Taungoo Empire

Tungoo Empire

pvc-file="mw-headline" id="Backgrounder[edit]>> This empire emerged from the duchy of Toungoo, a small minion state from Ava until 1510. This land-locked state began its ascent in the 1530s under Tabinshwehti, who founded Myanmar's biggest state since the pagan empire until 1550. Bayinnaung, his more acclaimed successors, then strongly extended the empire and conquered a large part of the Southeast Asian continent until 1565.

The next ten years he spends maintaining the empire and crushing rebellion in Siam, Lan Xang and the most northern states. Soon after his deaths in 1581, the empire, bound together by patron-client relations, perished. Nanda, his successors never received the full backing of the vassals and led the steep fall of the empire for the next 18 years.

This first Toungoo empire was the end of the small empire era on the Southeast Asian continent. Though the overdone realm turned out to be fleeting, the powers that underlie its ascension were not. The two most important succession states - Toungoo Burma and Ayutthaya Siam - dominated the west and centre of Southeast Asia until the middle of the 18th cen.

This is a representation of the old Toungoo (Taungoo) from a later epoch, even if the Toungoo from the 14. In general, Pegu did not interfere in the management of the area. His area of responsibility was domestic. It embarked on standardization efforts to standardize legislation, weight and measures, the calendar, and Buddhist reform throughout the empire.

Pegu had no centralized red tape, as the restored Toungoo and Konbaung dictatorships would try to manage the minion states. Contrary to later times, even at the level of the Empire, Pegu did not maintain constant army guards or agents in the minion states to keep an eye out for the locals in the time of peace.

Effective minion leaders who were not respected by their own minion lords, such as those in Lan Xang and Oberburma after 1584, only caused permanent difficulties for the monarch. With the exception of Manipur, it was all Shan states that surrounded the Irrawaddy Highlands (i.e. the Kingdom of Ava) from the state of Kalay in the north-west to the state of Mong Pai in the south-east.

He was not a Shan state, and his emperor stylized himself raya (king). Nevertheless, Pegu categorized the Rajas as "sawbwa" and regarded Manipur as another, albeit important, prince state. Under Bayinnaung's domination, Ava acted as a mediator between Pegu and the mountain states. There was no immediate power, as the almost complete lack of a Shan and Manipurs involvement in Pegu's efforts at Siamese wars shows.

Pegu also used land far beyond the Principality as a tributary or protectorate, according to modern records. The grant does not recognize the entitlements to supervision; the states were at least what Pegu regarded in his field of activity. However, the grant allocates only about half of the cis-Mekong region of Toungoo Burma,[note 17] bringing the overall area to about 1.5 millionkm².

Their first dynasty was "the most exciting and militaristically prosperous in the nation's history". "She established the greatest empire in Southeast Asia on the basis of "breathtaking" army-conquest. It was ascribed to a "more militant culture" of Toungoo, the inclusion of Portugese guns and alien soldiers and major troops.

But even at its height, the praised Toungoo army had problems with guerilla-wars, and encountered serious logistical problems in the suppression of rebellion in isolated mountain states. At the height of its power, the Toungoo army had the most challenging period of control over distant mountain states. Bayinnaung, Lower Burma suffered a loss of labour advantages over a much more densely populated Siamese.

Burmese people who cultivated bittersweet anti-Shaniatribes are the most tragic example of this. On the basis of Buddhist culture and on the basis of the threats of mass retaliation, the Kaiser established patronage customer relations to maintain the empire. 106 ] The traditions of multi-ethnic clientele relations in Southeast Asia persisted until the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, albeit to a lesser extent.

Farming and sea trading dominate the empire's economies. Sea trading was most widespread in Lower Burma and South Siam. Farming prevailed in Upper Burma and the neighbouring uplands. Toungoo' s first empire did not leave behind monuments like the pagan empire. Pegu's greatness was forever gone and is known only from modern reports in Europe.

His most important legacy was the consolidation of politics and culture in both the West and the Southeast Asian continent. Not only in Myanmar, but also in Thailand and Laos the memory of the first Toungoo empire is still great. He has his sculptures because the torture of uniting a country by violence is not only a matter of time.

"On the other side of the same sign, the warriors' monarchs Naresuan of Ayutthaya and Setthathirath of Lan Xang remained the most famous Thai and Laos-Naresuan monarchs for Siam's return to sovereignty and Setthathirath for his troublesome opposition to the Empire. A number of Myanmar based scholars have used "Toungoo Dynasty" in Anglophone journals to refer only to the first Toungoo season as used in the history of Burma.

Leap up ^ See (Lieberman 2003), (Myint-U 2006), (Aung-Thwin and Aung-Thwin 2012). However, even Myanmar land related historical scholars like Michael Aung-Thwin and Thant Myint-U use older words like Ava, Toungoo, Pegu, etc. to describe the area. Leap up ^ (His Lwin Lay 2006: 19-20): Similarly, later assassination-killer-ruanders pro (His Lwin Lay 2006: 20-22) may have approached Pinya in nominal form.

