Sistine ChapelSixtine Chapel
p?lla si?sti?na]) is a chapel in the Apostolic Palace, the Pope's formal home, in the Vatican. The chapel, called Cappella Magna, was named after Pope Sixtus IV, who renovated it between 1477 and 1480.
The chapel has been a place of pontifical and functional work since. Now it is the site of the Pontifical Concess, the trial by which a new Pontiff is chosen. Sistine Chapel's glory is mainly in the frescoes that adorn its interiors, especially in the roof of the Sistine Chapel and the Last Court of Michelangelo.
From 1508 to 1512, under the auspices of Pope Julius II, Michelangelo designed the chapel ceilings, a design that transformed the course of West European culture and is considered one of the most important achievements of all time. 5 ] In a different atmosphere after the sack of Rome, he came back and between 1535 and 1541 drew the Last Judgement for the Popes Clement VII and Paul III.
Michelangelo's works have attracted many people to the chapel since they were unveiled five hundred years ago. The Sistine Chapel is known as a place of papal conclave, while the main purpose of the Sistine Chapel is the Chapel of the Pontifical Chapel (Cappella Pontificia), one of the two institutions of the papal budget, which was known as the Pontifical Court (Pontificalis Aula) until 1968.
During the reign of Pope Sixtus IV in the latter part of the fifteenth centuary, the Pontifical Chapel had about 200 members, among them clergy, Vatican civil servants and respected laymen. During the year there were 50 times when the Pontifical Calendar required the entire Pontifical Chapel to come together.
Among them were the Christmas and Easter services, in which the Pope himself was a celebant. All other 27 services could be conducted in a smaller, less crowded room, for which the Cappella Maggiore was used, before it was reconstructed in the same place as the Sistine Chapel. Pope's first pontifical concert on the Sistine Chapel was the pontifical concert in 1492, which took place from August 6 to August 11 of the same year and in which Pope Alexander VI, also known as Rodrigo Borya, was chosen.
When the new Pope had accepted his choice, he announced his new name; at that moment the other carnal ists pulled a cable fastened to their seat to lower their awnings. Up to the reform initiated by Pius X, the porches were of different colors to determine which Cards had been nominated by which Pope.
After a concert to maintain the intactness of the ruins of the Sistine Chapel, joiners installed a slightly raised wood base next to a wood platform in the doorway for the cardinals, who for one or the other occasion had to be carried in a disableable.
There is no external facade or external procession doors, as the entrance was always from the interior of the Apostolic Palast (Papal Palace) and the outside can only be seen from the window and skylights of the Palast. Accumulation of other monuments has further changed the external image of the chapel.
Inside, the ground floor is sturdily arched to carry the chapel. Upstairs is the Sistine Chapel, the arched roof rises to 20. A third floor with cloakrooms is above the vaults. It was covered because it was a permanent spring of irrigation that penetrated the chapel door.
The chapel's image was reconstructed in the 1480' before the ceilings were painted. In the general chapel proportion, the length is used as the dimension. A flat roof of the chapel is a vaulted arch of a shallow tub that rises from a path that surrounds the wall at the height of the mullions.
The vaulted ceiling is intersected by smaller arches above each of the windows, dividing the vaulted ceiling at its lowermost plane into a row of large trailers that rise from flat pylons between each of them. Its vaulted ceiling was initially coated in bright bluish tones with golden star decorations, designed by Piermatteo Lauro de' Manfredi da Amelia.
9 ] The sidewalk is in a design in luxurious Alexandria, a ornamental styled in a colored quarry and colored stones, which mirrors the former proportions in the layout of the interiors and also mark the procession path from the entrance, which the Pope used on important events such as Palm Sunday.
The chapel is divided into two parts by a Mino da Fiesole, Andrea Bregno and Giovanni Dalmata canvas or a transna in marmor. Initially they offered the same room to the members of the Pontifical Chapel in the Shrine near the shrine and to local people. With the increase in the number of visitors of the Pope, however, the display was shifted, so that the area for the laymen was smaller.
Sistine Chapel's first step was to decorate the roof in gold plated star red and with ornamental border around the pendants' architectonic ornament. It was completely superseded when Michelangelo came to the roof in 1508. In 1480 they were ordered by Pope Sixtus IV and carried out by Domenico Ghirlandaio, Sandro Botticelli, Pietro Perugino, Cosimo Roselli and their studios.
Perugino, who came to the chapel in front of the Florentine Sisters, may have been in charge of the work. Probably the Ghirlandaio, Botticelli and Roselli committee was part of a conciliation between Lorenzo de' Medici, the de facto leader of Florence, and Pope Sixtus IV. Florentines began working in the Sistine Chapel in the early 1481.
