Ruby BirmaBurmese Ruby
Valley of rubies. Alumina has been found in various areas of Burma. Among them are Sagyin (near Mandalay), Thabeitkyin, Naniazeik (near Myitkyina), Mogok and most recently Möng Hsu (central Shan state). The best-known is the Mogok Stone Tract, which has been the world's leading ruby resource for more than 800 years.
" It' Rangoon's Shwedagon Pagoda, icon of Burma, the Golden Land. "When you talk about Rubin, you immediately think of the Mogok Stone Tract in Upper Burma. Mogok is located about 644 km northern of Rangoon and has been the main spring for delicate jewels for 800 years.
Mogok ('1500 m) is situated in the Katha region of Upper Burma. Made up of dense jungle rolling countryside that rises to 2347 meters (7700 ft) above sealevel, the ruby mining region occupies about 400 square kilometers, although only part of it (70 square miles) is covered with gems.
It is one of Burma's most beautiful landscapes and is home to a number of colourful ethnical groups and a wide range of wild animals that include elephant, tigers, bears and leopards. A map of Southeast Asia showing the important gemstone locations, especially Burma. In the Mogok area, ruby is probably found by ancient people living here.
Probably Momeit, one of the seven children of Kun-Lung, the founders of the Shan family, is to govern a state near which there were ruby mines. 2. Talking about a Kanpalan kingdom[Kyatpyin?] (Mason, 1850; Halford-Watkins, 1934). Jerimo di Santo Stefano, a Genoa businessman, visited Pegu. It is described as a country fifteen from Pegu.
It is said that jewels and many other gems "grow" there (Major, 1857). It is not Duarte Barbosa who is visiting, but rather describing Ava and Capelam[Kyatpyin? and the ruby trades (Dames, 1918). He is visiting Pegu and describing the ruby spring as Capellan. Varthema got about 200 rubys from the Pegu royal in exchange for a gift of coral:
Caesar Fredericke visited Pegu, described the ruby business and bought ruby for later sales in Ceylon (Hakluyt, 1903-05). The first Englishman to arrive in Burma, Ralph Fitch visited Pegu and described the ruby-trading. Burma's Nuha-Thura Maha Dhama-Yaza forced the Momeik zavbwa (prince), Mogok and Kyatpyin to swap for Tagaungmyo (George, 1915).
British East India has its first contacts with Burma when Henry Forrest and John Staveley are sent to salvage the goods of a corporate valet who passed away in Syriam (Stewart, 1972). Fréd Sebastien Manrique visited Arakan, where he said the square was well filled with jewels, saphirs and even "grey" ambers (Luard, 1926-27).
Though he did not come to Burma, his memoir mentions that Ruby came from Capelan (Ball, 1925). His Majesty King Bodawpaya is sending tens of thousand prisoners from the Manipur Wars to Mogok to work the Mine. After that the landmines become a quasi-penal settlement (Halford-Watkins, 1932). Bodawpaya expands the territorial borders to Mogok, Kyatpyin and Kathé (Brown, 1927).
Ava and Ruby Mine on a hill named Woobolootaun opposite Keoum-meoum (Symes, 1800). An escaped British seafarer in the service of King Phagyidoa is sent to blow up a stone in a kingly ruby mine in Tapambin. Either he passed away in the mine or slid away silently, for nothing more was said of him (G. S. Streeter, 1889).
Giuseppe d'Amato, an Jesuit from Italy, visited Chia-ppièn[Kyatpyin] and described the ruby-mining. Its report (published posthumous in 1833) is the first recorded eye witness to the ruby mine (d'Amato, 1833). Great Britain annexed Pegu, which was captured with few casualties in the second Anglo-Burmese conflict (Stewart, 1972). But he does not describe but does not go to the ruby mine (Yule, 1858).
King Mindon Min. 1863 Mindon Min purchases the exclusive right to buy gemstones from Mogok. The ruby mine in Sagyin near Mandalay is blamed on a former mine manager from Germany by the name of Bredemeyer (E. W. Streeter, 1892). Thebaw took the seat after the deaths of Mindon Min (Stewart, 1972).
Mogok ( "G. S. Streeter", 1889) is visited by a group of engineers in Thebaw's service. Burma's Simla British Indian Consul tells the Calcutta Consul that a Frenchman has just received a licence from King Thebaw for the ruby mine in Burma. Thebaw is negotiated with Spanish and Spanish gamblers for mine licences in Mogok.
