Pyu Civilization

Civilization Pyu

With Pyu civilization, Buddhism has gained its first foothold in Southeast Asia. Pyu were the first of the civilizations to settle along the Ayeyarwady River, in the heart of present-day Myanmar. Burma - The State of Pyu Tibetan-Burmese tongues known as Pyu were founded between the first and ninth centuries B.C. in Myanmar Cities of Binnaka, Mongamo, Shri Kshetra and Halingyi.

In those days, a long trading trail between China and India led through the north of Myanmar and then through the Chindwin River valley in the western part.

During the years 97 and 121 the Chinese romans selected this cross-country trail through Myanmar for their trip. However, the Pyu offered an alternate itinerary down the Irrawaddy to its capitol, Shri Kshetra, on the north side of the deltas. It then crossed the ocean to the west to India and east to Southeast Asia, where Chinese trading linked with the transport links on the Peninsular and with the shipping links within the Artic.

Historic China notes show that the Pyu exercised supremacy over 18 empires, many of them in the south of Myanmar. Part of the town wall, the castle and the convents were constructed of glass bricks. The arched temples may have been designed by their architect, and later found its greatest manifestation in the Pagan period of the eleventh to fortnight.

The Pyu moved their capitol north to Halingyi in the arid area in the seventh centuary, and left Shri Kshetra as a subsidiary center for monitoring them. Probably the Mon metropolis was the harbour of Thaton, situated north-west of the Salween estuary and not far from the transport roads of the Malay Peninsula; through this gate to the ocean the Mon saw India in all its splendour under the Gupta regime (beginning of the fourth to the end of the sixth century).

In the 14th and 17th centuries BC, the great Moorish Kaiser Ashoka apparently sent a delegation of Buddhist friars to a place named Suvarnabhumi (the Golden Land), which is now believed to be in the Mon area of the isthmus of Kra. Kelasa, an old monastery village near Thaton in the south of Myanmar, said to have been established by Ashoka's Burmese and monistic Christians, was built in early Sinhala scriptures as a result of a great Sri Lanka religions ceremonial in the second half of the 20th c....

As India's trade in Southeast Asia expanded between the first and fourth century, Thaton's wealth and importance grew. Many of their own convictions were incorporated into those of Theravada Buddhism, which came to Southeast Asia and was already crammed with indigenous Southern Asiatic convictions. As a result, the Mon became one of the most progressive cultural nations in Southeast Asia.

The Mon were able to monitor trading in the south of Myanmar from there. A further group of Tibeto-Burman spokesmen, the Burmans, had also become entrenched in the North Drought area. Concentrating on the small village of Pagan on the Irrawaddy River. In the mid 9th century, Pagan had become the capitol of a mighty empire that was to unite Myanmar and establish Burma's rule over the land, which continues to this very day.

In the eighth and ninth centuries, the Nanzhao Empire became the dominating force in south-western China; it was inhabited by spokespersons of Lolo (or Yi), a Tibeto-Burman tongue. In the first few years of the ninth millennium, Nanzhao carried out a number of attacks on the towns of the Southeast Asian continent and even conquered Hanoi in 861.

Mon and Khmer survived, but the pyu capitol Halingyi collapsed. Burmese entered this rift and founded Pagan as their capitol in 849. At this point, the Mon had apparently become sovereign in the south of Myanmar. Perhaps they occupy the entire area and control the harbour of Pathein (Bassein) in the western part and the town of Bago in the center.

While they could have entered the emptiness created by the devastation of the Pyu Empire, their powers were connected to trading in the south of Myanmar and not to agriculture in the north.

Auch interessant

Mehr zum Thema