Riga was the European Capital of Culture together with Umeå in Sweden in 2014. This year Riga was host to the NATO Summit 2006, the Eurovision Song Contest 2003, the IIHF Men's Ice Hockey World Championship 2006 and the Women's Curling World Championship 2013.
This is the location of the European Union's European Regulators for Electronic Communications (BEREC). Henry's Livonian Chronicle shows that for a long time in the twelfth centuries Riga was a commercial center known as Portugal Old Harbor and depicts houses and storehouses where mainly linen and skins were stored.
19 ] Germans began to visit Riga and founded a near-by field post in 1158. 1282 Riga became a member of the Hanseatic League. As the Hanseatic League played a major role in giving Riga economical and geopolitical strength, it gave the Hanseatic League a solid base that survived the coming politic fires until now.
When the Hanseatic League's sphere of influence diminished, Riga became the target of international efforts, whether militarily, politically, religiously or economically. In 1522 Riga took the Reformation and ended the rule of the archiepiscopal bishops. With the downfall of the Order of Livonia during the Civil war, Riga had the rank of a Free Imperial City of the Holy Roman Empire for twenty years before it came under the control of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth through the Treaty of Drohiczyn, which ended the Riga Wars in 1581.
1621, during the Polish-Swedish War (1621-1625), Riga and the remote Daugavgriva stronghold came under the reign of Gustavus Adolphus, King of Sweden, who interfered in the Thirty Years' War not only for reasons of financial and financial profit, but also for the benefit of Lutheranism. Riga endured a besiege by Soviet troops during the Russian-Swedish war (1656-1658).
During these many hundreds of years of warmongering and change of government in the Baltics, and despite population change, the Germans had held a dominating role in Riga. 43 ] Riga used English as the formal administrative idiom until the introduction of English as an administrative idiom in the Baltics in 1891 as part of Tsar Alexander III's Russiasification policies for the non-Russian-speaking areas of the Empire, which included the Congress of Poland, Finland and the Baltics.
In the middle of the 19th centuries more and more Latvians began to move to the town. Riga's ascent of a Lithuanian middle class made it a center of Latvia's awakening with the foundation of the Riga Union of Latvia in 1868 and the organization of the first Lithuanian singing festivals in 1873. World War I and the effects of the Russian Revolution of 1917 came to Riga in the twentieth centuries.
As a result of theattle of Jugla, the Germans invaded Riga on 3 September 1917. On 3 March 1918 the Brest-Litovsk Agreement was concluded, transferring the Baltics to Germany. Due to the armistice with Germany on 11 November 1918, Germany, like Russia, had to abandon this agreement, which gave Latvia and the other Baltics the opportunity to assert their sovereignty.
Latvia, with Riga as its main town, therefore proclaimed its sovereignty on 18 November 1918. Riga and Latvia moved their attention from Russia to the Western European nations between World War I and World War II (1918-1940). Most Baltic Germans were relocated at the end of 1939, before Estonia and Latvia were occupied by the Soviet Union in June 1940.
Latvia was conquered by the USSR in June 1940 and by Nazi Germany in 1941-1944 during the Second World War. By 17 June 1940 the Soviets had entered Latvia and seized bridge, postal and phone stations, cable and radio stations. From 14 to 15 July, manipulated polls took place in Latvia and the other Baltics according to instructions:
Criminal courts were established to prosecute "traitors to the people" - those who had not fulfilled the "political duty" to elect Latvia to the USSR and those who had not managed to stamp their passes for the vote were permitted to be gunned in the back of their heads. USSR officials, who had re-gained power over Riga and Latvia, enforced a terrorist regimen, opened the KGB seat and began mass deportation.
Similar cruelties occurred after the Nazi invasion of Latvia, when the city's Jews were forcibly brought into the Riga prison and a Nazi concentrate camps was set up in the Emperor's Forest. The Nazis transferred all Jews from Riga and the surrounding area to the Nazis on 25 October 1941.
On 13 October 1944, the Soviet Red Army returned to Riga. In the aftermath of the Napoleonic Wars, great effort was made to rebuild and refurbish most of the illustrious Prewar skyscrapers. Riga's temperate zone is moist kontinental (Köppen Dfb). January and February are the coolest month, when the mean annual temp. is -5 C (23 F), but temp. from -20 to -25 C (-4 to -13 F) can be seen almost every year on the coolest day.
