It is the capital of one of the most famous provinces of Iran, the Azarbaijan or Aturpatgan. sspan class="mw-headline" id="Etymologie">Etymologie[edit] Tabriz is the biggest business center and the biggest metropole region in the northwest of Iran. Tabriz is an important junction of industrial activities for the automotive, tooling, refining, petrochemical, textile and concrete manufacturing sectors. The town is renowned for its arts and crafts, which include hand-woven carpets and jewelry. Confectionary, hot chocolate, dry walnuts and Tabrizi dishes are some of the best in Iran.

It is also an educational center and location for some of the most renowned culture institutions in northwestern Iran. The Tabriz contains many historic sights that represent the architectonic passage of Iran in its long past. Ilkhanid, Safavid and Qajar are the main surviving historic places of Tabriz. Among these places is the large Tabriz Bazaar, declared a World Heritage Site.

Since the early Renaissance, Tabriz has been crucial to the growth, prosperity and economic activity of its three neighbouring areas, the Caucasus, Eastern Anatolia and Central Iran. 14 ] In recent times, the Iranian capital has had an important part to play in the Iranian past. In Tabriz, as the country's next node to Europe, many facets of Iran's early modernization began.

Before Tabriz had to cede the areas of the Caucasus in Iran to imperial Russia after two Russian-Persian wars in the first half of the nineteenth centuries, he was at the head of Iran' s dominion over his area. Up until 1925 the town was the royal seat of the Qajar family.

It has been the choice capitol for several sovereigns from the period of Atropate and his family since the early recorded story of Tabriz. The town is likely to have been devastated several places, either by nature or by the invasion of troops. It is said that the early parts of today's Tabriz were either constructed at the early Sassanid period in the 3. or 4. centuries AD or later in the 7. centuries.

24 ] When the town in the Middle Persian region was still known as T'awr??. Following the Mongol invasion, Tabriz came to displace Maragheh as the later capitol of the Ilkhanid Mongols in Azerbaijan until it was plundered by Timur in 1392. Between 1375 and 1468 Tabriz was the capitol of the state Qara Qoyunlu in Azerbaijan,[33] until the loss against the Qara Qoyunlu sovereign, Jahan Shah, by Ag Qoyunlu warrior.

From 1469 to 1501 Ag Qoyunlus chose Tabriz as its city. 1501 Shah Ismail I went to Tabriz and declared it the capitol of his Safavid state. 1514, after the battle of Chaldiran, Tabriz was taken temporary by the Ottomans. Tabris were reconquered by Teutonic troops and until 1548 stayed the capitol of the Safavidian Iron Age.

Tabriz was invaded by the Ottomans between 1585 and 1603. When it was recaptured by the Safavids under Abbas I of Persia, the town became an important trading centre and traded with the Ottoman Empire, Russia and the Caucasus. Tabriz was invaded and dismissed by Osman Murad IV in 1635, during the Ottoman-Safavid War (1623-39), before being repatriated from Sohab to Persia in 1639 in the Treaty.

Between 1905 and 1911, Tabriz became the centre of the Iranian unconstitutional revolutions thanks to its geographic proximity to the West and its communication with the educational movement of neighbouring nations, which resulted in the creation of a parliamentary assembly in Iran and a constitution. Both Sattar Khan and Bagher Khan, two Tabrizi reforms who spearheaded the Tabriz people's solidarities against the total rule of law, played a major part in achieving the aims of the Iranian unconstitutional government.

Tabriz was invaded by Soviet armies in 1909. The Russians invaded Tabriz again four month after the constitution revolution's December 1911 victory. Having smashed the grassroots opposition by incursions of Soviet invaders, they began to oppress the town' s constituent revolutionary and population. About 1,200 of the inhabitants of Tabriz were led by Russians after the invasion.

Between 1911 and 1917, as a consequence of the expedition, Tabriz was invaded by Russians. Constitutions in Tabriz, 1911. The Ark of the Covenant of Tabriz and the US Flagg in the Tagen after the Constitution Reform in 1911. Iran already stated that it was neutral at the beginning of the First World War. 1. By the time the full extent of the outbreak of the Great War had begun, Tabriz and much of northwest-northern Iran had been de facto invaded by Russia for several years.