February 1884, a Francophone engineering graduate, Alexandre Izambert, went to Mandalay to obtain concessions for the ruby deposits of "Monieh and Rapyen". "He is offering Rs300,000 for the 750m permit on both sides of the Mandalay highway and the mine his business intends to work on.
The UK is using the Mandalay building massacre and a wood battle between the Myanmar authorities and Bombay-Burma Trading Corp. to infiltrate Upper Burma. Edwin W. Streeter becomes interested in the mine concessions in December (Stewart, 1972; E.W. Streeter, 1892). Great Britain officially annexed Upper Burma.
For the Mogok mine licence, contact the India office. Lord Dufferin invites tenders for the contract of tenancy that the Streeter consortium won with a bids of 400,000 Rs (E.W. Streeter, 1892). Forces of the United Kingdom reach the territory of Mogok. They entered the city of Mogok on 27 January 1887.
C. The Undersecretary of State for India sends Barrington Brown to Mogok to assess the value and terms of the Mining. Streeter syndicates with Rothschilds to become Burma Ruby Marines Ltd, which goes public on 26 February. Wasth is investigating ruby deposits in Naniazeik, about 80 km western of Myitkyina (Kachin State) (Penzer, 1922).
The first leasehold of Burma Ruby Maches Ltd, with a gain only in the years 1895-1896 (Brown, 1927). Only a few rented landmines are mined in Europe. Mogok, U Khin Maung Gyi (1938) reported on the Thabeitkyin stoneware wing just south of Mogok. Japs occupying Mogok. Myanmar gains British sovereignty. He is staging a war putsch that will isolate Burma.
Burma's Ministry of the Interior is banning the extraction and exploitation of precious stones, thereby renationalizing the country's precious stone deposits. Any ruby and jade licences previously granted to gold seekers are withdrawn (Mining Journal, Annual Review, June 1970). In Mogok, tenders are invited for privately and state-owned coal production companies (Kane and Kammerling, 1992). Ruby is found in Möng Hsu (Shan State).
Mogok ( "Ward", 1991) was visited by the first gemmologists from abroad in over 25 years. Embarrassed by the continuing contraband of Möng Hsu Rubinen, the Myanmar authorities close all ruby stores in Taunggyi and move legitimate trade to Rangoon (U Hla Win, personal commit., 14 Mar., 1995). There is no known date of the first discovery of ruby in Mogok.
Undoubtedly, the first people who settled in the area found jewels and spinel in the water. In 1915 Kunz mentioned a Myanmar myth from the ruby mine. In the first hundred years of our time, according to this myth, three feminine snake or naaga layed an egg; from the first Pyusawti, a Pagan emperor, was borne; from the second came an emperor of China, and from the third the ruby of the ruby mine was expelled.
Then a gold ball burst in the lands of Mogok Kyappyin and became metal and ruby in this world. The vagueness of the evidence (Ehrmann, 1957) indicates that the area was first populated by Mongols around 3000BCE. Halford Watkins (1934) indicated that Stones, Bronzes and Ices were found from a large number of jadeits in alleuvial excavations throughout the Mogok area.
Karstic cave scenery with its countless subterranean caverns makes the Mogok area interesting for antique man and pre-historic wildlife school. Although no important archaeological finds have been found in Mogok, this probably has more to do with the xenophobia of the Myanmar authorities since 1962 (and the ensuing decrease in all kinds of academia ) than with a shortage of educational materials.
In 1937-38, Hellmut de Terra (1943) produced a comprehensive account of the Pleistocene in the Mogok area as part of a survey of early man in Burma. However a lower pine was found in a cavern, which was thought to be that of a feminine caveman before modern man inhabited the Mogok area.
A lot of neolitic rock tools have also been found, from the surfaces of old lakeside patios about 3.2 km eastwards of the city of Mogok, or from caves. "Near the Mogok Caves, the people tell many stories of hidden kites and subterranean ghosts who once found sanctuary below ground.
While I was in Mogok, the locals thought I had come to look for a particular type of kite skeleton. In the end, after a week's residence, the price of fibrous fossils rose until the molear of an 11th century bull was rated as high as a five-carat ruby!
Scared to death by the appearance of the vast remnants of animals, they gave up their work and closed the doorway with a rock face so that the kite would not go out and devastate their town! It' s unlikely that a person could have lived in the Mogok area for a long time, especially in caverns, and not find the precious stones that have made the area so well known.
