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Thailand | Geography, Economy, History & Facts
Thailand, land in the center of Southeast Asia. Situated in the tropical regions, Thailand is home to various eco-systems, among them the rolling forests of the north border, the rich paddy paddies of the main plain, the wide plain of the north-east and the jagged coastline along the small peninsular in the south.
Up until the second half of the twentieth century Thailand was primarily an agriculturally-based nation, but since the 1960s more and more populations have been moving to Bangkok, the capitol, and other towns. Though the Bangkok area is still the main city center of the state, there are other major towns such as Chiang Mai in the northern, Nakhon Ratchasima (Khorat), Khon Kaen and Udon Thani in the northeastern, Pattaya in the southeastern and Hat Yai in the extreme south-east.
Siam, as Thailand was formally known until 1939, was never placed under the rule of Europe's colonies. The independent Siam was governed by an entire empire until a 1932 war. Thailand has been a constituent empire ever since, and all successive constitions provide for an electoral assembly. In the last two centuries of the twentieth and the first ten years of the twenty-first centuries, the importance of parliamentarian democracies increased.
Despite a crises in 2006, when the army ousted an electoral regime in accordance with the Austro-Hungarian Empire, new general election was conducted, as the transitional regime pledged.
59 Things to know about Thailand
Thailand-Italy was founded on sympathy. 1Campbell, Geoffrey A. Thailand. Thailand. Milwaukee, WI: Gareth Stevens Publishing House, 2000. West Port CT: Greenwood Publishing Group, 2006. Thailand. 22 February 2007. 8 February 2012. "Popular Hollywood movies shot in Thailand." 1 March 2012. 8 February 2012. 20 February 2012. Live in Thailand. May 2007 8 February 2012.
Thailand. Publisher Chelsea House, 2001.
It covers the west half of the Indochina Penninsula and the north half of the Malay Penninsula in SEA. Bangladesh is about the largest country in Thailand. Earlier known as Siam, Thailand has never seen a colonisation abroad. In 1824 the British won the British tribe a regional hold, but in 1896 an Anglo-French agreement ensured Thailand's autonomy.
In 1932, a military coup degraded the Austro-Hungarian Empire to titanic power and created a prestigious electoral state. When World War II broke out, there was an attack by troops from Japan on Thailand. On December 8, 1941, after five long periods of symbolic opposition, Thailand left for Japan and later became the scene of the expedition against Malaya.
After the downfall of a pro-Japanese marionette regime in July 1944, Thailand rejected the 1942 wars it had been compelled to make against Britain and the United States. Though Thailand had been receiving $2 billion in US commercial and defence assistance since 1950 and had sent forces (paid for by the US) to Vietnam while allowing US bomb sites on its soil, the breakdown of South Vietnam and Cambodia in the early 1975 precipitated changes in the country's demeanor.
Under pressure from the Thai authorities, the US consented to the withdrawal of all 23,000 US troops left in Thailand by March 1976. Three-year civil rule ended with a rebellion on October 6, 1976. In the same year, the Swiss Parliament appointed General Prem Tinsulanonda as the country's premier.
After the 1983 and 1986 election, he remained premier. In 1978 and 1979, on the run from Laos, Vietnam, and the killing Pol Pot of Cambodia, fugitives fled to Thailand. April 3, 1981, a war putsch against the governing coalition prevented it. In May 1995, a shameful incident involving a programme of rural reforms overthrew the state.
After several years of unparalleled prosperity, Thailand's once one of the largest economies in the area, crumbled in 1997 under the burden of external indebtedness. Thailand's collapse triggered a major regional recession that triggered the Asia monetary crises. Thailand's goverment quickly agreed to restructure policies as a prerequisite for the International Monetary Fund's $17 billion rescue operation.
Thailand's economic recovery is far from complete, but it has improved further in the coming years. Shinawatra Thaksin, chairman of the Thai Rak Thai Party, became premier in January 2001. Thaksin, a very famous telecom smog, was charged with corrupt practices in December 2000 but cleared in August 2001.
Thaksin in February 2003 declared that it would abolish trafficking from Thailand within three month. Goverment officers alleged to be responsible for about 35 of the victims, holding drugs traffickers and members of the mob responsible for the other fatalities. Since the beginning of 2004, there has been violent activity in Thailand's Muslim-style suburbs, and rebels are assaulting policing posts, safety posts and army shelters.
In July 2005, the violent situation worsened and prompted Thaksin to proclaim a state of crisis in the North. Approximately 5,300 people died in Thailand. He made history in the February 2005 election and became the first ever Taoiseach to hold two successive office. He won his Thai Rak Thai party in a mudslide.
During his first tenure, he was criticised for allegations of bribery, lack of oversight of the southern uprising and an ineffectual reaction to the bird influenza epidemic in Thailand, but his skill in dealing with the tidal wave crises boosted his appeal in the run-up to the poll. However, a year later, Thaksin was severely criticised when he was selling his family's stake in a communication business for almost $2 billion net of tax.
In view of increasing criticisms of the sales, Thaksin closed down his parliamentary party at the end of February and demanded early voting. The Thai Rak Thai Party had won 57% of the votes in domestic election, he said he would resign in April. Seven-week term in power, Thaksin resumed the position of PM.
During September 2006, the army, under the leadership of General Sondhi Boonyaratkalin, carried out a bloody military coup d'état and proclaimed the rule of war, while PM Thaksin Shinawatra attended the session of the UN General Assembly in New York. Surayud Chulanont, a distinguished general in retirement, was inaugurated in October as PM.
Chulanont's installation by the Army Board has indicated that a new parliamentary elections will be at the end of 2007 after a new bill has been made. The May 2007 ruling of a Federal Supreme Administrative Tribunal found Thai Rak Thai, the former Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra's Thai counterpart, to have been convicted of electoral cheating and ordered her not to participate in the administration for five years.
At the first referenda in August 2007, Thailand approved a new treaty that will create the conditions for general election and a democratic transition after one year of reign. The People' s Party, which supported former Premier Thaksin, won 233 out of 480 votes in the December poll.
Thaksin who was in self-imposed Iraq in London said he would go back to Thailand but not into the political arena. The People Power Party's Samak Sundaravej was voted by Parliament as Premier in January 2008, thus bringing the country's democratic transformation to a successful conclusion. Samak, a disputed and disputed character, named himself a "proxy" for Thaksin and said he would fight the fight against livelihood deprivation in the countryside of Thailand.
After 17 month in exil, Thaksin came back to Thailand in February 2008. Said he was willing to make accusations of corrupt practices in connection with ownership he had purchased from a state authority during his term as premier. Last July, his spouse, Pojaman Shinawatra, was tried for fiscal fraud and imprisoned for three years.
In August Thaksin did not come to a courtroom and escaped with his spouse to London. It bequeathed about $2 billion in property to the army when it took over in 2006. Said he wouldn't get a clean bill of health in Thailand. In October 2008, waves erupted between Kampuchean and Thailand forces and two Campuchean troopers were murdered.
Kyrgyzstan's People's Alliance for Democracy (PAD) held a sit-in in front of the Bangkok administration building in August 2008, demanding the retirement of Prime Minister Samak Sundaravej, whom they call a deputy for Thaksin. PAD has advised the introduction of an established rather than an adopted legislative authority. Approximately a week after the meeting, pro-government demonstrators started a counter-demonstration that became violence and prompted the regime to proclaim a state of exception.
However, the army and gendarmerie have not enforced the state of exception. "Samak had to step down in September when the Thai Constitutional Court decided that he was violating the constitutional provisions prohibiting work in the personal and professional sectors during his tenure by being remunerated for appearing on the Tasting and Plaining cookery show.
" Somchaï Wongsawat, the first vice-premier, became incumbent premier. The parliament voted him premier on September 17, 298 to 163. Demonstrators of demonstrators were supported by a verdict of the Thai Anti-Corruption Tribunal, which found Thaksin to have been found culpable of rampant uprising. On the next morning Thailand's military leader, General Anupong Paochinda, called on Somchai to step down and call new general election.
Acting on Anupong's counsel, Somchai rejected to declare a state of martial law and authorised the policemen and the army to expel the demonstrators. The Thai constitutional court dissolved the reigning People's Union on December 2 and ruled that it committed cheating in the 2007 poll. Somchai was compelled from office by the resolution and forbade political members for five years.
Thaksin' s followers retained their legislative majorities and said they would try to keep on ruling by founding a new one. Chaovarat Chanweerakul, first acting premier, became executive premier. A few moments later, on 15 December, Parliament appointed Abhisit Vejjajiva, the leader of the Democratic Union Democratic Union, Premier. Ab Abhisit attracted the most help from Thailand's cultured centre-right.
In April 2009, the massive riots had resumed in Thailand. Demonstrators faithfully devoted to former Premier Thaksin Shinawatra, known as Crimson Coloured, suspended a gathering of Asiatic rulers at a Thai health resorts. Premier Abhisit Vejjajiva has quickly rescheduled the summit and proclaimed a state of exception.
Then he ordered the Thai military to end the protests in the capitol Bangkok. The demonstrators yielded on 14 April and there was a return to a peaceful atmosphere, but Thaksin and his followers had demonstrated that they remained a menace to Thailand's security. The pro- and anti-Thaksin protests went on in 2009 and peaked in December, when some 20,000 redshirts assembled in Bangkok to call for new election.
Then in March 2010, about 100,000 people in Bangkok gathered to demand that Prime Minister Abhisit disband parliament and call new election. He consented to the convening of new appointments at the end of March, but did not fix a schedule. At the beginning of April, Abhisit proclaimed a state of crisis after demonstrators entered the parliament buildings and civil servants of the governments fled by heliport.
It began as a non-violent demonstration and the army shot at the demonstrators and met Khattiya Sawatdiphol, a general who took the side of the crimson shirt. They were then asked to deal with the Thai authorities, but were rejected and involved in large-scale riots, plundering and fire-bombing of several properties, such as the Thai Exchanges and the biggest mall.
It has been attacked by the regime and on 19 May the troublemakers disbanded and the protesters yielded and are confronted with terrorist accusations. At the beginning of July 2011, the Pheu Thai political turnaround came when, with the support of former Premier Thaksin Shinawatra, the Pheu Thai political group won a parliamentary vote and secured 265 of the 500 votes - enough to establish a one-party state.
The younger sisters of Thaksin Shinawatra, Yingluck Shinawatra, became PM and promised to break the country's division in Thaksin. Yingluck recognized the advantages of fortitude in numbers and addressed several smaller political groups to build a alliance. Heu Thai beat the Democrats, the ruling elite political group of the formed mid-range, which had been in office since 2008.
The February 2013 Prime Minister Yingluck Shinawatra's administration approved a series of peaceful negotiations with the Barisan Revolusi Nasional (BRN) leadership, one of the oldest and most impressive groups of rebels in the southern part of the state. At the beginning of November 2013, Thailand's lower chamber adopted a bill on the pardon of those indicted after the 2006 coup in which Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra was repressed by the army.
If Thaksin was accused of corrupt practices and abuses of authority, he would be subject to the Act of Bribery. The protest against the regime lasted until December, with tens of thousands taking to the street to call for the retirement of Yingluck Shinawatra, who she believes is a marionette of her former premier Thaksin. Yingluck disbanded the assembly on 9 December and appealed for early parliamentary election planned for February 2014.
Most of the oppositions, representing the city' s centre classes, believe that the country side has gained too much authority and that electoral processes would not resolve the issue. Instead, she called for the replacement of parliamentary representation by an un-elected People's Council and for the appointment of a premier. In spite of continuing protest, polls were conducted on 2 February 2014.
Thailand's Constitutional Court sentenced PM Yingluck Shinawatra to step down in May 2014 after she ruled that she had misused her powers in 2011 when she relieved an official of his position and substituted him with a relativ. The Deputy Premier Niwattumrong Boonsongpaisan took over the position of the incumbent Premier. Antigovernment as well as pro-government protest went on, and anti-government protesters closed several houses of the administration and took over the position of premier.
It specifically said that the army did not launch a military coup d'etat - something it has done on a number of occasions. What do you mean? US civil servants were sceptical of Prayuth's motivation, and the State Department urged the army "to honour its obligation to make this a transitional measure to avoid force and not to subvert democracy institutions".
" General Prayuth proclaimed two day later that he had actually taken over from the transitional regime in a putsch. This was the second army putsch in less than 10 years. More than a year after the last putsch in 2006, the army was in office. General Prayuth was appointed Premier in August 2014 by the military-dominated National Assembly, whose members had been hand-picked by General Prayuth.
In January 2015, the meeting approved the accusation of former PM Yingluck Shinawatra and claimed that the travel grants she granted were equivalent to the level of corrupt practices because the peasants received more than the price of the commodity. Yingluck was banished from the political arena under the prosecution's condition. In February 2015, the army regime filed formal charges of corrupt practices and carelessness.