St Stephen's CathedralSt Stephen's Cathedral
Nowadays it is one of the most important Gothic buildings in Austria. St. Stephen's Cathedral is one of Vienna's landmarks.
The Cathedral of St. Stephen (1359), which took away the second temple and left St. Stephen's Cathedral as it looks today. The partly Romanic chapel, built in 1137 under the Treaty of Tolls, was ceremonially consecrated in 1147 in the company of Conrad III of Germany, Bishop Otto von Freising and other noblemen of Germany who were on the verge of the second Crusade.
However, in 1258, a major fire devastated much of the old edifice and a large substitute edifice, also Romanic in appearance and re-using the two spires, was erected above the remains of the old one. It was inaugurated on 23 April 1263. King Albert I had a Gothic three-nave chancel built in 1304 just south of the temple, broad enough to reach the tops of the old aisles.
Most of the central aisle is devoted to St. Stephen and All Saints' Day, while the northern and southern aisles are devoted to St. Mary and the apostles respectively. Rudolph IV layed the foundation stone for a Visigothic expansion of the Albertine Chorus near today's southern spire on 7 April 1359.
The extension was finally to encase the whole of the old cathedral, and in 1430 the building of the old cathedral was taken out from the inside as part of the work on the new cathedral. Completion of the southern steeple took place in 1433 and the longhouse was vaulted from 1446 to 1474. In 1450 the cornerstone for a northern spire was placed and the building began under Lorenz Spenning, but the building was discontinued when the great work on the cathedral was stopped in 1511.
The cathedral was protected from deliberate demolition during the Second World War by the withdrawal of Nazi troops, when Captain Gerhard Klinkicht disobeyed the order of the town commander Josef Dietrich to "fire a hundred grenades and lay them in ruins". Hoists brought the fire to the cathedral, where it seriously destroyed the top and caused it to overturn.
Luckily, protecting brickwork clams around the pulpitre, Frederick III's grave and other valuables minimised the damages to the most precious works of art. The southern and the northern towers, together with the tile mosaics. "with toothaches" Plan of St. Stephen's Cathedral. "The high altar; Maria Pötsch icons; the northern spire; the pulpitre; the funeral orchestra; romantic towers; the sundial; the pulpitre of St. John of Capistrano; the southern spire; the major part of the cathedral contains 18 shrines, others in the various oratories.
Both the High Altar (HA) and the Wiener Neustädter Altar (WNA) are the best known. In 1641-1647, the high altar was erected as part of the first restoration of the cathedral in the early part of the Gothic period.
Tobias Pock, under the leadership of Bishop Philipp Friedrich Graf Breuner of Vienna, erected the shrine with Polish, Styrian and Tyrolean stone. It depicts the stone carving of the St. Stephen's protector. Surrounded by statues of local patrons - St. Leopold, St. Florius, St. Sebastian and St. Rochus - it is crowned with a Marian sculpture that directs the gaze of the observer to heaven, where Christ is waiting for Stephen (the first martyr) to soar.
In 1447 Emperor Frederick III ordered the Wiener Neustädter Altar at the top of the northern aisle. The grave is in the opposite directio. It was ordered by Frederick for the Cistercian monastery of Viktring (near Klagenfurt), where it was kept until the closure of the monastery in 1786 as part of the anti-church reform of Emperor Joseph II.
Then it was sent to the convent of Cistercians St. Bernhard von Clairvaux (founded by Emperor Friedrich III.) in the town of Wiener Neustadt and eventually in 1885 to St. Stephen's Cathedral, when the convent Wiener Neustadt was shut down after the merger with the convent Heiligenkreuz. Neustädter Altar consists of two triptychs, the top one fourfold larger than the lower one.
The Gothic lattice of the former relic deposit above the alter is exposed when the lower boards are opened. Since Csigri could not afford the 6 HUF charge, the Hurta was purchased from L?rinc, which she gave to the Pócs Cathedral. In 1696, after allegations of two wondrous events with her mum in the painting, who supposedly shed genuine tears, Emperor Leopold I had her taken to St. Stephen's Cathedral, where she would be protected from the Moslem army, which still ruled a large part of Hungary.