In 1889a, according to G.S. Streeter (1889a), one of the children of Kun-Lung, the founders of the Shan Dynasty, ruled a state near which there were ruby deposits, and payed an average of 2 dissident Ruby tributes (about 3.3 kg) annually to the state.
Honorable man (1957) described a tale that says that the contemporary Mogok was established in 579 AD by headhunters from the near Möng Mit (Momeik). When they lost their way, they found a "mountain fracture full of nice rubies" when they examined an uproar of many bird species. The history is similar to that of many gemstone occurrences and probably comes from the "Valley of Gemstones" of the sailor Sindbad in Sri Lanka, or perhaps from al-Kazwini's relationship with Alexander's Vale of Snakes and Diamonds in India (Kunz, 1913).
A febrile and snake-filled vale full of jewels was found in the Myanmar counter. It drew large raptors who grabbed the flesh and took it out, along with the attached robin. Burma has been associated with the ruby since the early days of Europe's contacts with East Asia.
This is how Nicolò di Conti, the first visiting Ava in Europe, described the Emperor of Ava: He rides on a leopard elephant with a golden throat around his neck, long to his feet and full of many beads. During 1502-1508 Ludovico di Varthema paid a visit to Pegu:
Their only commodity is jewelry, i.e. ruby from another town, Capellan[Ruby Mines District in Burma], which is away from this thirty-day trip; not that I have seen it, but from what I have seen from traders..... Don't think that the King of Pego has such a great name as the King of Calicut, although he is so human and homely that a child could talk to him, and he carries more stones on him than the value of a very large town, and he carries them on all his toes.
He is wearing some big golden circles on his feet, all full of the most precious stones; his hands and hands are also full. Half of the palms of his hands reach down his eyes through the heavy weights of the many gems he carries there, so that he sees the king's figure in the sunlight at dusk, shining so brightly that he looks like a god.
De Varthema and his group gave the royal reindeer as a present. Cape lamAnd further up-country beyond this city[Ava] and the kingdom there is another pagan town with its own kingdom, yet under the rule of Ava; which town or kingdom they call Cape lam.
There are many jewels for purchase on the Ava markets around them and they are much nicer than those from this place. RubiesThe main production of Ruby is in India, mainly on a stream known as Pegu. They know how to wash them in Pegu, but not how to burnish them, so they transport them to other lands, especially to Paleacate, Narsinga, Calicut and all of Malabar, where there are great artisans who chop and assemble them.
Comments from women* Pegu rubies. Numpuclo, the name given here to be used for the Pegu ruby in Malabar, is used by Mgr. In his opinion, the first character was given wrong because of a copyist's error and the term should be used, since in Malayalam the name of the ruby of the ruby has the meaning of" chuvappukallu" from kallu" stone" and" chuvappu" ruby", literally" ruby stone".
" See p. 107 and p. 108 for the sites where these jewels were found. Ralph Fitch, whose trip to Burma in 1586 lead to the establishment of the British East India Company, was the first Englishman to come to Burma. Kaplan is the place where they find the jewels, sapphires and spinels: it stands six days of Ava' s voyage in the royal family of Pegu.
In addition to commenting on the Ruby, Mr President, Mr President, Mr President of the Commission, Mr President of the Commission, Mr Fitch spoke of a strange indigenous tradition that many of the early travellers in Europe referred to in the area: At Pegu and in all countries of Ava, Langeiannes, Siam and Bramas the men carry grapes or small round balls in their secret limbs: some of them carry two, others three.
The grapes are of different kinds: the smallest are as big as a small nut, and very round: the largest are as big as a small chicken egg: some are made of bream and some of sterling silver; but those made of sterling silver are for the queen and his hands.
While visiting Burma in the 1980s, William Spengler encountered a man who said he had placed beads in his genitalia to enhance sex (very personal commit, March 20, 1995). In the eighteenth and eighteenth centuries Alexander Hamilton (1744), who travelled to India and Burma, also had some interesting comments about the Burmese.
Mr Hamilton also referred to the Burmese products: Nowadays, the country's main production is timber for construction, elephant, elephant teeth, beeswax, embroidery varnish, iron, tin, oryl of the earth, wood-oyl, rubies the best in the world, diamonds, but they are small, and are found only in the craws of poultry and pheasants,
a family has only the indulgence to sale them, and none dares to open the ground to excavate for them.... About twenty sailing boats find their accounts in commerce for the restricted goods, but the Armenians have the monopoly of jewels, which turns into a good bankroll in their commerce;
However, this was nothing in comparison to the renowned Parisian traveller and diamonds dealer Jean-Baptiste Tavernier about the King of Bhutan. There' is no king in the world more feared and admired by his people than the King of Boutan.....
They have said one thing for the sake of the truth: when the King has done the acts of Mother Earth, they keep the dirt, drying it and powdering it like powders; and then they put it in boxes, go every marketing days and give it to the leading merchants and wealthy farmers who reward it for its goodness: that these men also take it home as a great curiosity, and when they celebrate their mates, sprinkle it on their flesh.
Among the many reports about the gemstones of Pegu, as Burma was then called, perhaps the most interesting was that of Cæsar Fredericke of Venice, who travelled to Asia in 1563. Below is his depiction of the gemstone business in Pegu. It is one thing to be considered when purchasing jewelry in Pegu that the one who has no idea will have such good jewelry and as inexpensive as the one who has been practicing there for a long while.
In Pegu fure there are men of good repute who are named Tareghe, or realtors of jewels.... by the hand of these fuere men pass all the rubies: for they have such a quantity that they do not know what they have to do with them, but they at most selling abominable and basic prizes.
If the jewellers realize that he will use a good round sum, they will make a bargain, and if not, leave him alone..... if some Marchant has purchased a large amount of rubies and approved for them, he will bring them home to his home, let them be of what value they will be, he will have room to plunder them and look through them for two or three days:
Mogok belonged to Burma itself from 1597 AD. Sometime before 1833, the first Europeans to visited and wrote about the landmines in the Mogok area was a Portugese preacher, Giuseppe d'Amato. D'Amato came to Burma in 1784 and lived there for the remainder of his career.
A posthumous report on Kyatpyin's ruby work was posted in the Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal and is fully presented below: IV - Brief descriptions of gem mines in Kyat-pyen district, Kingdom of Ava. However, it should be noted that the soil that stays arid is the one that is excavated alone or punctured with the wells from which the gems are made.
All the gems and other valuable mineral materials are selected from this mixture and werehed in the streams that descend from the hill. Initially it was secretly bought by the Chinese on the premises; the Myanmar farm, aware of the circumstances, introduced a rigorous quest for the gem, and the vendors, to cover up the scandal, were obligated to buy it back at twice the cost and hand it over to the queen.
Gemstones found in the Kyat Pyas are generally ruby, sapphire, topaz and other crystal of the same genealogy, (the corundum...) emeralds are very uncommon and of substandard kind and value. Chinese and Tartar traders come to Kyat-Pyen annually to buy gems and other mineral materials.
There' s another place, just northern of this place known as Mookop, where there are also plenty of landmines with the same valuable beads. As I write this short message, anecdote is told to me by a highly respected figure about the detection of two rocks or, to put it better, two crowds ("amas") of an exceptional greatness jewels in Kyat-pyen.
A group of bandit Kyat-Pyen came for the second attack and burned down the whole city when the locals were about to bring them to the city. The robbers only managed to carry the smaller one of the two gems, but the bigger one was wounded by the flames: the middle of the rock, still in good condition, was taken to the kings.
The Kyat Pyon Hills are undoubtedly the Capelan Hills, referred to in Phillips' mineralogy as the site of the ruby - "60 Leagues of Pegue, a town in Ceylon". A. D., the Myanmar king Nuha-Thura Maha Dhama-Yaza passed a king's decree in 1597 AD, trading small parts of Burma under his command for the Mogok Stone Tract, previously under the command of a Shan sapha.
The name Mogok did not existed at that time, according to Halford-Watkins (1934), only the name was used for a mine area and a number of rice paddies about 8 km from the city. This is the name Mochok (`Nightfall Campsite'), which was later spoiled to Mogok.
and Kyatpyin are name for Gem. The order is issued that the Momeik take ownership of Sawbwa Tagaungmyo and hand over Mogok and Kyatpyin to Shwewamyo. We have to take over the jewels with a complete description of all the items (large and small) and deposit them into the treasury.
