Rohingya CitizenshipRoheingya Citizenship
And the Rohingya? Myanmar
Rohingya are an ethnical group, the vast majority of whom are Muslims who have been living in Buddhist Myanmar for centururies. There are currently about 1.1 million Rohingya in the South East Asia area. Rohingya speaks Rohingya or Ruaingga, a different language from others throughout Myanmar.
In Myanmar, they are not regarded as one of the country's 135 formal ethnical groups and have not been recognised as citizens since 1982, which has made them virtually stateless. Almost all Rohingya in Myanmar are living in the west coast state of Rakhine and are not permitted to go without prior approval from the Myanmar Governmen.
As a result of the continuing persecutions and persecutions, several hundred thousand Rohingya have escaped by road or sea to neighboring states. From where do the Rohingya come? Moslems have been living in the area now known as Myanmar since the twelfth centuries, with so many historicists and Rohingya groups.
According to the Arakan Rohingya National Organization: "Rohingya have always lived in Arakan," refers to the area now known as Rakhine. Five Rohingya were saved off the Sumatra Islands on 7 April. In the more than 100 years of Britain's reign (1824-1948), there was a considerable emigration of toilers from present-day India and Bangladesh to Myanmar.
As Myanmar was managed by the UK as a provincial of India, such migrations were regarded as intern. Following the country's sovereignty, the regime regarded the immigration that took place during the UK regime as "illegal, and on this foundation they deny citizenship to the Rohingya majority," HRW said in a 2000 statement.
Many Buddhists have therefore come to regard the concept of Rohingya Bengali as a new invention that was born for purely philosophical avenues. Soon after Myanmar's sovereignty from the British in 1948, the Union Citizenship Act was adopted, which defines which ethnic groups can obtain citizenship. Rohingya was not taken into account according to a 2015 Yale Law School International Human Rights Clinic survey.
However, the law allowed those whose family had been living in Myanmar for at least two generation to request an ID card. At first Rohingya received such a card or even citizenship within the framework of the generation regulation. Several Rohingya were also active in this period. The situation for the Rohingya drastically altered after the 1962 Myanmar war.
It was the duty of all residents to receive their own personal register card. However, only international IDs were issued to Rohingya, limiting their employment and training possibilities. A new citizenship act was adopted in 1982, making the Rohingya virtually stateless. According to the Act, Rohingya was again not recognized as one of the 135 ethnical groups of the state.
There are three citizenship thresholds under the Act. To reach the most fundamental stage (naturalized citizenship), it was necessary to prove that the person's home was Myanmar before 1948, as well as mastery of one of the local vernacular. For many Rohingya such papers are missing, because they were either not available or were refused to them.
The Act has limited their right to studies, work, travelling, marriage, religious worship and healthcare. Rohingya cannot elect, and even if they pass the citizenship test, unlike Rohingya, they must be identified as "naturalized" and there are limitations when they exercise certain occupations such as medical or legal, or run for a position.
Several raids against the Rohingya in the state of Rakhine since the 1970' have displaced several hundred thousand people to neighboring Bangladesh, Malaysia, Thailand and other South East Asiatic states. In such raids, migrants have often told of the Myanmar authorities' rapes, tortures, arson and murders. Following the assassination of nine frontier policemen in October 2016, the regime accused a Rohingya group of fighting men and the army began flocking to the Rakhine state.
There followed a breakthrough of civilian settlements, during which junta forces were charged with a number of violations of people' s freedoms, culminating in extra-judicial killings, gang rapes and fires - claims that the regime rejected. A UN officer in November 2016 reproached the United Nations for ethnically purifying the Rohingya.
For example, in April 2013, HRW said Myanmar was running an anti-rohingya racial cleanup drive. Such allegations have been rejected consequently by the authorities. Inhabitants and militants described in August the indiscriminate shooting of Rohingya men, wives and warriors. However, the administration has said that nearly 100 men were murdered after gunmen from the Arakan Rohingya Salvation Army (ARSA) raided the area.
Throughout February 2018, the Associated Press published a footage that shows what they say is the site of a massive slaughter and at least five unknown grave masses of Rohingya in Myanmar. Myanmar's UN envoy said that the Rohingya's violent actions bear the marks of indigenous peoples' murder. Myanmar's administration destroyed at least 55 Rohingya inhabited communities, thereby damaging proof of crime against the ethnic minorities, Human Rights Watch said.
In February, the right-wing groups published pictures showing that areas that were once full of trees and trees were vacated between December 2017 and mid-February. The HRW described the Myanmar military's operations as an "ethnic clean-up campaign" and urged the UN and Myanmar's donor agencies to call for an end to the destruction.
