Plitvice LakesThe Plitvice Lakes
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Established in 1949, the NP is located in the hilly karstic area of the middle of Croatia, on the boundary with Bosnia and Herzegovina. An important north-south link, which runs through the area of the Hungarian Peninsula, links the hinterland of Croatia with the coast of the Adriatic. Here you will find a number of interesting sights. It is a worldwide renowned nature reserve for its cascading lakes.
There are sixteen lakes visible from the top. These lakes are the outcome of the convergence of several small streams and underground karstic streams. All the lakes are connected to each other and run along the watercourse. Their separation is by means of naturally occurring embankments of harness, which are sedimented by the effects of fungi, seaweed and bacterial growth.
Particularly fragile cross-talk barrier systems are the product of a combination of moisture, oxygen and vegetation. There are 16 lakes divided into an ascending and descent cluster, made up of the outflow from the mountain and falling over a length of about eight kilometres from a height of 636 to 503 metres, facing southwards and northwards.
Together, the lakes occupy an area of about two km2, with the waters from the bottom of the lakes making up the Korana river. The Plitvica stream has been called the source of the name by some scholars. The small stream joins the Plitvice lakes at the lower and last part of the lakes.
Plitvice Lakes waters flow northwards as the Korana Rivers. It became known in the sixties and seventies through several films of Karl May novel films. A lot of pictures were taken at the lakes or falls. Plitvice Lakes were created in a valley between Mala Kapela Hill in the West and Plje?evica Hill in the South, in the middle of the Dinaric Alps.
Situated on the D1 Zagreb-Split road between Slunj and Korenica near Bosnia and Herzegovina. There is a minimum of 55 km (34 mi) between the coastline and the Croatian Republic Natural Reserve. Josipdol and Pla?ki are the closest railway stops, although there is no public transport from these stops to the lakes.
The lakes are easy to reach by local buses from Zagreb, Karlovac, Zadar or Split. There are 16 lakes that can be seen from the top, divided into 12 Upper Lakes (Gornja jezera) and four Lower Lakes (Donja jezera). Veliki slap at the end of the Lower Lakes, over which the Plitvica flows, and Galova?ki at the Upper Lakes.
There are 19 small villages within the area of the area. All in all they make up the Plitvice Lakes commune (Croatian Plitvi?ka Plitvi?ka Jezera). Plitvice lakes have always been considered part of the historical Lika and Kordun area. Plitvice Lakes' special geographical location and climatic conditions have helped to create many nature phenomenon and abundant bio-diversity in the area.
In spite of their proximity to the Mediterranean part of the world, the Plitvice Lakes have a temperate mountain environment. It is surrounded by karst cliffs, mainly volcanic dolomites and calcareous rocks with their associated lakes and caverns, which has led to the special nature of the lakes. Directly at the lakes you can visit the Golubnja?a cave (145 m) in front of the second Koran Falls and the ?upljara cave (68 m) above the lake Kalu?erovac
There are other caverns such as Mra?na Café (160 m), Vila Jezerkinje Café (104 m) and Golubnja?a at Homolja?ko Field (153 m). There are several underground caverns in the Nationalpark, such as ?udinka (-203 m) or Jama on Vr?i? (-154 and 110 metres long). Poljana in the Rodi?a cavern under Serti? Poljana and in the Mra?na cavern at the Lower Lakes were found, so that these places can be regarded as palaeontologically significant.
Plitvica arrives at the north end of the Plitvice lakes via the Great Waterfall. Plitvice Lakes and Plitvice Rivers create the Korana Rivers. Plitvice Lakes subterranean structure is composed of various geological characteristics. In general, the whole area of the Plitvice Lakes National Park can be classified as a Southeast Europe-Karstic area.
Subterranean waters could be an interesting research area for speleologists in the near term. On the first glance a shortage of irrigation waters could be observed in the karstic area. Most of the nature phenomenon occurs below ground, where there is an enormous amount of groundwater. Because of the properties of lime stone, many streams flow into the rocks.
