public train services stop at Topeka Station. Services are provided by the Chicago-to-Los Angeles Southwest Chief in the early mornings, making stopovers in Lawrence and Kansas City. Kansas Department of Transportation has asked Amtrak to provide extra services, such as day services to Oklahoma City.
Public transport is provided by the Topeka Metropolitan Transport Authority. Topeka to Google, Kansas. Archives from the orginal on 07.08.2011. Skip up to: a p d p d o f "GNIS Detail - Topeka". geonames.usgs.gov. Skip up ^ "Mayor - City of Topeka". www.topeka.org.
Skip up to: a for " Topeka City - City Manager's Office". Skip up to: a p l "US Gazetteer file 2010". Archives from the originals on 14.07.2012. Hop up to: a to " American FactFinder ". Skip up to: a for " Population and housing unit estimates".
Skip to top of the page with United States Postal Service (2012). Hop up "Topeka". Skip ar, Springen Sie nach oben </ i> ; 2010 City Population and Housing Occupancy Status". Archives from the originals on 21 July 2011. Hop up high ^ "City of Topeka, Shawnee County Kansas (KS) 66603". www.livingplaces.com. Skip up high ^ "Topeka's Roots: the Prairie Potato - Barbara Burgess". www.barbburgess.com.
Hop up ^ King, Dick (2005) "Topeka", deeply embedded in spits. November 20, 2004, filed at Wayback Machine, June 27, 2004. Skip to top ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Filmed from the orginal (PDF) on 29.05.2010. Spring high ^ "Granddaught of the white feather - Kansapedia - Kansas Historical Society". www.kshs.org. Leap en Sie hoch ^ Maj Brian A. Riniker, "How United States Army Leaders at Fort Leavenworth Performed Peacekeeping Operations in Territorial Kansas" (thèse of the United States Army Command and Staff College, Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, États-Unis).
Leap up ^ James L. King, ed., Shawnee County ecclesiastical story, Kansas, and representative citizens (Chicago: Richmond & Arnold Publishers, 1905), on-line at http://history.rays-place.com/ks/sh-church. htm . Skip en Sie hoch zu : abc " Kansas - Race et origine hispanique pour certaines villes et autres lieux : Archives from the orginal on 06.08.2012.
Skip up ^ Hayden History Archived 2006-06-18 at the Wayback Machine. Hop up ^ Hollingsworth, Barbara (April 1, 2010). <font color="#ffff00">All things Google, Topeka <font color="#ffff00">archives 2011-06-06-06 at the Wayback Machine.... Topeka Capital Journal. Hop up Siegler, MG. We' re not in Kansas anymore. Now, it's us - Google, Kansas. Skip up ^ "Another kind of corporate name".
Google, Inc. Skip up ^ The official Google blog. Skip up ^ Tom Van Riper (2007-07-20). The Arbor Day Foundation. Skip up to: a business team, National Weather Service Corporate Image Web. Skip up ^ "Station name: K''S TOPEKA MUNI AP''. Skip up ^ "WMO climate standards for TOPEKA/MUNICIPAL ARPT KS 1961-1990".
Skip up ^ "Monthly averages for Topeka, KS". Skip up to "U.S. Decennial Census." Hop up to: a d e f "Biggest employers". Topeka Chamber of Commerce. Hop up to: a p d e p e f "American FactFinder". Leap up ^ bar (2013).
Nationalpark Service. Hop up Westboro Baptist Church. Spring up^ Stern, Jane and Michael (1999). Hop up star, Michael. Spring up^ Stern, Jane and Michael (February 2008). "LITTLE CHILILI IN KANSAS." Hop up to: a to Niccum, Jon. Hop up^ Saladino, Emily (March 6, 2014).
Skip up ^ "AMQ AM Radio Database Query". Archives from the orginal on 25.08.2009. Skip up to: a to " Station Information Profile". Skip up ^ "FMQ FM Radio database query". Archives from the orginal on 25.08.2009. Skip up ^ "TVQ TV database query". Archives from the orginal on 08.05.2009.
Skip up ^ "Archived copy". Archives from the originals on 13.06.2013. Hop up ^ Elliott, Kevin (2009-01-22). Four percent in Topeka." Archives from the orginal on 02.02.2010. Skip up to: a by Hrenchir, Tim (2011-10-11). "Town is repealing regulation to ban home battery." Topeka Capitol Journal. Skip up ^ Capitol, The (2011-10-12).
"that Taylor's going to re-trace the cases in the city." Hop up ^ Fry, Steve (2011-10-12). Archives from the originals. Skip up ^ "Amtrak - Inside Amtrak - News & Media - News Releases - News Releases - Latest News Releases". Hop up, Greyhound. www.greyhound.com. Wikivoyage has a guidebook for Topeka.