Leap up ^ (His Lwin Lay 2006: 103-106): Although Toungoo kept out of the war, he helped the enemy of Ava. In March 1523 even Jamethin and Taungdwin were confiscated. At least 1568 pro (Maha Yazawin Vol. 2 2006: 295) was attached to the provinces when the Governor of Tenasserim constructed a gateway in the new town of Pegu.

But the provinces of Martaban had a Vice-King, Minye Sithu between 1552 and 1556 and another, Thiri Thudhamma Yaza, between 1581 and 1584. Those were Mon ethnical songs, and the vast majority of them were probably Mon ethnical. As an example, per (Maha Yazawin Vol. 2 2006: 280), the head of the 1565 Pegu revolt, was called Binnya Kyan Htaw, but was an ethnical Shan.

About two hundred years later, despite their Mon title, the montymingers Smim Htaw Buddhaketi and Binnya Dala of restored Hanthawaddy were Burmese and Shan people. Pegu kept Prome and Toungoo, the ancient minion states of Ava, as separated empires. High ^ Pegu entertained garrisons only for a brief time: e.g. in Chiang Mai (1558-59, 1564-65), in Ayutthaya (1569-70), in Ava (1593-97).

In the 1560' and 1570', unless the military was overwhelmed (1568 and 1571/72), he kept a guard there or kept them away (1568-69; 1572-74). Leap up ^ (Phayre 1967: 118-119): In 1580-81, the 1580-81 Toungoo in Arakan may have been a reaction to the take-over of Bengal by the Mughal. Jumping up ^ See the cards in (Harvey 1925: 151) and (Sein Lwin Lay 2006: 44), both marking the Ming China boundary on the Mekong at Kenghung.

His Lwin Lay's boundary runs further up the Mekong than Harvey's. Leap up ^ (Than Tun Vol. 1 1983: 18-19, 181-182): King Nyaungyan's king's order of November 14, 1598 (first atrophy of Tazaungmon 960 ME) states that the extension of Nyaungyan's rule comprised the Iron Bridge to theheast, Siam to the southwest, the seashore to the westward and Manipur and the Shan states to the northeast (Kachin state).

Highjump ^ (Jule 1857: 88-89): The" Nine Shan States" (Ko Shan Pyay) honored China and Burma until the nineteenth  century. Bayinnaung was very worried about the effect of Portugal on the state of the Theravada Buddhism since the portugese archbishop of Goa turned Ceylon's Buddha tooth relic into gunpowder in 1561.

The total of Myanmar, Thailand, Laos and Manipur is 1,448,825 km², with Myanmar = 676,578 km²; Thailand = 513,120; Laos = 236m800; Manipur = 22,327. Boundaries of the south Yunnan result in 131.931 km²: See also ( (Harvey 1925: 151) for his estimation of the Shan State boundary in Yunnan.

Leap up ^ The overall area of the West Cambodia provinces is 49,359 km²: Leap up ^ journals allege over 500,000 Troops for a single campaig. "Skip to the top" (Lieberman 1984: 18): Censations from this era only covered four settlements in Lower Burma: By 1581, a county survey of the 16 topownships in Lower Burma revealed a global household count of less than 28,000 (~200,000 people).

Leap up ^ (Lieberman 2003: 135-136): In Upper Burma until the sixteenth centuries, woodland dwellers performed shore transfers, consuming spirits (Ayek) and slaughtering cows, swine and poultry. An Ancient Myanmar story (illustrated). of the Shan State:

(2006). Burma and the Dutch East India Company, 1634-1680 (illustrated edition). "of the Laotian prisoners of war from Burma back to Laos in 1596. Burma Research SOAS Bulletin. Burma's history: It' a story of Burma. Antropology and evolution. South East Asia: a historic encyclopaedia, from Angkor Wat to East Timor, vol. 2.

1-3 (2006, 4. edition). South-East Asia in a Global Context, ca. 800-1830, Vol. 1, Integrating on the Continent. Myint-U, Thant (2006). Burma's lost steps flow - Burma's story. Burma's story (1967). His Lwin Lay, Kahtika U (1968). Yazawin Ketumadi Taungoo (in Burmese) (2006, second edition). A six hundred years of story (illustrated).

Or, the story of the Thais: Cambridge in Southeast Asia. Royal Orders of Burma, 1598-1885. Burma Historical Briefs (in Burmese). of Myanmar's culture and ancestry. Dictionary of research on Burma's historical background (2011, third edition). Dr. Norton Shaw, ed. "On the geography of Burma and its tributaries".

Mehr zum Thema