Therefore, there are vast subterranean fluvial networks. Fluxes occur at the top when the bedrock is reached. These phenomena of subterranean karstic streams (Croatian karstic streams named Ronornica ) can also be seen at Plitvice Lakes. A bird's eye view reveals significant variations between the landscape of the upper and lower Plitvice lakes.
In the Upper Lakes several small lakes have developed alongside each other and a rather flat stream can be noticed. However, the Lower Lakes are much bigger and practically bore their way through the cliff. In addition, there are only a few lakes in the Lower Lakes. You have created a cannyon which goes on as a Korana stream.
As a rule, the spring temp. is below 10 °C (50 °F). Inside streams and lakes the sea level can rise up to 20°C (68°F). In the following example for different sea tempratures, taken on 7 July 1954, large variations in sea tempratures can be seen: Plitvice lakes are the consequence of centuries-old process and cretaceous deposition, which is abundant in the lakes of this area.
The Plitvice Lakes are special because they are not separate, fixed bodies of groundwater. Lakes as a whole have always been regarded as a composite system of lakes. Because of the continuous changes, it is not even possible to carry out separate analysis of each lake. However, the mass of bodies of groundwater that reach the lakes in the top or bottom part of the system continually changes the view of the lakes and the surroundings.
Eventually they leave the lakes as the Korana Stream. At the same time, new deposits are continually being created. In this way, new falls are created while others run drier. Overall, the lake is a very fragile and unstable (changeable) eco-system. CO2 (carbon dioxide) is produced by the decomposition of CO2 (carbon dioxide) from the atmosphere or rain water (H2O) in a normal atmosphere.
Calcareous rock or diolomite (CaMg(CO3)2) mainly comprises calculationite (CaCO3), which is hardly dissolvable in tapewater. However, a singular phenomenon at Plitvice Lakes is the deposition of water-bound cretaceous in certain places. In view of other similar phenomenon in the oceans, in the Plitvice Lakes the deposition of Cretaceous and the tuff formations occur along the waters and in different dynamic ways (fluviatile sedimentation).
A further special characteristic are the inherent environmental conditions, in particular the influence of sedimentary flora. As you pass through the flora, foamy splash lines create a barrier. Of course, these barrier systems delay and impound the flow of fresh and fresh seaweed, creating lakes. In Plitvice you can observe this continuous interaction between sea, breeze, rock formations and bush.
Sparkling waters produce constantly increasing and stunning falls. Sleepers that have risen above the surface of the lake produce catharsis. Approximately 30 km away from the lakes at the confluence of Korana and Slunj?ica, directly in the centre of Slunj, similar phenomenon appear.
That part of the city, known as Rastoke, is often described as "the small lakes of Plitvice", the flow at the lower lakes. Limestone is sedimented from the aquatic environment only under certain temperatures (only above 14 C), e.g. when the aquatic environment is heated or evaporated, or when another form of CO2 is lost, which is further enhanced by aquatic vegetation and the presence of mole.
Due to the fact that deposition only takes place under hot, humid climatic circumstances, these effects have only occurred since the end of the last glacial period. Ever since, a coating of hard tuff, also referred to as Travertin, has been forming on the calcareous soil. Tuff stone barrier are the results of continual settling along naturally occuring wells.
It is sprayed on because the thin layer of molten metal passes over threshold values. Due to the fact that the surface of the surface of the water increases, higher amounts of CO2 are emitted. Such phenomena occur especially with abundant moss, which enables better adhesion of crystal. Plitvice like. Moss, seaweed and aquatic vegetation are important in creating the distinctive Plitvice Lakes scenery and tuff barrier.
It was assumed until the 21th centuries that plant growth would remove CO2 from aquatic organisms for the purpose of photo-synthesis and in turn release oxigen, leading to the deposition of bicarbonate (phytogenesis). 23 ] Thanks to his effort, the Plitvice Lakes are now under federal shelter. However, the photosynthetic activity of seaweed and moss in combination with aquatic environment promotes the crystallisation of sediment by extracting CO2.
