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dp="mw-headline" id="Ozone_and_temperature">Ozone und Temperatur="mw-editsection-bracket">="mw-editsection-bracket">>>>>clôture de la section mw-editsection
It is an alternating white stratosphere and then a mesosphere. "Schematic representation of the five primaries of the Earth's atmosphere: Coatings are true to life. The distance from the earth's upper reaches the top of the stratosphere (50 km) is just under 1% of the earth's area. The picture shows the lower stratospheric temperatures between January 1979 and December 2005, using a range of satellite-based tools.
Its lower stratosphere is centred about 18 kilometres above the earth's orbit. Stratospheric images are dominant in blue and green, indicating a slowdown over the years. Stratosphere () is the second large stratum of the Earth's sphere, just above the tropsphere and below the mesosphere. Stratosphere is layered in temperatur, with warm strata higher and colder strata nearer to the earth; this rise in temperatur with height is a consequence of the absorbance of the sun's ultra-violet rays through the stratosphere.
That is in contradiction to the tropsphere near the earth's upper crust, where the height reduces the height. Tropospheric -stratospheric boundary, the tropospheric and stratospheric region, mark where this thermal invasion begins. The stratosphere begins near the proximal contact line at 20 km (66,000 feet; 12 mi), about 10 km (33,000 feet; 6.2 mi) in mid-latitudes and about 7 km (23,000 feet; 4.3 mi) at the poles.
The temperature ranges from an averaging -51 C (-60 F; 220 K) near the tropical break to an averaging -15 °C (5. 0 °F; 260 K) near the mesosphere. The temperature in the stratosphere also varies with the season and reaches particularly low levels in the cold season of the year.
Stratospheric wind can far surpass tropospheric wind, and in the Antarctic, it reaches almost 60 m/s (220 km/h; 130 mph). In 1930, the mechanisms that describe the creation of the stratospheric barrier were described by the English physicist Sydney Chapman. Substances containing hydrogen atom icons, the resulting oxy-acids are combined with atmospheric molecules to create OZ.
In turn, it photolyses much faster than molar oxidation because it has a higher absorbance, which appears at longer wave lengths where sun radiation is more intensive. Optoelectronics (O3) Photo lysis generates D and D. Fast photorelysis and reforming of the stratosphere warms up the stratosphere and leads to thermal invasion.
The rise in height is typical of the stratosphere; its ability to withstand blending means that it is layered. Inside the stratosphere, however, it rises with height (see thermal inversion); the peak of the stratosphere has a temp of about 270°C ((-3°C or 26.6°F). In the stratosphere, this upright layering, with warm upper and cool lower strata, makes the stratosphere dynamic stable: there is no periodic air circulation and associated turbulences in this part of the environment.
Exceptional energy recovery phenomena, such as volcano eruptions and peak overshoots during heavy storms of supercells, can bring the convective energy very locally and temporarily into the stratosphere. All in all, the weakening of sun ultraviolet radiation at wave lengths that harm the OO2 layer's genetic make it possible for there to be live on the planets outside the world.
The stratosphere must be passed through all atmospheric streams into the stratosphere, the minimal temperatures separating the stratosphere and the trposphere. Ascending bubbles are virtually freeze-dried; the stratosphere is a very arid place. At the top of the stratosphere is known as the strikeopause, above which the body falls in altitude. Sidney Chapman gave a proper account of the sources of stratospheric straton and its capacity to produce warmth in the stratosphere; he also noted that it can be disrupted by interacting with nuclear O2 and forming two molecule of atmospheric O2.
Now we know that there are extra ODPs and that these are catalysts, which means that a small amount of the catalyzer can kill a large number of ODM. Firstly, the OH- hydroxy radical reacts with it. Oxyhydrogen is generated by the chemical reactions of electronic stimulated oxy-acetylene ions, which are generated by ozonephotolysis, with steam.
The stratosphere is arid, but the photo chemical oxydation of CH4 (methane) produces extra steam in SIT. HO2 resulting from the OH- O3 reactions is converted back to OH by reacting with O2. Furthermore, by radiolysis followed by the production of OH .
N2O (nitrous oxide) is formed by bacterial action on the surfaces and is oxidized to NO in the stratosphere; the so-called nitrogen oxides radicals also degrade destructive zones of stress. In the stratosphere, chlorofluorocarbons are photolyzed, which release chlorinated carbon compounds that form clorine and oxygen by reacting with it.
ClO is reacted with oxygen in the top stratosphere or when ClO is self-reacting in the ANTARC. In 1995 Paul J. Crutzen, Mario J. Molina and F. Sherwood Rowland received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for their work on the generation and depletion of the stratosphere.
Usually passenger aircraft fly at an altitude of 9-12 km (30,000-39,000 ft), which is located at the lower part of the stratosphere in moderate climates. 9 ] This optimises propellant economy, mainly due to the low temperature near the tropical break and the low atmospheric densities, which reduce the parasitical resistance on the cell. This also allows the aircraft to remain above the tropospheric turbulence.
Concorde flew in mach 2 at about 18,000 meters (59,000 ft), SR-71 in mach 3 at 26,000 meters (85,000 ft), all within the stratosphere. As the temperatures in the tropical break and the lower stratosphere are largely stable with rising altitudes, there is very little heat and the resulting turbulences.
The most turbulences at this height are due to fluctuations in the beam current and other regional windshear, although areas with strong convex activities (thunderstorms) in the lower part of the globe can generate turbulences due to convex overshooting. Stratosphere is an area of intensive interaction between radiant, dynamic and electrochemical reactions, in which the horizontally mixed gas constituents progress much faster than the vertically mixed one.
Stratosphere total recirculation is known as the brewer-Dobson cycle, which extends from the Tropics to the Pole and consists of the tropic buoyancy of the atmosphere from the tropic tropes and the extra-tropic buoyancy of the atmosphere. The main circulatory activity is wave-driven, in which buoyancy is caused by the westerly propagation of Rossby waves, a phenomena known as Rossby waves pumps.
One interesting characteristic of stroatospheric flow is the QBO in the tropics, which is powered by gravitational wave convective produced in the tropic. QBO initiates a secondarycirculation, which is important for the worldwide stratospherical transportation of tracer like ozone or steam. A further major characteristic that significantly affects the stroatospheric flow is the refracting planet waves, which lead to an intensive quasi-horizontal mixture in the mid-latitudes.
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