On the lower floor of the window is a gallery of popes at the same height as life. The vaulted tips of the window are surrounded by the so-called bezels with the ancestors of Christ, which Michelangelo drew as part of the design of the ceilling.
This blanket was ordered by Pope Julius II and decorated by Michelangelo between 1508 and 1512. Michelangelo's original task was to draw the twelve monks on the vaulted triangle pendants; however, he required a free rein in the contents of the schema. His paintings are a set of nine images showing God's creation to the world, God's relation to mankind and the downfall of mankind by God's grace.
To the great followers he drew twelve Bible and classic men and woman who foretold that God would be sending Jesus Christ for the good of humanity, and around the tops of the window, the ancestors of Christ. That was disturbed by another order to Michelangelo to adorn the walls above the shrine with the Last Judgement, 1537-1541.
Paintings in this sequence required the extinction of two epochs from the life, the birth of Jesus and the discovery of Moses; several of the Popes and two groups of ancestors. It is adorned with the stories of Moses from 1481-1482. Michelangelo needed a prop to get to the floor; the first concept was from Julius's favourite engineer Donato Bramante, who wanted to erect a scaffolding for him that would be hung in the sky with cables.
The arch was pierced to lower the string and to protect the framework. Emilangelo was laughing when he saw the texture and thought it would make a hole in the roof when the work was finished. He used light colors that are clearly seen from the ground. At the bottom of the blanket he drew the forebears of Christ.
At the highest section Michelangelo drew nine tales from the book of Genesis. Michelangelo was asked by the Pope to draw Bible motifs of his own choosing as a precaution. Michelangelo drew the Last Judgement from 1535 to 1541, between two important historical dates, the sack of Rome by the mercenaries of the Holy Roman Empire in 1527 and the Council of Trent, which began in 1545.
This work was created on a large scale and covers the whole walls behind the Sistine Chapel alter. This picture shows the second Christ's come on the day of resurrection, as described in John's Revelation, 20. In the lower lefthand corner of the picture, the bodies are resurrected from their tombs and rise to be judge.
Judgement Day was the subject of a fierce quarrel between Cardinal Carafa and Michelangelo. Biagio da Cesena, Master of Ceremonies of the Pope, said: "It was a shame that in such a holy place all these naked characters were portrayed, which showed themselves so shameful, and that it was not work for a Pontifical chapel, but for the open bathrooms and taverns" In answer to this Michelangelo da Cesena Schein worked in the community as Minos, Justice of the Fiend.
When he lodged a complaint with the Pope, the Pope replied that his competence did not cover hell, so that the portrayal had to stay. He also drew his own portraits on the skinned hide of St Bartholomew. Sistine Chapel was restored on 7 November 1984.
It has been restored and reopened on 8 April 1994. That part of the Sistine Chapel that gave the greatest care is the blanket that Michelangelo made. Michelangelo's approach is to analyse and understand the technologies used and the conservators' reaction to this notion.
Careful study of the frescos on the bezels persuaded the conservators that Michelangelo worked solely in "buon fresco", i.e. the painter worked only on newly installed render and each part of the work was executed in its original condition. Michelangelo didn't work "a secco" in other words; he didn't come back later and added detail to the dried render.
Gary Bevans made the only replica of the Sistine Chapel ceilings in a chapel in Goring-by-Sea, West Sussex, England. 30 ] Before you enter the chapel, you will be shown a short film about the chapel's story; inside, a presentation of lights and sounds will explain the contents of the individual frescos.
"The Sistine Chapel is the only way to get an accurate picture of what a person is able to do. "This work was and is a lighthouse of our arts, and it has given so much usefulness and illumination to the arts of the paintings that it was enough to lighten a universe that had stayed in the dark for so many centennial.
And to tell the honest facts, anyone who is a painters no longer needs to worry about innovation and invention, new ways of drawing, posing, clothes on characters and various impressive detail, because Michelangelo has given this work all the excellence that can be given to such detail. "Rump up ^ Monfasani, John (1983), "A Desciption of the Sistine Chapel under Pope Sixtus IV", Artibus et Historiae, IRSA s.c., 4 (7): 9-18, doi:10. 2307/1483178, ISSN 0391-9064, JSTOR 1483178.
Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes, The Warburg Institute, 41: 322-326, doi:10. 2307/750878, JSTOR 750878, J. S. Theodor. Reviews of "Raphael's Cartoons in Her Majesty's Collection The Queen and the Tapestries for the Sistine Chapel" by John Shearman".
Michelangelo - The Sistine Chapel Ceiling, "Seven Common Questions About the Frescoes" Stone, Irving (2004), The Agony and the Ecstasy, Londres : Restoration of the Sistine Chapel: