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sspan class="mw-headline" id="History">History
During the Classical period, part of the Tehran region was conquered by Rhages, an important medieval town. Today's heritage is preserved as an area of the metropolis of Tehran. Teheran has an Imam Khomeini internationally served airports, a Mehrabad nationally served airports, a main train terminal, Tehran's metro system, a fast rail system for buses, a trolleybus service and a large motorway area.
Teheran is in the historic media area ( old Persian: ??? M?da) in the northwest of Iran. During the Medieval Empire, part of the Tehran territories of today was a outskirts of the important medieval Rhagian town ("Old Persian": ??? Rag?). Today Rhages' legacy, Ray, is a town at the south end of Tehran that has been incorporated into the Greater Tehran Metropole area.
In 1035 and 1042 the Oghuz Turks discreetly penetrated Rhagen, but the town was restored under the Seljuk and Khwarezmian rule. The Mongolians invade Rhagos in the thirteenth centuries, destroying the ancient capital and massacring many of its people. Many of the city's residents fled to Tehran after the invasion.
Ruy González de Clavijo, the Spanish embassador to Castile, travelled to Tehran in July 1404 to visit Samarkand, the home of the Turko-Mongolian conquistador Timur, who governed Iran at the by then. Tehran was described in his journal as an undeveloped area. Following 50 years of Qajar domination, the town still had little more than 80,000 people.
Until the 1870' Tehran was made up of a bricked-down citadel, a covered basar and the three major districts of Udlajan, Chale-Meydan and Sangelaj, where the largest part of the population lived. In 1906, increasing public consciousness of civic liberties led to the constitutional revolution and Iran's first constitutional treaty. In 1907, on June 2, 1907, Congress adopted a Act on Baladie, a statute governing government at the place of residence, which provides a comprehensive overview of topics such as the position of councillors in the town, the qualification of members, the electoral procedure and the conditions for the right to cast one's ballot.
This followed the conquest of the town by the forces of Ali-Qoli Khan (Sardar Asad II) and Mohammad Vali Khan (Sepahsalar and Tonekaboni) on 13 July 1909. Between the 1920s and 30s, under the reign of Reza Shah, the capital was largely reconstructed from the ground up. This was followed by the gradual dismantling of several old structures, among them parts of Golestan Palace, Tekye Dowlat and Tupkhane Square, which were substituted by contemporary structures inspired by classic Islamic design, in particular the National Bank of Iran National Bank, Police Headquarters, Telegraph Office and Military Academy.
Consequently, the town' s vernacular structure was substituted by cross-shaped roads that crossed and formed large traffic circles in large squares such as the Basar. USSR and Britain invaded the town during the Second World War. The Tehran Conference took place in 1943 in Tehran, with the participation of US President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Prime Minister Joseph Stalin of the Russian Federation and Prime Minister Winston Churchill of the United Kingdom.
In 1948, the founding of the Iranian Planned Organisation led to the first socio-economic deployment map, which ran from 1949 to 1955. Not only could these blueprints not curb Tehran's uneven rate of expansion, but the 1962 country reform, which Reza Shah's progenitor and follower Mohammad Reza Shah called the White Revolution, further intensified Tehran's messy state.
Tehran's most emblematic symbol, the Azadi Tower, was commissioned by the Shah and erected in 1971. The tower, formerly known as the Shahyad Tower, was erected to commemorate the 2,500th anniversary of the founding of the Imperial State of Iran. Tehran was the destination of recurrent scud rocket raids and aerial raids during the Iran-Iraq War of 1980-1988.
Milad Tower, 435 meters high and part of the planned developments in pre-revolutionary Iran, was finished in 2007 and has become a symbol of Tehran. Tehran is subdivided into 22 neighbourhoods, each with its own administration centre. Twenty of the 22 municipalities are in the Central District of Tehran County, while municipalities 1 and 20 are in Shemiranat and Ray respectively.
Even though separated in administrative terms, the towns of Ray and Shemiran are often regarded as part of the Greater Thran. Tehran is the most prosperous part of the city, comprising various parts such as Zaferanie, Jordan, Elahie, Pasdaran, Kamranie, Ajodanie, Farmanie, Darrous, Qeytarie and Qarb Town. 28 ] While the centre of the town accommodates ministeries and head offices, the trading centres are further northerly.
Teheran is characterised by a cool semi-arid climatic (Köppen climatic classification: BSk) with continuous climatic properties and a Mediterranean climatic rainfall habit. Tehran's microclimate is largely determined by its geographical position, with the vast Alborz hills in the northern part and the middle part of the Sahara region in the southerly. As the town is large and the altitude difference between the different parts of the town is clear, the northern hills often have colder temperatures than the shallow northern part of Tehran.