Riga's summer months are chilly and wet, with an annual mean of 18 C (64 F), while on the busiest day the temperatures can reach 30 C (86 F). Riga's prime minister is the town' s alderman. The current Lord Major Nils U?akovs, who is a member of the Harmony party, took up his post on 1 July 2009.
Municipal government is a democratic electoral body and is the last decision-making body in the town. There are 60 members in the Board who are appointed every four years. Riga Municipal Council's Presidium shall consist of the Chairman of Riga Municipal Assembly and the delegates of the chosen representative bodies of the Riga Municipal Assembly.
Mikhail Chekhov Riga Russian Theater is the oldest Russian theater founded in 1883. New Riga Theater opened in 1992. Riga Broadcasting and Television Towers is the highest building in Latvia and the Baltic States and one of the highest in the European Union at 368.
The center of Riga also houses many great Art Nouveau architectural masterpieces as well as a mediaeval old city. Riga was one of the host cities of EuroBasket 2015 in 2015. The Dinamo Riga is a pro icehockey team founded in 2008. Riga, with its geographical location and concentrated populace, has always been the infrastructure center of Latvia.
Riga has several main routes, and the main road in Europe, the road no. 22, runs through Riga from either side, while the Via Baltica runs through Riga from the southern and northern sides. There is an operating Riga International Airports (RIX), which was established in 1973 and operates commercially. In 2001, the reconstruction and modernisation of the aerodrome was finished, at the same time as the 800-year existence of the town.
The number of passenger movements per year has risen from 310,000 in 1993 to 4.7 million in 2014, making Riga Intl. the biggest in the Baltic States. Riga's former Spilve Airfield is 5 km from Riga's downtown and is currently used for small aeroplanes, flight instruction and leisure flying.
During the Cold War there was also a Riga airbase - the Rumbula airbase. Municipal transit is provided by R?gas Statiksme, which runs a large number of streetcars, busses and trolley busses on an extended route throughout the town. Furthermore, until 2012 many privately owned companies provided minibuses, whereupon the town council founded the single haulage firm R?gas microautobusu silatiksme and set up a single market for the bus minibuses.
The Riga Internacional Coaching Terminal offers national and internacional bus services. ostapenko, the women's pro athlete, "2017 " Open champion Mikhail Tal, 2017 " The Wizard of Riga" Tatiana Warsher, a famous archeologist from Russia who is known for her study in Pompeii. Hop up to "Councilman of Riga".
Municipality of Riga. Returned on July 22, 2009. Skip up "Riga in Numbers". Municipality of Riga. Brought back on August 2, 2007. Skip up to: a y d y d y d "Table RESIDENT BY STATISTICAL REGION ROPULATION, BY COUNTY Riga Town". csb. gov. lv. Returned on May 17, 2017. Skip up to: a to " Tabelle ISG191.
INHABITANTS BY ENTITIALITY AND STATISTIC REGIONS AND CITIES AT THE START OF 2018". Latvia Central Statistical Office. Returned on July 24, 2018. Skip to the top ^ "2.1. Skip up ^ "Latvia in a nutshell". Returned on November 5, 2011. Skip up to: a for " Riga Municipality Portal ". copyright © 2003-2009, www.riga. lv/LV/Channels/Gemeinde Riga.
Brought back on July 27, 2009. Climb ^ "Riga Historical Centre - UNESCO World Heritage Centre". Returned on December 18, 2012. Skip up ^ "Tourism in Latvia 2017" (PDF). www.csb.gov.lv. Latvia Central Statistical Office. Archives from the Genuine (PDF) on February 9, 2018. Returned on February 9, 2018. Climb on ^ "EUROCITIES - the big metropolitan Europe network".
Returned on November 8, 2011. Hop up ^ "Union of Baltic Cities". Returned on November 8, 2011. Skip up ^ "Union of capitals of the European Union". The Union of Capitals of the European Union (UCEU). Returned on November 8, 2011. Skip up to: a for " Teritorija un www. teritorija.com Royal website www. teritorija.com www. teritorija.com/ robe?as.com/ www. teritorija.com/ robe?as.com/ www. teritorija.com/ robe?as.com/ wwww. teritorija.com/ robe?as.com/ robe?as/ v?sturisk? skat?jum? skat?jum?"".
