??????[t?bilisi] (list)), in some lands also known under the name Tbilisi  ("TIF-lis"), is the capitol and biggest town of Georgia, which is situated on the bank of the Kura River and counts about 1.5 million inhabitants. Established in the fifth millennium AD by Vakhtang I of Iberia, Tbilisi has since then been the capitol of various Georgia kings and states.
From 1801 to 1917, then part of the Russian Empire, Tbilisi was the residence of the Imperial Viceroy, who ruled both the South and North Caucasus. Tbilisi's position at the interface between Europe and Asia and its closeness to the profitable Silk Road have made it a point of conflict between different world forces throughout time.
Tbilisi's varied past is mirrored in its architectural style, which is a mixture of mediaeval, neo-classical, Beaux Arts, Art Nouveau, Stalinist and contemporary styles. Tbilisi has traditionally been home to individuals with different cultures, ethnicities and religions, although it is currently predominantly Eastern Orthodox Christians. Tbilisi takes its name from the old Georgian t?bilisi (???????) and then from tapili (?????, "warm").
Its name T? or T (literally "warm location") was therefore given to the town because of its many sulphurous thermal wells. It was the foundation for a new officially named company in Russia (??????? Tbilisi). Several of the Tbilisi's vernacular surnames in other regional tongues have different origins.
The Chechen and Ingush name for the town uses a shape similar to or equal to its name for the land of Georgia (??????? Gür?ex), as does the historic Khabardian name (?????? Kwrd?y), while Abkhazia ???? (Kart) comes from Mingrelia' Gür?ex (Karti). Archeological investigations of the area have shown that already in the fourth millenium B.C. settlements of humans settled on the area of Tbilisi.
Legends say that Tbilisi's present area was only in 458 forested. A widespread variation of the Tbilisi founding myth says that King Vakhtang I of Iberia hunted with a kestrel in the densely populated area ( sometimes the kestrel is substituted in the legends either by a kestrel or other small raptors).
Vakhtang was so fascinated by the heat of the spring that he chose to clear the woods and construct a town in the area. The king Dachi of Iberia, the heir of Vakhtang I, transferred the capitol of Iberia from Mtskheta to Tbilisi. Tbilisi began to grow steadily in the sixth millennium due to its geographical position on important commercial and tourist itineraries between Europe and Asia.
However, Tbilisi's favourable trading position was not necessarily a good sign for its continued existence. Tbilisi is situated in the strategic centre of the Caucasus between Europe and Asia and has become an important site of competition between the various regional forces such as the Roman Empire, Parthia, Sassanid Persia, Arabs, the Byzantine Empire and the Seljuks.
Tbilisi's culture depended somewhat on who governed the country at different periods, although Tbilisi was quite kosmopolitan. The Persians governed the capital from 570-580 until 627, when Tbilisi was plundered by the Byzantine Khazar army and later, in 736-738, Arabian troops under Marwan II invaded the capital.
The Arabs then founded an émirate based in Tbilisi. Tbilisi was plundered again by the Khazars in 764, still under Arabian rule. Not until 853, the army of the Arabian commander Bugha Al-Turki entered Tbilisi to force his repatriation. Arabian rule over Tbilisi lasted until about 1050.
1068 the town was plundered again, this times only by the Seljuks under the Sultanalp Arslan. The " Golden Age " of Tbilisi lasted no longer than a centenary. Tbilisi was conquered in 1226 by the Khwarezmian kingdom of Shah Jalal ad-Din, whose defenses were heavily ravaged and vulnerable to Mongolian troops.
1236, after devastating losses against the Mongols, Georgia came under Mongolian rule. Tbilisi itself retained a sense of semi-independence and did not loose its state identity, but Tbilisi was strongly affected for the next hundred years by the political and cultural influence of the Mongols. The Mongols withdrew from Georgia in the 1930s and Tbilisi again became the capitol of an independant state.
In 1366 the town was hit by an eruption of the pestilence. Tbilisi came under the domination of various intruders again from the end of the 13th to the end of the 17th centuries and was burned to the ground several times. Tbilisi was conquered by the Tamerlane army in 1386.
1444 the Shah Jahan Shah (the Shah of the Tabriz in Persia ) attacked and killed the village. Between 1477 and 1478 the Ak Koyunlu tribe of the Uzun Hassan kept the fortress. Following the Russian Revolution of 1917, the Russian Federation was the seat of the Transcaucasus Transitional Administration, which in the early part of 1918 founded the short-lived Transcaucasian Federation with its headquarters in Tbilisi.