During the later years of World War I, the Ottoman forces interfered and took command of the town, vanquishing the Russians there. 38 ] The town was reconquered by Russians at a later date of the Ottoman Wars. Evacuating the Iranian army in Azerbaijan with the upsurge of the revolutions in Russia, the real powers were transferred to the Democratic Party's own committees, headed by Ismail Nawbari.

After Russia's withdrawal, the Ottomans conquered the town again for several month until the end of the crucial end of the conflict and withdrew afterwards. The First World war marked the beginning of a new period in the county's long tradition. It began with pledges of modernisation programmes in Iran that focused on unifying the land under the concept of a land, a people.

Among these were the centralisation of powers and the imposition of limitations on Iranian Azerbaijan' s and Tabriz' own cultural, heritage and linguistic heritage. Reza Shah's modernisation and nationalisation plans lasted until the Second World War wave. Soviets on their way through Tabriz, Second World War.

USSR tanks and forces march through Tabriz, World War II. Sovjet T-26 tank in transit through the major road of Tabriz, Second World War. In the next 30 years, after the break-up of Azerbaijan's Soviet-backed administration, Tabriz experienced a steady epoch until the 1979 revolutionary War. Throughout this time, the capital benefited from many investments in industry and had developed into a center of large-scale industry in northwestern Iran.

Demand for a large labour force led to an increase in migration from all over Azerbaijan to Tabriz. At that time, and due to the continuing politics of centralizing Tehran's administration and the changes in communications and transport, the historic domination of the commune was replaced by the gateway to the reforms and modernisation of the state.

Tabriz has been much more stabile in recent years and new urban trends are quickly transforming the face of the town. Tabriz was used as the residency of the crown prince of Iran (1794-1925) during the Qajar family. The radiocarbon analyses of Allameh Tabatabi University showed that the grave backgrounds are more than 3800 years old.

The Tabriz is situated in the north-west of Iran in the East Azerbaijani region between the Eynali and Sahand Hills in a fruitful area on the banks of the Aji and Ghuri rivers. This area is at risk of earthquakes and the town has been ravaged and reconstructed several places during its existence. Täbris has a moist continental temperate zone with frequent seasonal variations (Köppen Dsa).

It has a temperate and delicate climatic environment in early winter, arid and half-hearted in early summers, wet and wet in late fall and heavy with snow in late winters. Mean ambient temperatures are 12 per year. "In Tabriz, six month of the year are winters and the other six month are annoying. Atmospheric pollutants are one of the biggest problems in Tabriz.

Atmospheric contamination is due to the increasing number of passenger vehicles operating in the town and in the environmentally harmful industry such as thermoelectric stations, petrol chemical facilities and the western part of the town's olive grove mill. Atmospheric contamination rose steadily in the second half of the twentieth centuries.

However, urban indoor climate is far from meeting global standards for cleaner indoor environments. Municipality authorities lie with the mayor, who is appointed by the mayor. Parish centre is situated in the Tabriz palace. The Tabriz is subdivided into 12 neighbourhoods. Here is the chart of Täbris areas.

In 2016, according to an officially published 2016 civil survey, the total resident number of Tabriz was 1,733,033, with Azerbaijani Turkic being the dominant in Tabriz (Azerbaijanis call it Türkü or Türki language), a Turkic dialect that is understandable by one another using contemporary Turkic idioms. As in other parts of Iran, the main Chinese term is Farsi and most residents have either natives or near-natives of the Farsi speaking culture, the most important educational resource.

In 1999, for the first of its kind, the University of Tabriz opened an educational programme in the Azerbaijani tongue. Presumably, before the progressive growth and predominance of the Azerbaijani tongue in the region, other Persian -like the Persian- tongues were widely assumed to have been widely spread in Azerbaijan and Tabriz. 59 ][60][61] The script Safina-yi Tabriz from the thirteenth centuries has a poetry in what its Tabriz-born writer named the Tabrizi tongue (Zab?n-e-Tabrizi), which is similar to the Persian one.

