ssspan class="mw-headline" id="Historique">Histoire
The Sintra (Portuguese pronunciation: [?s?t??]) is a town and community in the Greater Lisbon Area, situated on the Riviera of Portugal. Sintra is an important travel spot in Portugal, known for its painting and for its many historical buildings and chateaux. It is also an important resort for luxurious restaurants and tourists on the Riviera of Portugal and one of the richest communities in the state.
Vila de Sintra's historical centre is renowned for its romantic nineteenth centuries buildings, historical mansions and mansions, garden and countless regal buildings and chateaux, which led to the city' status as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The Sintra is also known for its various natural reserves and natural reserves, such as the Sintra-Cascais Natural Park and the Sintra Mountains.
Among the most famous sights of Sintra are the medieval Moorish Castle, the romantic Pena National Palace and the Portuguese Renaissance Sintra National Palace. The Sintra area was part of the huge Civitas Olisiponense during the Romans' invasion of the island, which gave Caesar (around 49 BC) or rather Octavius (around 30 BC) the Municipium Civium Romanorum name.
Some of the inhabitants of the territory were part of the Galeria and in the present town of Sintra there are traces of the Romans who lived from the 1st to the 2nd centuries B.C. to the fifth centuries A.D. There is a carriageway along the south-eastern part of the Sintra mountain range connecting to the major route to Olissipo.
According to the ancient tradition of placing graves along their streets and near their houses, there are also references to epigraphs of ancient burial memorials, mainly from the 2. centuries. Sintra was involved in the contentious wedding of the king to Dona Leonor Telles de Menezes during the rule of King Ferdinand (1367-1383).
1374 the king gave Sintra to the Lady Telles, whom he finally secretly marries in the northern part of the state. Together with Sintra, the king left the communities of Vila Viçosa, Abrantes and Almada to the face of his own personal counsel; after a face-off, the king gave up his obligations and traveled to Sintra, where he stayed for a whole months under the guise of the hunt.
As Sintra was relatively near Lisbon, many of its residents were asked to work on Crown project in the capital: 1373 King Ferdinand resolved to build the walls of the town and applied for money or labourers from coast countries in Almada, Sesimbra, Palmela, Setúbal, Coina, Benavente and Samora Correia as well as from the whole of Ribatejo and from the interior areas of Sintra, Cascais, Torres Vedras, Alenquer, Arruda, Atouguia, Lourinhã, Telheiros and Mafra.
In the dynastic crisis between 1383-1385, Sintra, together with Leonor Telles, supported the declaration of her daugther Beatrice, who marries John I of Castile as Queen of Portugal and Castile. Following the fall of the Kastilian armies in Aljubarrota (August 1385) by British and Portugese forces under the command of Nuno Álvares Pereira, Sintra became one of the last places to give in to the Master of Aviz, later King of Portugal (after 1383).
In the late fifteenth centuries, the importance of Sintra for the city' s travel routes prompted Queen Eleanor of Viseu (wife of King John II), the main beneficiary of the Portuguese Misericóridas at the time, to develop her main institution in Sintra. 14 ] The Hospital e Gafaria do Espírito Santo, of which only one remains for São Lázaro, was built to help and assist those who were leprous in the area ( the hospital still contains the seals of King John the Pelican and Queen Leónor the Shrimp).
During 1545, the clinic was placed under the management of the Santa Casa da Misericórdia of Sintra, which was founded by Queen Catherine of Austria, spouse of John III. Philip II of Spain took over the kingdom of Portugal with the passing of Cardinal King Henry (1578-1580) and initiated a crown association which lasted until 1640.
It was during this time that Portugal's great politics shifted from Sintra to Vila Viçosa, the main center of the House of Braganza, whose duke, descendant of John of Portugal, was heir to the seat of Portugal. In 1581, following the decree of the Cortes of Tomar, Philip became king of Portugal and took over an administrative body made up of the nobility of Portugal.
In October 1581 he crossed Sintra and visited the convents and church. At this time the Sebastian worship, the hopes of King Sebastian's coming back, ended when several counterfeit "Sebastians" were condemned. In 1585 Mateus Alvares, a native of the Azores on the Terceira Islands and custodian of the Sao Julio Sanctuary, pretended to be King Sebastian and caused conflicts in Sintra, Madra, Rio de Mouro and Ericeira.
So it was not strange that the 1619 attendance of King Philip IV of Spain (Philip III of Portugal) led many fleeing family to the heights. Throughout this unification (1580-1640) Sintra was a favoured place for Portugese "exiles" from the King's courts; aristocrats who wanted to dissociate themselves from the noble aristocracy bought land in the area, away from intrigues of the courts.