Valiasr Street, 3 km long, leads from Tehran train terminal at 1,117 metres above the ground in the southern part of the town to Tajrischer Platz around 1712. 30 ] At the end of Velenjak in the north of Tehran, however, the altitude can even reach 2,000 metres (6,600 ft).
Since the beginning of the 21 st centuries, Tehran has recorded an rise in atmospheric moisture and rainfall. In all likelihood, this is due to reforestation schemes, which includes growing farms and lagoons. Tehran's north parts are even more luxuriant than its south parts. In recent years, a relocation project for the German capitol has been the subject of several discussions, mainly due to the regional environment problems.
Teheran is considered one of the most heavily contaminated towns in the whole wide range of the earth and is also close to two great faults. In addition, the authorities have established a "traffic zone" which covers the centre of the town during rush hour. Currently, one of the methods in use is the deployment of Pollution Indicator Boards throughout the entire municipality to track the actual levels of particles (PM10), nitrous oxide (NO2), atmospheric oxygen (O3), sulphur oxide (SO2) and CO.
Azeris of Iran are the city's second biggest ethnical group, accounting for about 20% to 1/4 of the entire populace, while Mazanderanis of Iran are the third biggest ethnical group, accounting for about 17% of the entire populace. Tehran's other ethnical groups are Kurds, Armenians, Georgians, Bakhtyaris, Talysh, Balochia, Assyrians, Arabs, Jews and Circassians. In the early 1980s, Tehran experienced a dramatic transformation in its ethnosocial structure.
Following the 1979 revolution and its aftermath in terms of politics, society and the economy, a number of Iranians, mostly Tehranians, abandoned Iran. When the Iran-Iraq war began (1980-1988), a second surge of residents flew from the town, especially during the Iran-Iraq war.
Since most of the great superpowers supported Iraq at that point in history, economical insulation gave many residents even more cause to abandon the town ( and the country). Tehran also attracted large numbers of immigrants from the western and south-western parts of the Iraqi border during the Great Patriotic War. 1. Uncertainty and the hostilities in neighbouring Afghanistan and Iraq led to an influx of million-dollar influxes of displaced persons into the region, with Tehran a draw for many jobseekers who later assisted the town in recovering from wounded by working for far less money than locals.
While many of these people are being sent back with UNHCR support, there are still large groups of Afghans and Iraqis in Tehran who are hesitant to go and take a gloomy view of the situations in their own states. Most of Tehran's inhabitants are official Shiite Muslims, who are also the state religions since the transformation of Safavid in the sixteenth centuary.
There are other religions in the town, which follow the Muslim and mystical traditions of Islam, various religions, Judaism, Zoroastrianism and the Bahá'í faith. Teheran is the economical centre of Iran. About 30% of Iranian civil servants and 45% of large industry enterprises are based in the capital, and almost half of these are working for the state.
Due to the government's complicated intergovernmental relationships, only a few overseas enterprises are operating in Tehran. However, before the 1979 revolution, many overseas enterprises were operating in Iran. Tehran's contemporary state-of-the-art industry includes the manufacture of cars, electronic and electronic appliances, weapons, textile, sugars, cement and chemicals. Pars Oils, Speedy and Behran are all located in Tehran.
Teheran has a large selection of retail centres and is home to over 60 contemporary retail centres. 54 ] The town has a number of business areas, among them those in Valiasr, Davudie and Zaferanie. Tehran's biggest old basars are the Great Bazaar and the Tajrian Bazaar. Tehran, as one of the most important travel destination in Iran, has a plethora of rich and varied culture to offer.
Tehran has several historical, arts and science galleries, among them the National Museum, the Malek Museum, the Cinema Museum at Ferdows Garden, the Abgineh Museum, the Museum of the Qasr Prison, the Carpet Museum, the Reverse Glass Painting Museum (Vitray Art) and the Safir Office Machines Museum. Tehran's Imperial Crown Jewels, one of the world's greatest jewellery collectibles, are also on show in Tehran's National Jewellery Museum.
Tehran has a number of famous street names, among them those of great nationalities: the Tehran people: Tehran has more than 200,000 cabs on the road every day with different kinds of cabs in the cities, according to it' s own press. Airfield cabs have higher costs per kilometre than normal greens and yellows in the town.