Tbilisi at that period had about the same number of Armenians as Georgians, with the Russians being the third biggest group. 22 ] Here, in the former Vice-Royal Palace of the Caucasus, the sovereignty of the three Transcaucasian states Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan was proclaimed from 26 to 28 May 1918.
Tbilisi then served as the capitol of the Democratic Republic of Georgia until 25 February 1921. Between 1918 and 1919, the town also housed a successive joint army headquarter, consisting of Germany and Britain. Tbilisi became the first Caucasian university town under the auspices of the Tbilisi administration after Tbilisi State University was established in 1918.
On 25 February 1921, the Bolshevik Red Army of Russia attacked Tbilisi after fierce battles on the edge of the capital and proclaimed Soviet hegemony. On 25 February 1921, the Red Army arrived in Tbilisi. The Tbilisi government was a witness of massive protests against Russia during the March 9, 1956 massacre in opposition to Nikita Khrushchev's antistalinist policy.
Tbilisi has suffered significant turbulence and fragility since the collapse of the Soviet Union. Following a brief two week long period of conflict between December 1991 and January 1992 (when the pro-Gamsakhurdia and opposition troops clashed), Tbilisi became the site of numerous hostilities between various militia groups and illicit businessmen.
Tbilisi's ordinary inhabitants were becoming more and more disappointed by the current standard of living in the town ( and in the country in general). Tbilisi has enjoyed much greater resilience since 2003, with falling criminal activity levels, an improving economic situation and a property bubble. 27 ] During the 2008 South Ossetia Civil war the area of Tbilisi was ravaged by several Soviet aerial raids.
It is ruled by the Tbilisi Municipal Assembly (Sakrebulo) and the Tbilisi Town Hall (Meria). Municipal assemblies are held every four years. Mayor of Tbilisi is Kakha Kaladze and Chairman of the Tbilisi Municipal Assembly is Giorgi Alibegashvili. In administrative terms, the municipality is subdivided into counties which have their own entities of federal and provincial governments responsible for a restricted area.
Ever since Georgia re-gained its sovereignty, the Rayon system has been altered and remixed. After the last review, the Tbilisi agreements cover: The majority of the Rasionen are called after the historical districts of the town. Tbilisi's inhabitants largely recognize an informally-based system of smaller historical neighborhoods. At the first stage of the town' s division is the right bank and the left bank of the Mt'k'vari.
Tbilisi's pre-revolution limited the district of Georgia to the south-eastern part of the town; Baedeker concisely described the layout: In the South Caucasus, Tbilisi is situated at 41° 43' north latitude and 44° 47' east longitude. Situated in East Georgia on both sides of the river Mt'k'vari.
Height of the village is 380-770 meters above see surface and has the form of an amphitheater enclosed by hills on three sides. Tbilisi is bordered in the northern part by the Saguramo chain, in the eastern and south-eastern part by the Iori plain, in the southern and western part by different ends (subdivisions) of the Trialeti chain.
Tbilisi's embossment is intricate. That part of the town on the banks of the Mt' k'vari is more than 30 km from the Avchala district to the Lochini stream. On the other side of the Mt' k'vari on the right side, the part of the town is situated on the Trialeti chain, the slope of which in many cases drops down to the edge of the Mt' k'vari stream.
Such a geographical setting produces bags with very heavily populated areas, while other parts of the town remain unbuilt due to the complexity of the topographical area. In the northern part of the town there is a large basin (commonly known as the Tbilisi Sea) supplied by water channels. Tiflis has a moist tropical (Köppen climatic class: Cfa) with significant influence from the continent.
It has very hot summer and moderate winter. Tbilisi, like other Georgian areas, enjoys considerable precipitation throughout the year without a pronounced drought. Tbilisi has a relatively gentle macroclimate in comparison to other towns that have a similar latitude climates, as it is situated on most sides of mountains, near large waters (Black Sea and Caspian Sea) and the fact that the Greater Caucasus Mountains (further north) prevent the penetration of Russian cool winds.
Tbilisi has an avarage sea level of 13. Often the nearby hills catch the rain inside and outside the town, mainly in the spring and autumn month, resulting in persistent rain and/or cloudiness. In most parts of Tbilisi northeasterly wind prevails throughout the year. Since time immemorial, Tbilisi has been known for its religousness.
Until the beginning of the nineteenth centuries, equestrian sport (especially polo), ringing, boxesing and shooting were the most favourite urban sport. The Russian Empire's impact led more occidental sport and activity (billiards, fencing) to Tbilisi. Sowjet times saw an increasing popularisation of sport, which was customary in Europe and to some degree in the United States.