Although there is a positive effect of growing plants on the tuff production, excess levels of organics in the aquatic environment hinder the production of tuff. Excess crop coverage has negative impacts on sediment mineralization. For example, along the river Korana from the Koran bridges, the production of traces of travertine ends quite quickly despite the oversaturation with hydrogen carbonate due to the higher content of organics in the sea due to the high content of hydrocarbons.
Therefore, the site management has started the process of systematically removing the excess plant life along the barrier. Clean drinking whitewater is the crucial determinant of tuffing. According to the analysis, the waters at the inflow to the Plitvice Lakes are considered clean. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) of waters hardly exceed 2.
Amount of 5 mg/L at the inflow to the Upper Lakes (Matica). Higher concentration are detected at the lower lakes (5. 15 mg/L). Similar levels have been observed at the sources of other Croatia streams in the karstic area. In the course of the twentieth millennium, unchecked tourist activity and contamination of waters by sewage from nearby hotel and farms have resulted in damages.
As a result, lakes have become increasingly eutrophic (increased concentration of organics in the water). In 2006 it was prohibited to take a bath or go swimming in the lakes. Tuff deposits of mineral deposits from the waters that usually condense on top of bogs or on the bottom of lakes. This sediment is the result of centuries of old depositions.
The Plitvice Lakes region is one of the most important areas in Croatia in terms of flora and fauna variety, due to its climate and relatively isolated position, as the lakes are far away from towns, villages and industry. Plitvice Lakes Nationalpark is densely wooded, mainly with beeches, spruces and firs, and has a mix of alpine and Mediterranean bush.
Example of indigenous plant life found in the area: the indigenous plant life of the area: the plant life of the There is a great diversity of fauna and flora in the area of the area. Samples of some wildlife found in the area: the following: the national parks: the Whereas other protected areas are far away from any man-made intervention, the Plitvice Lakes have been constantly subject to man-made influences throughout time.
Plitvice Lakes are not an isolated or deserted area. People have lived in the Plitvice Lakes region for millennia. The lakes were part of the mediaeval Croatia, which decided to unite with Hungary in 1102. Not far from the Plitvice Lakes, a crucial fight took place in 1493 in Croatia's historical period between the Austrian and Ottoman Empires.
Ottomans managed several occasions to get hold of the Plitvice Lakes area for short time. This area was then part of the Banovina of Croatia in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia and then part of the Socialist Republic of Croatia in the Socialist Yugoslavia. The Plitvice Lakes area returned after 1814 under Habsburg domination.
It was also a period of reawakening in Croatia. It was in 1871 that the renowned political figure Eugen Kvaternik was murdered just outside the lakes of Rakovica. Previously, the locals did not have a correct understanding of the nature of the Plitvice Lakes. Smaller lakes, for example, were flooded with soil or humans adjusted the course of the river to their own needs.
In 1916, during the First World War, the Zagreb Chamber of Deputies adopted the Act on the Conservation of Plitvice Lakes. This Act, however, did not contain sufficient protective provisions and is therefore not considered an officially established part of the NPA. At the end of the Second World War, the region's singular nature phenomenon was recognised forever.
The Plitvice Lakes were designated a protected area on 8 April 1949 and strict conservation regulations were adopted. In the 1960' a state of the art street link to the Plitvice Lakes was built, which resulted in an increase in the volume of transport. The Plitvice Lakes Nationalpark soon became one of Yugoslavia's most favourite touristic destinations.
At the beginning of the 90s, however, another great turning point in the development of this natural reserve was made. It became the site of the Plitvice Lakes event (also known as " Plitvice Bloody Easter") in March 1991, the first military conflict of the Croatian War of Independence that led to death.
Locally owned by Serbian insurgents supported by Slobodan Milo?evi? and the Yugoslavian People's Army (JNA) as part of the self-proclaimed Republic of Serbian Krajina during the fighting, the reserve was damaged in some ways, with hotel and other amenities used as sheds. From 1991 to 1995, during the Great Patriotic War, many of the structures in the NP were either demolished or burned down.
Because of the obvious danger of landmines, the UNESCO World Heritage List even included the site during the years of the Great Patriotic War. Here you can find the UNESCO World Heritage List. The Plitvice lakes were among the first areas to be emptied of landmines and restored after the end of the Great Wall. Since 1998 the reserve has been deleted from the World Heritage List.