After arriving after a five-month triumphant voyage in 1697, Empress Eleonora Magdalena ordered the magnificent Rosa Mystica Octad and the frame (now one of several) for her, and the Emperor himself ordered the image near the high altar in front of the cathedral, where it was prominent from 1697 to 1945.
It has been in a different setting ever since, above an alter under a mediaeval stonebaldachin near the south-western edge of the aisle - where the many lit candle lights show the degree of his worship, especially by the Hungarians. The painting has not been seen crying since his advent, but other wonders and answers to prayer were ascribed to him, among them the defeat of the Turks by Prince Eugene of Savoy in Zenta a few days after the image was installed in St. Stephen's Cathedral.
In order that the worshippers could better hear the homily in the day before the microphone and loudspeakers, the pulpitre is placed at a column in the aisle instead of in the choir in front of the chur. These Gothic flower leaves contain reliefs of the four physicians of the Orthodox churches (St. Augustine of Hippo, St. Ambrose, St. Gregory the Great and St. Hieronymus), each in one of four different tempers and in one of four different lifecours.
Below the staircase is one of the most popular icons of the cathedral: a stony self-portrait of the anonymous sculptress, who gapes out of the windows and is therefore also known as a looker of windows. The cathedral has several official chapels: Katharinenkapelle, at the foot of the southern spire, is the baptistery.
This 14-page baptistry was finished in 1481 and used to be the soundboard above the famous pulpitre in the central sacra. The four evangelists are shown on the pedestal of stone, while the twelve Christ and Stephen are visible in the alcoves of the pelvis. The chapel of St. Barbara, at the foot of the northern spire, is used for contemplation and prayers.
St. Eligius Church, in the south-eastern part of the building, is open for prayers. There is an alter devoted to Saint Valentine, whose corpse (one of three kept by different churches) is in another upper floor cloister. In the north-eastern part of the building, the PES (Chapel of the Cross) houses the tomb of Prince Eugene of Savoy in the vaults with 3 caskets and a urns of the Sacred Heart, under a solid plate of stones with metal beads.
There is a genuine barber's moustache on the crossed Christ above the shrine. The Chapel of St. Valentine, above the Chapel of the Cross, is the present depot of several hundred relicts of St. Stephen's Cathedral, among them a part of the table cloth from the Last Supper. There is a large trunk containing the remains of Saint Valentine, brought here about a hundred years ago from the present-day Chapters' Hall just outside the high chancel.
The cathedral has been enclosed by graveyards from ancient Rome since its inception and houses the corpses of celebrities and citizens. Since time immemorial it has been an honor to be entombed in a temple, near the saint's body, whose remains are kept there.
The less venerated were interred near, but outside the temple. In the cathedral are the graves of Prince Eugene of Savoy (PES), commanding officer of the Emperor's Armed Services during the War of the Spanish Succession in the Cross Chapel (northwest side of the cathedral) and the Holy Roman Emperor (Fr3), under whose rule the diocese of Vienna was built in the canonical form on January 18, 1469, in the Apostle Choir (south-east side of the cathedral).
The grave cover engraved by Niclaes Gerhaert van Leyden shows Emperor Friedrich in his crowning robes, encircled by the coat of arms of all his lordships. The ossuary and eight graveyards on the side and back of the cathedral were shut due to an eruption of the 1735 buckling pest, and the bone was transferred to the tombs beneath the cathedral.
Bishops, provostries and duke's abbeys are also located in the cathedral's lower level. In 1952, the last burial in the bishop's chancel under the southern chancel was that of the 98-year-old Cardinal Franz König in 2004. In another room the provostships of the cathedral are grave. Further members of the cathedral section are now entombed in a separate section in the central cemetery.
Prior to his deaths in 1365, Duke Rudolf IV had the cathedral erected for his ruins in the new cathedral he had ordered. The conservation and restoration of the mediaeval cathedral has been a continual operation since its initial building in 1147. One of the most obvious repairs currently underway is a multi-year refurbishment of the high southern steeple, for which a scaffold has been used.