Examples of the Tabrizi vernacular of the Old Azerbaijani tongue are quotrains taken up by Abd al-Qadir Maraghi in Tabrizi, sentences by Baba Faraji Tabrizi and verses in Tabrizi in Safina-yi Tabriz as well as verses by Homam Tabrizi, Mama Esmat Tabrizi, Maghrebi Tabrizi and others. Closeness to Sahand, a hill in the southern part of the town, was a spring of inspirations for modern revolutionary and poet writers in equal measure.

Tablets were a home for countless Irvanian authors, writers and lighting movement. Historically, the city's acquaintances, authors and authors have helped by organising regular gatherings. Mohammad-Hossein Shahriar, the famous poet of Azerbaijan, was a native of Tabriz. Cultures, cultural heritage, cultural heritage, languages and musical traditions are a mix of what exist in the whole of Iran.

Tablets also have a particular place in Persian literary life, as the following selection of verse by some of the best Iranian writers and writers shows: S?rb?n, let the charge unload the camels, because Tabriz is the neighbourhood of lovers. In Tabriz a loved one was living off the road as long as I was living in Tabriz, two things I don't have to concern myself with: half a loaf full of loaves of bread as well as the waters of Mehranrud are enough!

That is the big Arg of Tabriz City that has reached its prominent heights there! Centuries of auto-cratic politics of nation-building by Iranian federal states have managed to achieve widespread rapprochement in favour of a civilization that has been imposed by the state. As a consequence, until the turn of the twentieth centuries Tabriz was almost without its once distinctive artistic identities.

Nasir Atapur from Tabriz, for example, was the winner of the 2007 Mugam competition. Ash-grey musical tradition had survive in the mountain area of Qarada? and is now recognized as the most distinctive musical genre in Azerbaijan. One of the major factors for this development was the opening of musical courses in the Tabriz scholastic tradition by Meister Ashugs, such as A?iq Imran Heyd?ri.

67 ] Of course it developed in the course of the great migrations and the resulting feuding with the natives, the countries that had been bought. Nevertheless, the essential nature of the ancient peninsula, i.e. the transformation of living metamorphically into pasteoral concepts directly related to the mountain scenery, still exists today. "The "" Taberrizian Art "" was coined in the age of the Ilkhaniden, Kara Koyunlu and the Safavids.

Tabriz became the centre of the renowned Farsi schools of miniaturism. Orhan Pamuk in My Name Is Red tells a fascinated fictitious depiction of the paintings "Tabrizian Style" in Safavid's time. One of the best recipes in Tabriz: They have been cooking in Iran for many years and until recently it was the principal course of most Tabriz family meals.

Kababab cheese, kababab and fried tomato (and occasional fried spicy peppers) on a platter with stewed rice[72], is Iran's statewide food. Tabris is known for the excellence of his Kababab Khelow. You can also find sweets, cakes, and crackers, some of which are Tabriz specialities, like Qurabiya, Tabrizi Lovuez, Riss, Nougat, Tasbihi, Latifeh, Ahari, Lovadieh, and Lokum.

Eynali, a hill at the northeast end of the town, is an interesting, park-like, favourite site. And Eynali was a sparse hill, on the top of which there was a giant square tower, pointing at the town of Tabriz. Tabriz offers an extensive range of industries in the area. One of these is Iran Tractor Manufacturing Co (ITMCO), one of the largest industry centres in the area.

Alone this facility has the highest casting and forgings capacities in the Middle East and is the largest tractors producer in Iran with several manufacturing facilities in Iran and other states. ITMCO is backed by several other industry centres, among them Mashin Sazi Tabriz Co, Iran Diesel Engine Manufacturing Co (IDEM), Pump Iran, Tabriz Petrochemical complex, Tabriz Oil Refinery and several industry areas, among them several hundred small industry sectors.