Brought back on August 2, 2007. Have Celts lived in the Baltic States (1911 Dzimtene's V?stnesis (Homeland Messenger) No. 227)? Posted in the Wayback Machine on December 9, 2008. Brought back on July 24, 2009. Go up to: a y e d e f g y g y k y k ll y e r e p r e d u t e Bilmanis, A. Latvia as an independent state.
Jumping up ^ Speaking "i" and "e" apart, REE-eh, is the best approach to the Lithuanian word for " Rija", since "Ria" would lead to an "i" and not an "ee" ring. Skip up ^ "Riga Municipal Portal". www.riga.lv. Filmed from the orginal on 23.02.2012. Retracted 2016-02-10. Hop up ^ "Emblem of Riga". www.riga.lv.
Archives from the originals on 11.07.2007. Bounced 2018-06-26. Hop up to: a p d a d a Germanis, U. The saga of Latvia. Hop up to: ab Reiner et al. Riga. Skip up to: a by Moeller et al. Story of the Christian Church. Skip up to: a pcc dee palmieri, A. Catholic Origin of Latvia, ed.
Skip up ^ Doma v?sture (History). Brought back on July 29, 2009. Hop up ^ Kooper, E. The Medieval Chronicle V. Hop on ^ Murray, A., Crucifixion and Conversion at the Baltic Sea, 1150-1500. The Ecclesiastical Review, Vol. LVI. Skip up ^ Fonnesberg-Schmidt, I. The Popes and the Baltic Crusades, 1147-1254.
Hop du printemps ^ Fletcher, R.A., The Conversion of Europe : Hop up Michell, Thomas. MacCulloch, Diarmaid (2003). Retracted 2016-02-10. Skip up ^ "National History Museum of Latvia". history-museum.lv. Retracted 2016-02-10. Hop up, Russia Retreat 1917. Returned on September 16, 2011. Skip to top ^ "Population - Database". csb.gov.lv.
Archives from the originals on 21 February 2012. Returned on February 10, 2016. Hop up ^ Charles, Jonathan (June 30, 2005). "Getting Latvia ready for a touristy invasion." Brought back on August 2, 2007. Skip up ^ "Remaining Riga Shopping Centre Dachhöhlen in". Hop up ^ "Riga, Latvia". riga.com. Retracted 2016-02-10. Leap up ^ "Eastern Partnership Council, Riga, 21.22.05.2015".
Council of Europe. Retracted 2016-02-10. Hop up ^ Mikk Lõhmus & Illar Tõnisson. "Development of the administrative department of Tallinn, Riga and Vilnius" (PDF). Returned on June 29, 2010. Skip up ^ "Apkaimju projekts" (in Latvian). Development Agency of the City of Riga. Returned on June 29, 2010. Go to ^ "Changes in the administrative department of the Riga territory after the loss of independence (1940-1991)".
Environmental Centre of the City of Riga "Agenda 21". Returned on June 29, 2010. World Weather Information Service - Riga". Returned on April 4, 2015. Hop up ^ "Riga Climate Normals 1961-1990". Returned on February 2, 2013. Leap up ^ "Population Census 2011 - Key Indicators" (PDF). csb. gov. lv. Skip up ^ "/ Uz??m?jdarb?ba / Nosaukti sends uz??mumi Uz??m?jdarb?ba uz??mumi R?g? and R?gas re?ion?".
Returned on March 12, 2013. Alla Petrova, BC, Riga, 11.01.2012. "``Riga Freeport overcomes record-breaking 34. Returned on March 12, 2013. Climbin Sie Sie auf ^ "Latvia Shipping Report Q3 2012 by Business Monitor International in Latvia, Ports & Harbors, Logistics & Shipping". July 17, 2012. Returned on March 12, 2013. Skip up ^ "T?ristu Skits T?ristu R?g? piezis p 21%, R?g? - p 22% - Izklaide". nra.lv.
Returned on March 12, 2013. Hop up, Latvian National Opera. Archive from the orginal from 26. December 2007. Brought back on May 6, 2009. Skip up to " Home " Latvijas Nacion?lais te?tris". teatris.lv. Retracted 2016-02-10. Skip up high ^ Nordik IT . Archives from the orginal on 29. April 2009. Returned on July 25, 2009.