Tbilisi also provided the necessary sport infrastructures for professionals. Until 1978, the town had around 250 large and small sporting venues, among them four swimming baths and six open-air swimming baths, 185 baseball pitches and lounges, 192 full ball pitches, 82 hand-ball pitches, 19 tenis pitches, 31 soccer pitches and five other stadia.
Tbilisi's biggest football ground is the Dinamo Arena (55,000 seats) and the Mikheil Meskhi Stadion (24,680 seats) is the second one. Sportpalast, which usually plays host to large numbers of visitors and plays host to numerous football matches and football matches, can accommodate around 11,000 spectators. Verein Basketballhalle is a smaller hall sport facility with 2,500 seated guests.
Today, the most favourite types of sport in Tbilisi are soccer, hockey, baseball and soccer. In addition, one of the most favourite types of sport is playing golf, playing golf, playing golf and playing golf. The U.S. National Association Zaza Pachulia and Nikoloz Tskitishvili are Tbilisiers. In addition to pro sport, the town has a number of intermediate and recreational sport crews and associations.
Dinamo Tbilisi, Tbilisi's most important side, has not won a single Grand Prix since the 1980-1981 campaign, when they won the UEFA Cup Winners' Cup and became the most eastern side in Europe to do so. Dinamo Tbilisi won the Euroliga in 1962, but never again made it.
Most Georgian audiovisual enterprises (including TV, newspapers and radio) have their headquarters in Tbilisi. Rustavi 2 is a much-loved TV station in the town, which achieved remarkable renown after reporting on the Rose Revolution. Besides Rustavi 2, the other three of Georgia's four large Georgian TV stations (including Imedi TV Mze and the Georgian TV station) are located in the town.
The Tbilisi TV store has changed significantly since the second half of 2005, when Rustavi 2 successfully acquired Mze TV and Rupert Murdoch's News Corporation became a stockholder of Imedi Media Holding in early 2006. There are a number of publishers in Tbilisi. Among the most remarkable papers are 24 Saati ("24 hours"), Rezonansi ("Resonanz"), Alia, The Messenger, FINANCIAL, Georgia Today and The Georgian Times.
It is a mix of Georgian, Neoclassic, Byzantine, Art Nouveau, Beaux-Arts, Near East and Sovjet Modernism. Very few structures survive the devastation of the town in 1795, so most of the historic structures in Tbilisi date from the time of the Roman Empire (1801-1917). Most of the oldest parts of the town ( Kala, Abanotubani, Avlabari) were reconstructed according to their mediaeval road maps, and some old homes were even reconstructed on much older bases.
Tbilisi's inner city areas, designed according to a project of the Soviet Union (Sololaki, Rustaveli Avenue, Vera, etc.), have a west look, with a mixture of different lifestyles much loved in Europe at the time: Tiflis has important sights and places of interest. Tbilisi is home to Georgia's parliament and administration building as well as Georgia's Supreme Court.
Tbilisi has important monuments such as the Georgian National Museum, Tbilisi State Conservatory, Tbilisi Opera and Ballet Theatre, Shota Rustaveli State Academic Theatre, Marjanishvili State Academic Theatre, Sameba Cathedral, Vorontsov Palace (now also known as Children's Palace), many state museum, National Library of the Parliament of Georgia, National Bank of Georgia, Tbilisi Circus, Bridge of Peace and Bridge of Peace.
Tbilisi was one of the top four towns in the USSR in terms of the number of museum sites during the war. The Shota Rustaveli Tbilisi International Airports is the only Tbilisi International Airports and is situated about 17 kilometers south east of the downtown area. With 1.85 million passenger movements in 2015, it is the most congested Georgian and twenty-fifth airports in the former USSR.
It has grown rapidly, more than doubling the number of passengers from around 822,000 in 2010 to around 1,847,000 in 2015. 52 ] Tbilisi International Airport began using the sun's rays in 2016 and became the first "green airport" in the Caucasus in 2008. The Natakhtari airfield, 33 km from Tbilisi, is situated in the city of Natakhtari.
castle overlooking the town. Tbilisi's metro operates the city's suburban trains. In Tbilisi, a sophisticated small bus system has been developed in recent years. Besides the town, several routes also operate in the environs of Tbilisi. There is a flat rate throughout the whole town, regardless of how far you are (80 or 50 tetres in 2018).
Higher rates are usual for longer journeys outside the town. From a historical point of view, the town had seven different cable cars, all of which were shut down after the fall of the Soviet Union. The Turtle Lake cable car (originally opened in 1965) was re-opened on 12 October 2016 after seven years of decommissioning. In October 2016, another Soviet cableway between the State University (Maglivi) and the university campus (Bagebi) in the Saburtalo district (originally opened in 1982) was rebuilt after 13 years of operation and is scheduled to open in April 2018.
As a result of maladministration by the Soviet authorities, one of the most important cableways suffered a serious incident which led to the Tbilisi cableway crash in 1990 and has remained shut down ever since. Since October 2017, the funicular has been rebuilt, preserving the old, cultural base terminus, but with new gondola designs, poles, top terminus and other infrastructures.
There are several large universities in Tbilisi, among them the State Medicine School of Tbilisi and the Petre Shotadze Tbilisi Medical Academy, which is known for its international recognized system of health schooling. Georgia's largest is Tbilisi State Unversity, which was founded on February 8, 1918. The TSU is the oldest campus in the entire Caucasus area.
Tiflis is also home to the biggest health care college in the Caucasus - the Tiflis State Medical Unversity, which was established in 1918 as the Tiflis Institute of Medicine and became the Tiflis State Unversity (TSU) Faculty of Medicine in 1930. The Tbilisi State Institute of Medicine was re-named the Tbilisi School of Medicine in 1992.
The TSMU has become one of the highest-ranking state-funded universities in the Caucasus since it became an autonomous school. Currently there are almost 5000 bachelor and 203 postgraduates at the universities, 10% of whom come from abroad. Georgia's most important and biggest technological college, the Georgian Technische Universität, is located in Tbilisi.
The Georgian Technical University was established in 1922 as a polytechnical department of the State University of Tbilisi. Until 1990 she was granted university membership. Georgia's three most beloved privately-run universities - The University of Georgia (Tbilisi), Caucasus University and Free University of Tbilisi - are located in Tbilisi. University of Georgia (Tbilisi) is the biggest privately owned university in Georgia with more than 3500 foreign and foreign student population.
The UG obtained funding from OPIC (Overseas Private Investment Corporation) in 2010 for the university' s infrastructural and technological facilities developments. University of Georgia has several postgraduate and postgraduate degree courses and is the first Georgia-based organization to offer Oracle Corporation, Microsoft, Zend Technology, and Cisco Academy certification courses.
The Caucasus University was founded in 2004 as an extension of the Caucasus School of Business (CSB) (founded in 1998) by a syndicate of Tbilisi State University and Georgian Technical University in cooperation with Georgia State University (Atlanta, USA). Freie Universität Tbilisi was founded in 2007 through the fusion of two universities:
ESM-Tbilisi (European Management College) et Tiflis Institute of Asia and Africa (TIAA). Freie Universität today consists of three faculties - Business School ( "ESM"), Institute of Asia and Africa, and Law school - which offer bachelor's, master's, and doctoral degree programmes. Freie Universität also offers a broad spectrum of short-term training and operates several research centres and summerschools.
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Returned on June 3, 2011. Issue 1, 2010 - Tbilisi 2010. Archives from the originals on 7 October 2011. Returned on June 3, 2011. Georgia Flood: The people of Tbilisi were warning against the use of zoos after the disastrous "flood". Returned on June 15, 2015. Parliament of Georgia. Brought back on May 22, 2007. Brought back on October 19, 2016.
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Returned 2017-01-31. Tbilisi Community Portal - Radio archived on December 17, 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia. (...) The Persian invasion added a new feature, and in the 19th centuries Russia established a hybride architecture that was evident in many Tbilisi townhouses. Returned on February 11, 2017. "The Tbilisi and the Policy of Madness".
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Town hall of Tbilisi. The Tbilisi municipal portal. Returned on August 5, 2013. Meastna www.mestna.com Ljubljana (city of Ljubljana) (in Slovenian). Returned on July 27, 2013. Bristol City Partnerships. Municipality of Bristol. Returned on July 17, 2009. Returned on November 4, 2013. Returned on August 5, 2013. Returned on July 21, 2013. Georgia embassy in Qatar.
Returned on July 7, 2018. Tbilisi-Thran live flight will take off next months. Returned on May 20, 2015. Town hall of Tbilisi. Returned on April 19, 2016. Returned on August 10, 2013. Returned on August 5, 2013. Architecture Guide Tbilisi (in English and Georgian). "GEORGE ii. Story of Iranian-Georgian Relations." This is Cambridge University Press. Dictionary of Georgia (2nd edition).
It'?s a story of Georgia. "The city as a geopolitical place. Tbilisi, Georgia - A globalising city in a tumultuous region". Check out Wiktionary, the free Tbilisi glossary. ikimedia Commons has medias related to tbilisi. Vikivoyage has a guidebook for Tbilisi.