It is also a place for plenty of nourishment and some of the most renowned cocoa mills in Iran, which have made the country the cocoa town of Iran. Tabriz is chosen as the cosmopolitan capital of craft and rug because of its distinctive craftsmanship and rugs. 75 ] Tabriz is the pipe area for the artifact of the known Iranian covering.

Tabriz carpets' unmistakable longevity and unrivalled design have made them a well-known name on the global carpeting market. The Tabrizi tapestries and tapestries usually have an ivory background with blues, pink and indigenous blues. An important feature of Tabriz tapestries is the weave technique, which uses specialities that ensure the shelf life of the tapestry compared to Kashan tapestries, for example.

Apart from carpet, the town is known for numerous other crafts such as silverware, woodcuts, ceramic and earthenware, Ghalamzani (Iranian toreutic style), Moarraq (Iranian mosaic style), Monabbat, embroidery. Tabriz's shopping centres are unique in that most of them are intended for a specific contract, such as household goods, jewellery, footwear, clothing, weddings, ladies/babies/men specialities, leathers, crafts, agricultural produce, computer hardware, electronics, industrial machinery, pipeline machinery, chemicals, agricultural machinery, stationary, books, carpet, building material and others.

There are also temporary and temporary trade shows, mainly at the International Exhibition Centre Tabriz. The International Exhibition Centre Tabriz, situated in the east part of the town, hosts dozens of expositions according to the annual plan. In Tabriz there are 14 of the most famous Iranian colleges and universities.

Founded in 1947, the Universität of Tabriz[77] is the most renowned institution in northwestern Iran. Tabriz is also one of the country's five parent institutions, acting as a local scientific centre for the area. In addition to the Täbris Unversity, there are several other pubic Unversities in the area.

The Tabriz University of Medicinal Science has divisions in various areas of medicine and paramedics. Until the beginning of the 80s this university was part of the University of Tabriz. Founded in 1989, Sahand University of Technology specializes in various areas of engineering and technology science. The Azarbaijan University of Tarbiat Moallem was founded in 1987.

Ázerbaijan is a general higher education area. The Payam-e Noor of Tabriz is part of the Payame Noor of the Distance Learning Universities Distance Learning Networks. Azad -Universität Islamische von Tabriz,[79] Daneshvaran Higher Education Institute,[80] Seraj Higher Education Institute,[81] Universität College of Nabi Akram,[82] Université Khajeh Rashid. Elmi Karbordi-Universität Tabriz,[83] Tabriz College of Technology,[84] Roshdiyeh Higher Education Institute of Tabriz,[85] Jahad Daneshgahi (ACECR) Higher Education Institute (East Azerbaijan Branch), Alzahra College of Technology, State Organization of Technical and Vocational Training.

Pupils go to elementary for five years, intermediate for three years and junior high for three years. For those who go to higher education, they must first spend a year in colleges. Whereas the dominant tongue in Tabriz is Azerbaijani, Persian is used in classes. This is a listing of the most popular high-schools in town: the Gymnasien:

Opened in 1891, the Commemorative school is one of the most renowned American missionary colleges in Iran. In the aftermath of the Second World War, the name of the Parvin High College was renamed, under the direction of the Iranian Department of State. At present it is subdivided into three separated grammar colleges, and the initial edifice is undergoing renovation.

And Howard Baskerville used to be a teacher at Memorial High. The Roshdieh-Schule is the first contemporary school in Iran founded by Haji-Mirza Hassan Roshdieh. Currently, the office is used as the Tabriz office of the National Documents and Library Office. The Vahdat University of Applied Sciences is another renowned Tabriz secondary education area. Before the Second World War, it was invented by the Germans.

Berdowsi High is one of the biggest and best known high education establishments in Tabriz. Before the Second World War the initial structure was built by a group of Germans as a H-shaped clinic, later used as a secondary modern university. The Valiasr Religionsschule and Talebieh Islamische Wissenschaftsschule are two large Islamic colleges in the town that are used for Islamic literary instruction.

The Tabriz National Liberty, also known as the Central Liberty of Tabriz, is the town' s most extensive and renowned one. Täbris National Gallery has the world' s greatest selection of classical manuscript Iranian literary works in the north-west of Iran. And there are many other publics around the town, such as the Tarbiat Bible Book, Helal Ahmar, Shahid Motahhari, Shahriyar, Jafarieh and Farhangsara.

Most of the Tabriz urban area's government clinics and healthcare centres are operated by the Ministry of health, some of which are focused on the Tabriz Faculty of Medicine. The inhabitants of Tabriz usually travel by local buses, shuttles, subways, bicycles and private coaches. The Tabriz buses link its neighbourhoods and some of its outskirts with the centre of Tabriz.

There is also a Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) line in Tabriz that goes 18 km from the railway station west of Tabriz to Baseej Square in the far east of the town. The Tabriz also has a bus transfer system that links the inner cities with the main parts of the town.

In the town there is another taxiservice which uses the telephone and is operated by privatenterprises. The Tabriz region is interconnected with Europe via the Turkish and Bazargan (Azerbaijani, Persian: ???????) highways. The Tabriz highway is connecting with Tehran via highway 2 (Iran). Iran is interconnected with the Iranian State Railways (IRIR, Persian: ???) and with the Turkish railway via the Ghotour River Link (Azerbaijani, Persian: ????) in the West Azerbaijan region of Iran.

Tabbris was the first town in Iran to be serviced by the railway with the building of the Tabriz-Jolfa line in 1912-1914 (later switched to wide track in 1916). The Tabriz railway station is situated in the west part of the town, at the end of Khomeyni Street. The Tabriz is a centre for the most important sporting activities in the area.

There are several sport facilities in the town. Bagh Shomal is the largest sport centre in the town, comprising a football pitch, indoor and outdoor pools, an indoor and outdoor football pitch for playing football, baseball and beach ball. Besides many other sporting pursuits, football and biking have been increasingly noticed by the municipal football clubs and internationals that take place in the town.

Tabriz's large number of supporters made it home to four of Iran's biggest football teams: Traktor Sazi and Maschine www. gostaresh and foolad Gostaresh are playing in the Iran Pro League. Traktor Sazi is very much loved in the northwest of Iran. Shahrdari Tabriz's and Shahrdari Tabriz's games in the lower divisions take place in the older Bagh Shomal Stadion, near Tabriz city centre.

Dabiri Tabriz is the city's most important football fanciers' association. He was established in 1998 and performs in the Oloum Pezeshki Arena in the town. Shahrdari Tabriz, who is playing in the bigger Shahid Poursharifi Arena, is the city's other footballer. Usually the nightclub is a mid-table and has less assistance throughout the town.

The Tabriz is also home to the Azerbaijan cycling tournament, which has been taking place annually on a schedule since 1986. It is the most prestige cycle trip in Iran. The Tabriz Petrochemical Recycling Club, a cycle racing club that participates in UCI approved contests on Asia, is also located in Tabriz.

The Sahand and Yam skiing areas are an hour's car ride from Tabriz. Throughout its long existence, Tabriz has been the starting point for many of Iran's lighting and modernisation projects. For this reason, the town was home to many prominent Iranians, among them many political and revolutionary Iranians, as well as painters and army commanders.

Below is an incomplete listing of some of the most remarkable individuals who were either natives or residents of Tabriz. Täbris is a partnership with the following cities: There are consular bureaus in Azerbaijan and Turkey in Tabriz. In the past, the Soviet Union and the United States had consular bureaus in Tabriz. Large conurbations of the world - population statistics and maps".

Archives from the originals on 13.09.2008. Commemoration of the "World Carpet Weaving City" on 6 October 2015 in Tabriz, Iran. The World Crafts Council Asia Pacific Area. Tabriz was designated as an example tourist town for 2018 ". realisticiran. Tabriz has chosen OIC Citycity of Tourist for 2018. Archives from the originals, 22 August 2016.

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Maziar Behrooz, rebels with a cause: leftist failures in Iran, I.B. Tauris, 2000. "Establishment of an Azerbaijani Common Intelligence in Iran, Nationalities Papers, Volume 28 (3), 2000". doi:10.1080/713687484. R. Bergquist, The Role of AIR POWER in the Iran-Irak War, Air University Press, Washington DC, 1988, S. 46. & 57.

"The Shahsevan in Safavid Persien", Bulletin der School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, Band 37, Nr. 3, 1974, S. 324. "The Safavid Dynasty", Online Edition 2007, archives 2008-01-20 at the Wayback Machine. Climatic datas for Tabriz, 1963-1990. "Tabriz's highest ever temperatures until 1951-2010." Meteorological Organization of Iran.

"Tabriz's Worst Records until 1951-2010." Meteorological Organization of Iran. "Mean max temp in Tabriz until 1951-2010." Meteorological Organization of Iran. Archives from the originals, 7 March 2016. "Tabriz mean daytime temperatures until 1951-2010." Meteorological Organization of Iran. "Mean Min. Tabriz Temperatures Until 1951-2010."

Meteorological Organization of Iran. Archives from the originals, 8 March 2016. Monthly total rainfall in Tabriz after month 1951-2010". Meteorological Organization of Iran. Median rel. air moisture in Tabriz up to month 1951-2010. Meteorological Organization of Iran. Archives from the originals, 7 March 2016. No. From rainy day 1 mm or more in Tabriz to 1951-2010.

Meteorological Organization of Iran. Archives from the originals, 8 March 2016. No. From Tabriz snowshoe day to 1951-2010. Meteorological Organization of Iran. Archives from the originals, 7 March 2016. 1951-2010 Tabriz month totals solar hour. Meteorological Organization of Iran. Archives from the originals, 8 March 2016.

Maraghi (15th century) refers to the Turkic and Shirvani tanbur, which had two string tunings in the second string (called Farangi by the Kurds and Lors) and which was very much liked by the residents of Tabriz (a place which at the beginning did not speak Turkish) " ^ Azari, the ancient language of Azerbaijan", Encyclopædia Iranica, Op. cit.

?? Zab?n ?? Zab?n ?? Zab?n ?? Zab?n ??, Zab?n Zab?n ??, Zab?n ?? Zab?n ??, Zab?n Zab?n, Zab?n Zab?n, ?? ?? Asghar Sadeqi, "Some Verses in Karaji, Tabrizi and Others" in Zab?n-Shenasi(Persian), Year 15, No. 2 (Fall and Winder), 1379 (2001). Phyllis G. Jestice (Edit.), Holy People of the World:

Tabriz International Exhibition Co. Archives from the orginal on 13.11.2011. Islamic Azad University of Tabriz. iaut. ac. ir. University College of Nabi Akram. Elmi-Karbordi University of Tabriz. Archives from the orginal on 17.12.2009. Tabriz College of Technology. Roshdiyeh Higher Education Institute of Tabriz.

Archives from the orginal on 02.12.2008. East Azerbaijan Park of Science & Technology". Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Department, Tabriz. Archives from the originals on 15.10.2012. Shahid Beheshti Training Teacher Center of Tabriz. Archives from the orginal on 30.06.2013. Archives from the originals on 16.06.2012.

Archives from the orginal on 07.07.2012. Archives from the orginal on 24.10.2005. Archives from the orginal on 26.03.2013. Azerbaijan' s twinned towns. Archives from the originals on 27.10.2013. Istanbul Twinned. Archives from the originals on 8 May 2012. Archives from the originals on 8 May 2012.

Erzurum and Tabriz become "sister cities". Archives from the originals, 2 April 2015. Archives from the originals on 8 May 2012. Archives from the originals on 8 May 2012. Iran's Tabriz to sign the Twin Towns Agreement with Turkish Konya". Archives from the originals on 20 January 2015.

Uruguay: "Iranian cities of Vietnam sign partnership agreement". Ganja Tabriz Twin Cities. wikivoyage has a guidebook for Tabriz. ikimedia Commons has Tabriz related medias.

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