Taung MeaningTypical Taung Meaning
As Dean Falk, a scientist in the field of cerebral development, described it, "the most important human fossa of the 20th century". Throughout 1924, Buxton Limeworks employees near Taung showed a petrified primates head to E. G. Izod, the guest manager of the Northern Lime Corporation, the management corporation of the mine.
Josephine visited Pat's house when Josephine was visiting Izod' girlfriend, Pat's house. She saw the primates' head, identifying it as an endangered ape, and recognizing its potential importance for her patron Raymond Dart. She was the first pupil of Dart, an anatomin at the University of Witwatersrand.
The petrified head was taken by Solmons and presented to Dart, who also recognised it as an important find. Darts asked the firm to dispatch other interesting petrified heads that were excavated. As Speirs used a certain fossa as a paper weight, Young asked him to do the same.
Young-Young sent some of the heads back to Darts. As Dart was examining the content of the box, he found a petrified endo-cast of a cranium with the appearance of a complicated brains. Quickly searching the remainder of the petrified females in the boxes, he adapted it to a petrified young Primat who had a flat face and rather small tooths.
Just forty short weeks after seeing the fossilized animal for the first timepiece, Dart finished a document which called the type of Australopithecus Africa, the "southern African ape", and described it as "an endangered monkey breed between human and human beings and live anthropoids". Soon, the fossilized body was called the Taung child. Dart's former sponsor, Arthur Keith, one of the most important atoms of his day, argued that there was not enough proof to support Dart's assertion that Australopithecus was a transition between monkeys and people.
Elliot Smith explained that he needed more proof and a bigger image of the head before he could assess the meaning of the new petrifaction. The Taung-child was rejected by Arthur Smith Woodward as "of little relevance" to the question "whether the immediate human ancestry in Asia or Africa should be sought".
Their skulls are that of a young great-people.... and show so many points of attachment to the two live anthropids, the chimp and the chimp, that there is no time to hesitate to place the fossilized species in this group. Third ly, many humanists thought that the species Homo had already separated from the great Apes 30 million years ago, although they accepted that man had a small-brained, ape-like predecessor like Australopithecus Africa only two million years ago.
It was in the later 1920' that the US palaeontologist William King Gregory agreed that Australopithecus was part of the pedigree of humans. However, the museum's principal was Henry Fairfield Osborn; although at the Scopes trial in 1925 he was "the most important defence of the evolutionary process in the United States", he did not agree with Darwin's view of the origin of the world.
In 1938 Gregory went to South Africa and saw the Taung child and the fossilized animals that Brom had recently found. He was more than ever persuaded that Dart and Broom were right, he named Australopithecus Africa "the lacking limb that is no longer missing". A turning point in the adoption of Dart's Taung Child study came in 1947 when the celebrity UK ethnologist proclaimed his support for it.
The Gros Clark, who would also have played an important part in uncovering the Piltdown Man scam in 1953, came to Johannesburg in 1946 to examine Dart's Taung cranium and Broom's grown-in fossil, with the intent of being ape-like. However, after two week long research and a visit to the caverns where Brom had found his petals ( "the Taung cavern had been devastated by mines shortly after the Taung cranium was discovered), Clark was confident that these petals were more of a hominid than a pongid.
Sir Arthur Keith in Nature in 1947 announced his sponsorship of Dart and Broom's research. The proof presented by Dr. Robert Broom and Professor Dart was correct and I was inaccurate. Keith acknowledged that the new proof, along with the Taungossil, indicated that this fossa was human-like in position, tooth structure and two-legged gait.
Inevitably, Dart came to disputed inferences, as there was no further proof of this. It has been suggested that the cranium belongs to a new species by comparing it with chimp crani. His head was bigger than that of a full-grown chimp. Chinchimpanzee's brow retracted to create a thick front and protruding mandible; Taung child's front retracts but does not leave a foreword.
Dart, a neuroanatomist, found that Dart had not fully taken into account certain ape-like characteristics for Taung. "Dart had said in his 1925 paper that Taung's mind was human-like. Taeung's human traits were overstressed. Initially it was assumed that the Taung child was about six years old because of the milk fangs, but it is now assumed that it was about three or four years old, on the basis of tooth fusion trials.
We had a discussion about the ages of this being because it was not clear at first whether it was growing at the pace of a man or a monkey. In comparison to a monkey he would have been about 4 years old and in comparison to a person about 5-7 years old.
31 ] The comparison of the Taung Childfossil with the head of a nine-year-old contemporary infant shows that a. Africa's ape had a more similar growing ratio to that of contemporary monkeys, such as the chimpanzee (genus Pan), than that of contemporary homosapien. Mystery chain: Randomness, accident and mess in man's evolutio.
The Rutgers University Press. pp. Fossilized History: How two disputed findings altered our vision of man's evoluton. The University of California Press. Rump up ^ Levin 1987, p. 83, "Taung and his companions were cerebellous and clearly ape-like. Yet Zuckerman and his associates were still acceptable as members of the humankindfamiliy.
So the Taung child could not have expected to be enthusiastically received by this group of experts. The apple of discord: Controversy in the quest for people. The University of Chicago Press. Limits of man's neuroscience. "Taung was a man or a monkey? Raptor Harm at the Taung Cranium of the Australopithecus Africa Dart 1925".
Lincoln, C.K. (2003), "Raymond Dart et nos origines africaines", dans Laura Garwin et Tim Lincoln, Hg. Cerroy, G. C.; Falk, D.; Guyer, J.; Weber, G.W.; Seidler, H.; Recheis, W. (2000), "Endocranial Capacitance in Sts 71 (Australopithecus africanus) by Three-dimensional Computer Tomography", Anat. Dart, Raymond A. (1925), "Australopithecus africanus: The Man-Ape of South Africa", Motherhood, 115: 195-199, doi:10.1038/115195a0. --- (1929), Australopithecus anfricanus: The Man-Ape of South Africa:
On His Place in Human Nature, Unedited script in the University of Witwatersrand archive. First person reports of more than fifty of the world's greatest archaeological discoveries, Oxford University Press, USA, ISBN 0-195-12651-3. The New Discoveries about Human Origins and Brain Evolution (revised and expanded), New York: Henry Holt and Company, ISBN 0-813-02738-1.
of Taung (2009), "The Taung Nature Endo-Cast (Australopithecus africanus): Insight from the unreleased works of Raymond Arthur Dart", Jahrbuch der Physikalischen Anthropologie, 52: 49-65, doi:10.1002/ajpa.21184. The Fossil Chronicles: As two controversial discoveries altered our view of human evolution, Berkeley and Los Angeles: The University of California Press, ISBN 978-0-520-26670-4.
Alte Hypothesen und neue Erkenntnisse", Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 8 (Article 134): 1-11, doi:10.3389/fnhum.2014.00134. Johanson, Donald; Shreeve, James (1989), Lucy's Child, New York: Controversy over human origin, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, ISBN 0-226-47651-0. Chance, chance and chaos in human evolution, New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, ISBN 0-813-52783-X.
Reed, Charles (1983), "A Brief History of the Discovery and Early Study of the Australopithecines", dans Kathleen J. Reichs (Hrsg.), Hominid Origins : Past and present inquiries, Lanham, MD: University Press of America, pp. 1-77, ISBN 0-819-12864-3. Earlier photos of Taung Child", South African Journal of Science, 108 (11-12): 1-4, doi:10.4102/sajs.v108i11/12.1224.
He washburn, Sherwood (1985), "Human Evolution After Raymond Dart", dans Phillip V. Tobias (Hrsg.), Hominid Evolution : "Pictures of Taung 1".