Short History of MyanmarBrief history of Myanmar
Burma's history in brief
Yangon, the oldest and most sacred buddhistic pagoda in Burma. Burmese prehistorians claim that its early civilisations were established under India's control and could not go back much more than A.D. 500. Nowadays, over 80 percent of Burma's tribe is Buddhists and the nation has the highest number of Buddhists as a percent of the overall populace.
In the 9th and 9th centuries, a group of northerners, the Bamar, became important and established the mighty Pagan Empire (today's Bagan). The old town states gave way to a more uniform government that culminated during the rule of Anawrahta ("Aniruddha"), who successfully united all of Burma until 1057.
Burma's next Union would come into being in the mid-sixteenth Century. The Burmese army leaders, for whom he is a paragon, admire his agression. After he died in 1581 at the early age of 66, he ruled almost all of Burma, Thailand and Laos.
The conflict with China at the beginning of the 20th millennium sparked off, but it was the 1824 conquisition of Assam by Burma's General Maha Bandula against an opponent who was to take it - Britain. While the first Anglo-Burmese conflict (1824-1826) was waged to reconquer the land Burma had wrestled from British India, other elements were at stake until the third one in 1885, which led to the complete annexation as well.
Burma was seen by the British not so much as a place to definitely take over, but as a place to conquer and a back door to profitable trading with China. In 1886, the British made Burma a Indian provincial and initiated profound changes in the composition of the state.
Indian citizens were used to fill public sector positions and the commercial interests of Indians and Chinese in Burma were promoted, provoking resentments among many of them. Farming was export-oriented and Burma became the world's biggest exporting country for raw materials such as rices. Opposition to Britain's domination lasted until 1890, when the Brits eventually wiped out whole communities to stop guerilla activities - a tactics still favored by today's warlords.
Here as elsewhere, division and domination were typical of the UK government, favouring certain racial groups over others, leading to conflicts of loyalty. In 1920, protest by college undergraduates was the first sign of further opposition to Britain's reign. Yangon Univeristy was a breeding ground of free radicals and a young legal schoolgirl, Aung San, became increasingly important in the struggle for country independence.
Both he and his colleague Nu (a later Prime Minister of Burma) join the group. This name, translated as "master", was an adoption of the concept of "colonial people in Burma" for the British. With the beginning of the Second World War, Burma's government parted with India.
was a co-founder of the Burmese Communist Party. As the Thirty Comrades, Aung San and 29 other young men went to Hainan Island in China (under Japan's occupation) for the education they had foreseen. It was a trade-off that the Japs would help Burma free itself from the colonialist Britain and give the country autonomy.
However, with the 1942 Japans' occupation of Burma, there was a mounting recognition that one group of colonists had been replaced by another. Then Aung San quickly switched sides and bargained with the Brits to expel the Japan. In May 1945 the Japans were successfully driven out of Burma. But many parts of the land were destroyed by the war.
Burmese government was re-established among the Brits and there were appeals to pursue Aung San for his participation in a 1942 kill. Nonetheless, the Brits were practical in supporting the 32-year-old man, and Aung San finally succeeded in negotiating Burma's independence from Britain in January 1947.
He also made an accord with the country's national ethnicities for a united Burma. A Transitional Goverment Election saw Aung San's AFPFL gain 248 of 255 meeting places. Mr Aung San and his minister set about working out the country's constitutional framework - but not for long. Aung San and several members of his office were shot down on 19 July 1947 at the behest of an opponent political figure.
Now Aung San's fellow U Nu, the charming U Nu, took over the rein and Burma eventually became self-sufficient at 4:20 a.m. on January 4, 1948 - the uneven lesson was selected by an astrogist. Burma's anti-British mood was so great that it chose not to join the Commonwealth, unlike other settlements that had also achieved sovereignty.
The U Nu administration has been facing many issues from the beginning - angry local communities and ethnical groups who felt isolated from the deep Buddhist Nu visions of the land, as well as the Kuomintang China Nazi force in northern Burma, have begun uprisings. Nu was looking for cooperation in the cosmopolitan arenas as he steered his land on an alliance-free course.
In spite of the ongoing wars in parts of the nation, the 1950' was a progressively developing decade for Burma, during which the recovery of the Burma economies began. By September 1987,'demonetisation' deprived most of Burma of its wealth and the UN accepted Burma into the Least Developed Countries Association. In 1988, during the " Democratic summer " of 1988, protests erupted in the state, fuelled by despair and a prospect of transformation.
We have seen tens of millions of politically active individuals leaving the land, but they have resisted and formed coalitions with the opposition groups of our nationalitites. Aung San's Yangon subsidiary Aung San Suu Kyi, who had come back to the Rangoon Peninsula to care for her failing mom, was asked to join a nascent democratic group.
A 19-member State law and order restoration council (SLORC) was to govern the state. The nonviolent attitude and lack of respect for politics of Aung San Suu Kyi, who conquered the heart of the population, was placed under home detention. However, when Aung San Suu Kyi's National League for Democracy won with overwhelming victory, the army declined to surrender it.
Aung San Suu Kyi received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1991. The National Convention was called in 1993 to draw up a new Constitutional Treaty and to pave the way for a possibleracy. September 2007 saw wide-spread road demonstrations in Rangoon and across the nation after the price of gasoline had risen dramatically.
Today Aung San Suu Kyi continues to be under detention after spending 12 of the last 18 years in this state.