Since December 2008, most of the work on the southern steeple has been complete and most of the towers have been dismantled. Since 1147, a great undertaking that the public and faithful had been awaiting in St. Stephen's Cathedral has recently been completed: the better warming of the cathedral in cold weather. Now heat the cathedral to approx. 10 °C (50 °F).
A 3-dimensional computer ized 3D cathedral is now available and it is possible to display detailled maps of the cathedral. If weather-beaten masonry needs to be fixed or exchanged, the computer system can produce life-size scale modeling of the nine full-time stonecutters in the local workshop against the cathedral's northernface.
Remarkable performers who were conductors at St. Stephen's: It was the setting for marriages and burials of many important personalities in Austria and Europe. Marriage of Antonie Brentano (1798), a patron essayist, who is conjectured to be Beethoven's "Immortal Beloved". As Vienna's symbol, St. Stephen's Cathedral is shown in various forms of communication such as movies, videos and TV shows.
The dome is also shown on the 10 cents and on the package of the Manner Cut waffle. Archdiocese of Vienna permitted the firm Manner to use the cathedral as a logotype for financing the salaries of a stonecutter who repairs the cathedral.
In 2008 Sarah Brightman gave a concerto to promote her latest record Symphony, which was filmed for a TV show and another CD released in September. Skip up ^ "Our Stephen's Cathedral" (in German). Released September 12, 2014. "The cathedral of St. Stephen and its symbolic politics".
Called up on September 12, 2014 ^ "The Story of St. Stephen's Cathedral". Our Stephen's Cathedral. The Standards at St. Stephen's Cathedral in Vienna". Viennese historical bioreactor. "Standards and Regulations - Exercice "St. Stephan in the Middle Ages" (en allemand). Accessed November 14, 2007.
Jumping up ^ It is often falsely claimed that Mozart passed away in poverty and was therefore laid to rest in an unmarcated tomb. It is true that according to the funeral law of 1784, everyone - whether wealthy or impoverished - had to be embalmed and laid to rest in community tombs without cows. Jumping up ^ "The organ in St. Stephen's Cathedral".
"Save St. Stephen's Cathedral" - Association for the Preservation of St. Stephen's Cathedral. Accessed January 1, 2013. Jumping up ^ "Stephanskirche: Accessed January 1, 2013. Jumping up ^ "Stephanskirche: Accessed January 1, 2013. Ibrahim A. -- A Ghanaian asylum seeker as a rapist". Released September 12, 2014.
Released September 12, 2014. High up ^ "St. Stephen's splendour at Franz Joseph's funeral". Leap up ^ "Waldheim, former UN-chief and Nazi, dead in Austria". Round-up ^ "Geburtagsmesse for " Manner-Schnitten"-Chef im Stephansdom" (press release). Released September 12, 2014.
Jeopardy ^ "Vienna: Hungary were celebrating "Balassi Mass" in St. Stephen's Cathedral"[Vienna: Hungary was celebrating in the "Balassi Mass" at St. Stephen's Cathedral]. St. Stephen's Cathedral in late Gothic style (First ed.). St. Stephen's Cathedral à Vienne et son histoire (en allemand). St. Stephen's Cathedral in Vienna. St. Stephen's Cathedral : the Monument St. Stephen's Cathedral : the Faith St. Stephen's Cathedral : the Monument of Faith St. Stephen's Cathedral : the Shrine St. Stephen's Cathedral : the Monument and the Cathedral St. Stephen's Cathedral : the Shrine St. Stephen's Cathedral : the Monument Branch St. Stephen's Cathedral : the Cathedral.
St. Stephen's Cathedral in Vienna. Vienna: Stephansdom. St. Stephen's Cathedral in Vienna : A room description (en allemand). St. Stephen's Cathedral in Vienna. St. Stephen's Cathedral in Vienna. St. Stephen's Cathedral.