The Sawbwa are not allowed to make an appointment for Mogok and Kyatpyin, which were given to Shwewamyo in return for Tagaungmyo. Labyigyaw Thadingyut, 959 B.C. One might wonder why the Shan SAAPHA would consent to such a one-sided agreement in which a relatively valueless plot of ground was exchanged for the largest ruby mine in the underworld.
Myanmar rulers worked the stone wing as a kingly monument, in a thoroughly despotical way. Any ruby above the value of Rs 2000 was regarded as crown property and the omission to hand it over was punished with tortures and dead. The gemstones sometimes include some substandard saphire and topaz, but it is the jewels of the Myanmar Empire that are the most boasted, being the best in the whole wide globe in both brilliance and clarity.
They contain landmines located between Palaon and Koè. Emperor will employ officers and guard to guard these landmines and appropriate all rocks above a certain height and height; the capital punishment will be condemned against anyone who is to hide, trade or buy these reserved gems.
An indigenous coal-mining man in a twinned mine near Mogok, Burma. In the second half of the nineteenth decade, Mogok output dropped dramatically due to the tyranny and cumbersome policy of Burma's monarch operatives. Their move to Burma was slow but inevitable. The Pegu was captured after the Brits won the second Anglo-Burmese battle of 1852-3.
The year 1885 saw trade conflicts and reports of corrupt and massacred courts giving the UK the necessary apology to capture all of Upper Burma, as well as the Mogok Stone Tract. Whilst the UK took the capitol quickly, it took over a year for Mogok to be taken and five long years of skirmish before the remainder of Upper Burma was fortified.
I have spoken to some of the old officers and customs of the Mindoon Min and Thebaw palaces, and it was affirmed that most of these stories were purely inventions and that most of the rocks used were of very common and sometimes very bad qualities; while many of the large gemstones fastened to the garments and other royal utensils were made of colored tempered glas.
It reminds us more of the tales of the precious ruby trouser knobs that my boyfriend, the Sawbwa of Momeit, wore during his stay in London and that were used so much by a certain section of the media at the then. All the Sawbwa wear his home outfit, in which his pants don't have a blouse, let alone a ruby red one.
When Mandalay was taken, the fact that relatively few gemstones of importance were found in the hands of King Thebaw confirmed the testimony of these old officers. Soon after the annexation of Upper Burma in December 1885, London jeweller Edwin Streeter was in Paris for breakfast and overheard two men arguing about the Burma ruby-mining.
When he introduced himself, he found that a Parisian company, Bouveillein & Co, had set up a temporary leasehold of the ruby mine of King Thebaw. Upon Patton's entry to Burma, Gillanders, Arbuthnot & Co. of Calcutta and Rangoon, in association with an unidentified London jewellery agent, had already tendered two Rupee Lakhs3s for the rental.
With a view to further tendering, Streeter raised the bid to four lakh's (£30,000) for a five-year tenancy, which was tentatively approved, until the indigenous mine right inquiry (E.W. Streeter, 1892; Times of London, Aug. 17, 1887). Meanwhile, at the instigation of the UK India authorities, Streeter sent his boy, along with Bill, Beech and Rangoon graduate Robert Gordon, to join the UK army mission to Mogok, which Mandalay abandoned in November 1886 (E.W. Streeter, 1892).
In December 1886 Mogok was invaded by English forces. Mr. F. Atlay came to the Mine in February 1887 to act as an operative for the Streeterndicate. After that he became mine executive, a role he held under Burma Ruby as well. Moylan, then Burma Times of London correspondents, could raise enough issues to re-examine the rental agreement.
Faced with the dispute over the contract, the UK authorities agreed to deploy a qualified surveyor to cover the area. C Barrington Brown arrived in Mogok on January 10, 1888. It was the first geological survey of the Mogok area (Brown & Judd, 1896). Brown's account was finally accepted by the Foreign Minister and the rental contract was submitted for re-tender (E. W. Streeter, 1892).
N.M. Rothschild and Sons had contacted the secretary for India through their Exploration Co. affiliate and asked if they could offer for the Mine. Finally, the Streeter Group merged with N.M. Rothschild and Exploration Co. to form Burma Ruby Motors, Ltd. On February 22, 1889, the leasehold agreement was concluded, giving the business seven years with an extension of 400,000 rupees per year plus one/6th of the net profit (E.W. Streeter, 1892; P. Streeter, 1993).
Streeters and its employees later resold the rental agreement to Burma Ruby Mines, Ltd. for £55,000 (Brown, 1927).