Meanwhile, the Lisbon quake of 1755 destroyed the center of Sintra and a series of fatalities that led to construction and reconstruction in the second half of the eighteenth cenury. Likewise in the eighteenth and eighteenth centuries, the first industry edifice was built in the city: the Fábrica de Estamparia de Rio de Mouro (Mouro River Stamping Factory) in 1778.
Pena Palace, Sintra's epitome of Portugese Romanticism, was founded by King Ferdinand, a colleague of Queen Maria II (1834-1853), a German-born member of the House of Saxe-Cobourg-Gotha. It was designed by Baron von Eschwege and Ferdinand II to replace the Sintra National Palace as an alternate to the Cascais Castelli Castel.
According to Sintra, the royal families of Louis of Portugal (1861-1889) and Carlos of Portugal ended their seasons with a visit to Cascais in September and October. 1854 saw the signing of the first agreement for the construction of a railway line between Sintra and Lisbon. At the beginning of the twentieth millennium, Sintra was recognised as a holiday destination frequented by the aristocracy and millions.
In 1910, the declaration of a Portuguese republic changed the Czech culture of Sintra. It has now fostered business start-ups; the area' s prospects for agricultural, industrial and trade expansion have been enhanced to encourage them. A committee was created to supervise the wine's qualities and encourage its export, and in 1914 a trade organisation (Portuguese: associação comercial et industrial de Sintra) was created to administer its licence.
During the first few years of the twentieth centuries, the city underwent the most rapid urbanisation, boosted by the railway connection to Lisbon and the arrival of tourists in Lisbon. Sintra, a ten kilometre long massive mountain of pomegranite - known as Monte da Lua or Promontorium Lunae according to the powerful traditions of the locals as cult of the moon - is formed suddenly between a huge plateau in the south and the northerly edge of the mouth of the Tejo, which winds its way in a hairpin bend to the Atlantic Ocean and the Cabo da Roca, the westernmost point of mainland Europe.
Its Mediterranean temperate and Atlantic influence, with temperate temperature and damp winter, is characteristic of mainland Portugal. Even though the Cabo da Roca region has a semi-arid microclimate, the Sintra mountain range is regarded as slightly humid: rainfall in the mountain ranges is higher than in the area.
Situated in the Sintra Mountains nature reserve (consisting of a lush heritage site), the city is affected by the presence of a microclimate. 16 ] For various causes (the Sintra Mountains mitigated the climatic conditions; soil fecundity; and relatively close to the mouth of the Tejo), the Tejo attracts significant early population.
Moderate climates and moisture resulting from close coastal exposure encourage the development of a lush Atlantic and Mediterranean woodland and mark Portugal's passage from north to south growing plant. Cork oaks (Quercus suber) are widespread in lowlands and hot areas and Portugese oaks (Quercus faginea) in calcareous areas.
Also found in the Sintra hills are: European acorn (Acer pseudoplatanus), hazelnut (Corylus avellana), whitethorn (Crataegus monogyna), hollies (Ilex aquifolium), bay leaf (Prunus lusitanica), Since 1966 the Sintra hills have been affected by fire that has devastated much of the native woodland, which has been replaced by acay and other fast-growing tropical plants.
Sintra's forest area is approximately 5,000 acres ( 50 km2), of which 26% ( 1,300 acres ( 13 km2)) are owned by the State through the Direcção Geral de Florestas-Núcleo Florestal de Sintra (General Directorate of Forests: Sintra Forestry Service). Recent statistics show that the Sintra S-Bahn system is the busiest in Europe and the IC19 from Lisbon to Sintra is the busiest in Europe.
Sintra's difficulties included large shuttle services to Lisbon, with intensive congestion during peak hours on IC19 to Lisbon. Sintra tram connects Sintra with the Atlantic coastline at Praia dei Maçãs, about 11 km away. Portugal's best conserved mediaeval royal palace, which was more or less continually occupied from the early fifteenth to the later nineteenth centuries.
The Much of Gulliver's Trevels (1996) is shot in Sintra and many of his buildings are on display. SINTRAT has partnerships with the following cities: e d e f g e f g a l y k m n e d e w e d e d e f g w e d e d e d e d a g a w a i d a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a d a a a a a d a a a a d a a a a b a a a d a a a a a a d a a a a a a a d a a a a a d a a a a a b b a a a a p a a a a a c amara Municipal, ed.
"This is Sintra for the Historia." Sintra, Portugal: Municipal of Sintra. One of the legal partners of his son-in-law, Count Rene de Chambrun, had gone to Portugal and rented an immovable property in the name of Laval for three years. Located just outside Lisbon, near Cintra, by the seaside, it is encircled by high ramparts.
"Act No 11-A/2013, pages 552 115-116" (pdf) (in Portuguese). Plano de Desenvolvimento Estratégico do Concelho de Sintra: Diagnostico da Situação Actual" (in Portuguese). Sintra, Portugal: Câmara Municipal de Sintra. 2710-692 sintra portal "