There have been busses in the town since the twenties. Tehran's transportation system comprises traditional busses, trolley busses and express busses (BRT). Some of the city's four main terminals are the South Terminal, the East Terminal, the West Terminal and the Nordcentral Beyhaghi Terminal. Teheran has a main rail terminal, which is connected around the clock with various towns in the state, as well as a Tehran-Europe rail line, which also operates.
Prospects for the Teheran underground began in the seventies with a feasability analysis and design. Teheran is approached by the Teheran Airlines from the main Khomeini and Mehrabad airfields. Mulrabad Airfield, an old Teheran West Point airfield that also serves as a bases for the army, is mainly used for internal and charters as well.
The Khomeini airport, 50 kilometers southern of the town, serves the most important destinations. Teheran is Iran's biggest and most important school. Altogether there are almost 50 large schools and polytechnics in the greater Tehran area. Tehran has accumulated a large number of higher schools since Dar il Fonun was founded by order of Amir Kabir in the middle of the 19th cent.
The Jordan Avenue in Tehran was one of the founders of the American College of Tehran, which was one of the first contemporary high school in the Middle East. Sharif University of Technology, University of Tehran and Tehran University of Medical Sciences are the most renowned of the large education establishments in Tehran.
Further the University of Teheran sind die Teheraner Kunstuniversität, die Allameh Tabatabaei University, die Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), die K. N. Toosi University of Technology, die Shahid Beheshti University (Melli University), die Kharazmi University, die Iran University of Science and Technology, die Iran University of Medical Sciences, die Islamische Azad University, Das International Institute of Earthquake Engineering and Technology
In Tehran there is also the biggest Iranian army college as well as several religion colleges and seminars. Tehran's oldest preserved historical buildings date back to the Qajar and Pahlavi periods. Although, if one looks at the area around the greater Tehran area, there are also Seljuk memorials preserved, in particular the Toqrol Tower in Ray.
The International Tower of Tehran is the highest dwelling of Iran. This is a 54-storey structure in the north of Yusef Abad area. During the Qajar rule, Tehran hosted the Tekye Dowlat King's Theatre, situated south-east of the Golestan Palace, where tradition and religion were watched.
Prior to the 1979 revolution, the Tehran Islands' main theatre had become the most renowned performance venue for well-known internationally acclaimed Middle Eastern performers and ensembles, with the Roudaki hall of Tehran, established as the country's theatre for operas and theater. Dedicated in October 1967, the room was given its name by the well-known Farsi writer Rudaki.
The Tehran Symphony Orchestra, the Tehran Opera Orchestra and the Iran National Ballet Society are located here. Tehran City Theatre, one of Iran's largest theatre ensembles with several venues, was opened in 1972. In Tehran the Fajr Theatre Festival and the Tehran Puppet Theatre Festival take place every year.
Most cinemas in today's Tehran are in the city centre. Kourosh cinemas, Mellat Gallery and Cineplex, Azadi cinemas and Farhang cinemas are among the most loved cinemas in Tehran. Tehran hosts several filmfestivals, among them the Fajr Filmfestival, the Children and Youth Filmfestival, the House of cinema Festival, the Mobile Filmfestival, the Nahal Festival, the Roshd Filmfestival, the Tehran Animation Festival, the Tehran Short Filmfestival and the Urban Filmfestival.
is Iran's biggest skiing area and is situated near Tehran. There are 12 skiing areas in Iran, the most popular being Tochal, Dizin and Schemshak, all within one to three hour from the town of Tehran. It' also the closest skiing area in the whole wide open air to a capitol. The Tochal summit overlooks the Alborz mountain chain, which includes Mount Damavand, 5,610 metres high and a resting vulcano.
Teheran is home to the Azadi International Football Centre, the largest West Asian football centre in terms of seating space, which hosts many of the best games in the Iranian Premier League. Teheran hosted 3,010 players from 25 countries/NOCs, the highest number since the games began.
78] The municipality also adult the 1968 AFC Asian Cup Finals. In Tehran several FIVB Volleyball World Championship classes were held. Tehran's first ever team, the Iran Club, was established in 1920 and disbanded within two years in 1923. Today Tehran's oldest surviving soccer team is Rah Ahan, which was established in 1937.
The Persepolis and Esteghlal cities, the largest in town and two of the largest in Asia, play in the Tehran derby. In Tehran there is also the Ararat Sports Association, a favourite Armenia sports force located in the Ararat Stadium. Below is a list of the six main Tehran sports teams.
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Commons Wikimedia has created medias related to Tehran. Vikivoyage has a guidebook for Tehran. Teheranimages. This is a photography projekt that focuses on abandoned architectures in the inner city of Tehran, Iran.