362 towns have been totally or partly devastated since Myanmar's army started a Rohingya war against the country in August last year, HRW said. Where have Rohingya escaped from Myanmar and where have they gone? Almost one million Rohingya have escaped Myanmar since the end of the 1970'.
More than 168,000 Rohingya have escaped from Myanmar since 2012, according to the latest available UN information from May. After the outbreak of the outbreak of force last year, more than 87,000 Rohingya escaped to Bangladesh from October 2016 to July 2017, according to the International Organization for Migration. Many Rohingya also put their life at risk to travel by ship across the Bay of Bengal and the Andaman Sea to Malaysia.
The UN estimates that there are up to 420,000 Rohingya migrants in Southeast Asia before the August 2017 war. In addition, there were around 120,000 Rohingya sold in-house. More than 650,000 Rohingya have escaped to Bangladesh since the beginning of the conflict in north-western Myanmar, the UNHCR said.
She added that more than 1,000 persons, mainly Rohingya, may have been murdered in Myanmar. Aung San Suu Kyi and the Myanmar administration say about the Rohingya? Chancellor Aung San Suu Kyi, de facto Myanmar's dean, has declined to speak about the Rohingya's predicament.
Mr Aung San Suu Kyi and her administration do not recognize the Rohingya as an ethnical group and blame those they call "terrorists" for the Rakhine violent events and the ensuing war. A Nobel Peace Prize winner who has no command over the army, she has been criticized for failing to denounce the random use of power by forces and to defend the interests of the more than one million Rohingya in Myanmar.
On several occasions, the administration has also denied allegations of abuse. The UN issued a February 2017 UN police statement stating that it was" very likely" to have perpetrated human rights violations since new armed raids began in October 2016. Back then, the administration did not go directly into the report's results and said it had the "right to legally protect the country" against "increasing terrorism ", and added that an internal inquiry was sufficient.
Myanmar's head of the Myanmar armed forces said to the Holy Father during his November 2017 trip to Myanmar that there was "no discrimination" in the land and commended the armed forces for the maintenance of "peace and stability". He was not tasked with investigating concrete cases of violations of people' s freedoms, but with dealing with long-term macroeconomic developments, training and health care.
In appointing the committee, the Aung San Suu Kyi administration said it would stick to its outcomes. Urging the authorities to end the heavily militarized action against the districts in which Rohingya lives and the limitations on freedom of mobility and citizenship. After the publication of the August Review, the authorities welcome the Commission's advice and stated that they would "fully examine the Review in order to implement the advice in line with the local situation".
Aung San Suu Kyi in the final round of the attack accused a "huge berg of misinformation" of the crises, without even talking about the Rohingya who escaped to Bangladesh. She gave a television speech on 19 September in which she condemned "all violation of mankind " in Rakhine without explicitly naming the Rohingya. Myanmar, she said, was "ready at any time" to check the state of those who escaped last months.
The Rohingya people as well as those who accuse their leaders of "burying their minds in the sand" have criticized her talk. It has often limited journalist and helper entry to North Rakhine. Yanghee Lee, a UN report on Myanmar has said in January that she was refused permission to enter certain parts of Rakhine and was only permitted to talk to Rohingya, who had been previously authorised by the Myanmar state.
It has also refused visa to members of a UN raid investigation mission to investigate the abuse and abuse in Rakhine. So what does Bangladesh say about the Rohingya? More than half a million Rohingya migrants live in mostly temporary refugee centres in Bangladesh. Most of those who have transgressed their frontiers and live outside the camp are considered "illegally entering" Bangladesh.
In Bangladesh there have often been attempts to stop the Rohingya escapees from cross the borders. At the end of January, the state revived the plans to transfer ten thousand Rohingya migrants from Myanmar to a secluded, flood-prone area, which was described by legal groups as "uninhabitable". As part of the original plans launched in 2015, the Myanmar government would move undocumented Myanmar citizens to Thengar Char in the Bay of Bengal.
Right-wing groups have rejected the suggestion and said that the isle will be totally flooded during the rainy period. Bangladesh's last term for the Rohingya in Myanmar was "genocide". Myanmar's National Human Right Commission also said it was considering "a genocidal lawsuit against Myanmar and the Myanmar military before an extraordinary court".
Bangladesh's Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina paid a visit to a Rohingya Refugee Camps in September and called on the UN and the wider world to put strong urgency on the Myanmar administration to allow tens of millions of Rohingya returnees to come back. Bangladesh would provide transitory accommodation and assistance to the returnees, but Myanmar should soon "take back its nationals".