Since 2000, the reserve has been extended by a further 102 km2 to conserve the subterranean tributaries. The name Crave Lakes is derived from the farmer's enclosure between the farmland and the lakes. VirWhirlpool The name comes from the name of the whirlpool that swirls down in the center of the pond.
BugetiGush LakesA series of small flat lakes divided by barrier of tranvertine and surrounded by low growths. Kalu?erovacKalu?erovo JezeroMonk Lake or Einsiedler LakeA Mönch or Einsiedler (Croatian kalu?er) used to either inhabit the ?upljara cave directly on the waterfront or the Golubnja?a cave at the rim of the cave.
Similar phenomenon as at Plitvice Lakes can be found in Rastoke (Slunj), in Krka National Park or at the Una and Pliva river in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Band-e Amir lakes within the Hindu Kush chain of mountains are a similar system of lakes and embankments, with different tuff forming regimes.
Calc vitrification process that did not occur along a course of a stream can be seen at Mammoth Hot Springs in Yellowstone Nationalpark (USA) or at Pamukkale in Turkey. Juuzhaigou is a natural preserve and wildlife sanctuary in the northern part of Sichuan, China. The UNESCO World Heritage-listed countryside with its lakes in cascades consists of high mountain karst areas characterised by ice, hydrology and tectonics.
Ocho Rios Jamaica is another area known for its Calc-Sinter River. Dunn's River Falls are the most loved, especially by cruisers. Mrak Tarita? i Zmajlovi? odbrili betonizaciju Plitvica: There are seven more Croatian natural reserves and ten more.
UNESCO World Heritage Centre (30.11.2000). "World Heritage Site No. 98 of UNESCO". <font color="#ffff00">SEEbiz. eu/Plitvi?ka yezera s recordnim brujem postjetitelja <font color="#ffff00">the world's largest Pricelist - Nacionalni Gardens "Plitvi?ka jezera". np-plitvicka-jezera.hr. Plitvice Lakes National park, sanctuary Archived March 28, 2009, at the Wayback Machine. The Lika-Senj District Tourist Board, Plitvice Lakes.
Plitvice Lakes National Park Basic Information First temporary accommodation at Plitvice Lakes was built by officials of the Oto?ac Regiment 1861/2 for occasional travellers who come across this strange, almost untamed and unsafe area. Plitvice Lakes National Park, Flora Archived March 2, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.
Plitvice Lakes National Park, Sixteen Pearls of Plitvice Lakes, Dr. sc. The Plitvice Lakes National Park. c) a o n "Sedra Plitvi?kih ezera, K. Kova? (cited above as Hrvoje Ivekovi?, "Kemija na Plitvi?kim ezerma, Priroda 47 (1960) 10; 376-379)". Plitvice Lakes National Park, Otvorenje ZSC-a "Ivo Pevalek" Archived on December 16, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.
In 2010, the fine for swimming in the lakes was around 70 Euro". NP Plitvi?ka yezera, endemic vendor (Prof. dr. sc. Nedeljka ?egulja) Archived on December 16, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. Plitvice Lakes National Park, ?orkova etvala Virgin Forest (Prof. dr. sc. Branimir Prpi?) Archived December 16, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.
Plitvice Lakes National Park, Fauna filed on 2 March 2009, at the Wayback Machine. The Lively Lakes and Their Surroundings, Milorad Mrakov?i? Archives on December 16, 2008 at the Wayback Machine. Plitvice Lakes National Park, Patrimony filed on 2 March 2009, at the Wayback Machine.
UNESCO World Heritage Committee December 1998". The Prostorni plant Plitvi?ka possebnih obilje?ja Nacionalnog park "Plitvi?ka Jezera" (PDF) (in Croatian). Broj postjetitelja and NP Plitvi?ka yezera and racdoblju 2006.-2011. g. " Returned March 31, 2015.
"High Lakes." The Plitvice Lakes National Park. "Lower Lakes." The Plitvice Lakes National Park. Map of the Plitvice Lakes National Park Management Map (PDF) (in Croatian).