Skip to high ^ "Latvijas Le??u te?tris te?tris". puppet.lv. Skip up to: a p "Calendar of Events of the Eighth World Choir Games 2014, R?ga, Latvia" (PDF). Archives from the source (PDF) on 6 February 2013. Returned on January 5, 2013. Leap up ^ "Riga - European Capital of Culture 2014 :: Archives from the orginal from December 7, 2012.
Returned on March 12, 2013. Skip up "History - World Choir Games". interkultur.com. Archives from the originals on 6 February 2013. Returned on March 12, 2013. Skip up ^ "Workshops - World Choir Games Riga 2014". interkultur.com. Archives from the originals on 6 February 2013. Returned on March 12, 2013. Skip up to: a to Grosa, Silvija (2003).
Jugendstil in Riga. Skip up to: a at Krastins, Janis (2006). "Jugendstil Architecture and Urban Development - Riga Metropolis". Skip to top ^ 10 years FIBA EUROPE Federation Focus: Latvia. Fibaeurope. com, September 24, 2012. Skip up ^ IFF. Skip up ^ "Explanatory notes on planning and building the Southern Bridge Route". rdpad.lv.
Archives from the originals on 28 September 2007. Brought back on August 21, 2007. Skip up ^ "Dienvidu Tilts; Project of the Bridge". dienvidutilts.lv. Archives from the originals on 15 September 2007. Brought back on August 21, 2007. Skip up ^ "Dienvidu tilta ma?istr?lie pievedce?i pievedce?i" in Latvian. rdsd.lv. Brought back on July 27, 2009. Skip up ^ "Izstr?d?ts R?gas Zieme?u transport coridora 1. postma terniskais projects / b?vprojekts" (in Latvian). rdpad.lv.
Returned on January 8, 2016. Skip up ^ "Kurs??anas grafiki" (in Latvian). Returned on January 27, 2015. Skip up ^ "Lidost? "R?ga" Lidost? atkl?j atkl?j jaun?s jaun?s jaun?s jaun?s piest?tnes ?kas b?vniec?bas s?k?anu" (in Latvian). Returned on January 27, 2015. Skip up ^ "The politics of trans-European networks linking East and West". Returned on January 27, 2015. Leap up ^ "The Rail Baltica II Baltic States Rail Baltica II JV is established".
Ministry of Transport of the Republic of Latvia. Returned on January 27, 2015. Hop up ^ "Twin City of Riga". Municipality of Riga. Returned on February 20, 2013. Hop up Aalborg Twinsowns. Archives from the originals on 7 September 2013. Returned on August 19, 2013. Hop to "Aalborg Commune - Venskabsbyer". Archive from the orginal from 14. November 2007.
Brought back on July 26, 2009. Skip up to: a to " Hanseatic City of Riga". hanse.org. Hop up "sister cities." Archives from the originals on 17 January 2010. Returned on June 23, 2009. Leap high ^ "Bordeaux - European and global influence". Archives from the originals on 7 February 2013. Returned on July 29, 2013.
Skip up ^ "Bordeaux-French Atlas of Decentralised Cooperation and Other External Actions". Archives from the originals on 7 February 2013. Returned on July 29, 2013. Hop up, Frohmader, Andrea. The City Hall Bremen Senate Chancellery[Mairie de Brême - Chancellerie du Sénat] (en allemand). Archives from the originals on 18 July 2011.
Returned on August 9, 2013. Hop up "sister cities." Archives from the orginal on 28. May 2010. Brought back on 23 May 2010. Hop up Kobe's Sister Cities. Archives from the originals on 21 April 2013. Returned on August 11, 2013. Go to ^ "St. Petersburg in numbers - International and interregional relations".
St. Petersburg City Council. Archives from the originals, 24 February 2009. Brought back on July 27, 2009. Hop up "Taipei - International Sister Cities". Councilman of Taipei. Archives from the orginal from November 2, 2012. Returned on August 23, 2013. Hop up "yerevan. am - twin towns". yerevan.am. Spring up^ "Warsaw twin cities". The first one is located in the city of Warsaw. pl (in Polish).
Archives from the orginal from 11. October 2007. Brought back on August 29, 2008. ikimedia Commons has Riga related medias. Vikivoyage has a tourist guidebook for Riga.