Bangladeshi migrants are not allowed to leave the crowded frontier areas. In Rohingya's main points of passage, policing and monitoring stations have been established to prevent travel to other parts of the state. So what does the global public say about the Rohingya? Much of the work of the Rohingya people has been carried out by the global population.
Myanmar and its neighbours have repeatedly been criticised by the UN and several legal groups such as Amnesty International and HRM. UN has said that it is "very likely" that the Rakhine army has done serious violations of people' s right to freedom, which could amount to acts of violence, which the regime disputes.
Right-wing groups have criticized the government's restraint in accepting UN agents. The Human Right Watch cautioned that the Myanmar administration is in danger of being beaten up by "pariah states" such as North Korea and Syria if it does not allow the UN to prosecute atrocities. Responding to the recent round of violent events, UN Secretary-General Antonio Guterres cautioned against the threat of ethnical purges and called on Aung San Suu Kyi and the country's military personnel to end the fighting.
At the beginning of September last year, Guterres also issued a warning of an impending "humanitarian catastrophe" if the fighting does not stop. United Nations Head of Humankind Zeid bin Ra'ad al-Hussein called on Myanmar to end its "brutal safety operation" against the Rohingya in Rakhine and called it a "textbook example of ethical cleansing". The two UN officers said they fully support the results of the Consultative Committee chaired by Kofi Annan and called on the authorities to comply with their suggestions.
Pope Francis paid a visit to Myanmar in November 2017 and although he did not use the term "Rohingya" specifically, he said that there must be acceptability and consideration for all nationalities. The ICC' s ( "ICC") prosecution asked the tribunal in April to decide whether it had competence to deport Rohingya from Myanmar to Bangladesh.
The Rohingya Arakan Salvation Army? In March 2017, the Arakan Rohingya Salvation Army (ARSA), formerly known as the al-Yaqeen Faith Movement, issued a declaration under its new name in which it said it was obliged "to uphold, save and safeguard the Rohingya community". This group is regarded by the Myanmar authorities as a "terrorist" organization.
Nearly 400 persons were murdered, most of them members of AARSA. However, right-wing groups say that several hundred of the civilian population has been murdered by police officers. Privileged to have "also been charged with murdering civil servants - suspicious informers " - and hindering men and young from escaping Maungdaw community in recent weeks and months", said RIG.
ARSA has connections to Rohingya in Saudi Arabia, according to the International Crisis Group. On 25 August, the Myanmar authorities officially categorized the group as a "terrorist" organization. Bangladesh and Myanmar in November 2017 concluded an agreement on the repatriation of 650,000 Rohingya migrants who have escaped the recent outbreak.
MEPs call for a similar treaty to be concluded in the 1990' to help Rohingya, who escaped an earlier repression under Myanmar's leadership. Burma has established two refugee centers and it is thought to be a provisional camps near the Rakhine frontier to accommodate the first people.
"We' ve been torturing, we' ve been murdered and our homes burned, we want Myanmar's citizenship and passports telling us that we are Rohingya. Commenting on the agreement, the Director of the Human Rights Watch (HRW) Human Refugees Law Program said: "Myanmar should approve a number of conditions for returning before the real departure begins. The Myanmar administration on 14 April in a Facebook mail reported that a five-member familiy had come back to the Dominican Republic, which was condemned by the Rohingya right groups as "staged" and as a "publicity stunt".
Pictures from the Saturday edition of the SPD showed five people in uniform from Myanmar civil servants who received healthcare and livelihood support from healthcare and welfare professionals. The Rohingya blogger, a website on the right of Rohingya operated by European campaigners, says that the people in the photographs are not Rohingya escapees, but the relatives of a Taung Pyo Latya curators.
Re-patriation was said to have taken place a few day after Myanmar Secretary of State Win Myat Aye paid a courtesy call to a Rohingya warehouse in Bangladesh's Cox' Bazar area. In the course of the meeting, Win said Myanmar is prepared to repatriate Rohingya. However, Ursula Müller, a high-ranking UN aid worker, warns that there are "critical questions of free movement" that the Myanmar administration must tackle before it begins repatriating, the AFP press office reports.
The UNHCR has also said that "conditions in Myanmar are not yet favourable to a secure, worthy and sustained return", and added that "the Myanmar government must remain responsible for the creation of such circumstances, and they must go beyond the preparations of the country's military infrastructures to ease logistics arrangements".