sspan class="mw-headline" id="Location">Location
Tarquinia squares with the Palazzo Comunale on the right. Tartinia (Italian: tar?kwi?nja), formerly Corneto, is an old village in the Viterbo region of Lazio, Italy, famous for its old graves in the necropolises and graveyards of the Etruscans, for which it has been declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Its name was changed in 1922 to the antique Tarquinii (Roman) or Tarch(u)na (Etruscan) name. Though little can be seen of the once great riches and expanse of the antique twentieth -century architecture, archeology reveals more and more insights into past glorious histories. It is an Edwardian and Latin village located on the long plain of La Civita in the northern part of today's Civita.
Antique tombs (necropolises), ranging from the Iron Age (9th or Villanovan century) to early Rome, were found on the neighbouring foothills, even today's Tarquinia. Tarchon (Etruscan Tarch(u)na) was one of the oldest and most important cities in the history of Etruscans; the old legends associated with Tarchuna (those of its father Tarchon - the father or sister of Tyrrhenus - and the baby Orcel's Day, which gave the Etruscans the "disciplina etrusca") point to the city's importance in terms of culture and history.
Based on archeological finds, Tarchuna darkened his neighbors long before the appearance of writing. When Demaratus of Corinth introduced Hellenic craftsmen, it is said to have been a thriving town. Tarchuna's origins as a commercial force in the eighth century B.C. were affected by the mining of the Tolfa Mountains in the southern part of the town, halfway to the koretic harbour of Pyrgi.
In the late fifth and early fourth centuries B.C., a brief awakening took place, both politically and artistically, probably under the influence of the Spurinna dynasty, whose members helped to re-expand Tarchuna and to repopulate and grow the cities in the outback.
In Tarquinii the Spurinna was known until the 1. cent. A.D.. Velthur Spurinnas and Aulus Spurinnas are honoured by two fragmentary plates known as Elogia Tarquiniensis, which give a unique insight into local historical events, among them the reference to a king, Orgolnium of Caere, who recalls the surname of Urgulanilla, whose members include the woman of Caeride Claudius.
Tarchuna Caere and other towns in the Etruscans passed during this era in respect of might and impact. During this time huge ramparts were erected around the town, in reaction to the threat from the Celts and Rome. Tarchuna, which was not affected by Feltic incursions, colonized all its previously occupied lands around 385 BC.
But in the fourth millennium BC, when the Tarchuna extension reached its climax, there was a fierce battle with Rome. Tarchuna's inhabitants took 307 Roman troops prisoner and executed them in 358 B.C.; the resulting battle ended in 351 B.C. with a forty-year armistice, which was restored in 308 B.C. for a similar time.
In the early Middle Ages the antique town was reduced to a small stronghold on the site of the "Castellina", while the Corneto, situated in a strategic position (possibly the "Corito" referred to in Latin sources), gradually became the capital of the lower Maremma coastline, especially after the demolition of the harbour of Centumcellae (now Civitavecchia).
Tarquinii's last historical reference dates from around 1250, while the name Corneto was modified to Tarquinia in 1922. Tarchuna's most important burial ground, some of which can be seen today, is the Monterozzi burial ground, with around 6,000 graves, of which at least 200 are fine murals, many of which were burial mounds with burial mounds engraved in the rocks below.
Paintings are of an unparalleled level of detail in the unique environment of the Etruscans and provide a precious glimpse into the mysterious realm of the Etruscans, which is seldom portrayed. Last-minute portraits were of demon that accompanied the deceased on their journeys to the afterlife, among them underground scenarios, magistrate ceremonies and other icons of the outstanding members of this family.
Among the graves of the bulls, the grave of the augurs and the grave of the leopards belong to the well-known graves. In the second half of the fourth millennium, carved and decorated coffins of nefro, pottery and aluminium were used. In Tarquinia the coffins lasted until the second millennium and are so numerous that they must have been made there.
Located about 6 km from the seaside, the town stood above the Marta Valley. It measures approximately 44 25 metres and dates from the 4th to 3rd centuries BC. It was made of tuff with wood textures and decoration, in particular the renowned and luxurious tufa façade in earthenware, regarded as a true example of masterpieces of Etruscan craftsmanship.
Porta Romanelli" gatehouse. Large ramparts were constructed in the most affluent part of the town in the sixth centuries B.C. and are about 8 km long, 135 ha, and long parts of the north part are exposed. National Museum Tarquinia: With a large archeological find archive, it is located in the Renaissance palace of Vitelleschi, which began in 1436 and was finished around 1480-1490.
Saint Maria di Castello: Lombard and Cosmatist influenced chapel dating from 1121-1208. Remarkable are also the roses windows in the aisle and the numerous works in stone by master craftsmen. R. Leighton, Tarquinia, an Etruscan city (Duckworth, London, 2004). "Tarquinii".