From, from or in relation to Peru or the Peruvian people.
This includes everything from the first civilisation of America in the 1st millennium BC to the Inca Empire, the biggest and most demanding state in pre-Columbian America. In the sixteenth and eighteenth centuries, the Spanish Empire invaded the area and founded a viceroyalty that included most of its Latin America settlements with its capitol in Lima.
In 1821 Peru officially declared an independent country, and after the campaign of José de San Martín and Simón Bolívar and the crucial war of Ayacucho, Peru gained in 1824 its autonomy. During the entire twentieth centuries Peru experienced armistized territory strife, coup d'état, civil disturbances and inner conflict, as well as times of instability and prosperity.
In 1990 Alberto Fujimori was appointed to the EU Council of Ministers; his administration was blamed for Peru's economic stabilization and the successful end of the Shining Trail uprising, although he was widely blamed for violating people' s freedoms and suppressing disagreements. With a multi-ethnic populace of over 31 million, including Amerindians, Europeans, Africans and Asians.
While many Peruvians are Quechua, Aymara or other mother tongues, the primary tongue is Hispanic. With the Capitulación de Toledo in 1529, the crown of Spain gave the name the title of provincial state. It described the new Inca empire as the Peru provinces. During the reign of Spain, the Peruvian Empire became the Republic of Peru after gaining sovereignty.
Ancient testimonies of man's occupation of Peru date back to around 9,000 BC Ancient communities were agricultural, using technologies such as watering and terraces; camellia farming and fisheries were also important. Peru's oldest known comprehensive civilisation, the Norte-Chico civilisation, blossomed between 3,000 and 1,800 BC on the Pacific Ocean coast These early development were followed by archeological civilizations, which evolved mainly in the Peruvian Andes.
One of the most important expeditions in the colonisation of America was the invasion of the Inca. It was the first stage in a long expedition that lasted for centuries and ended with the invasion and colonisation of the area known as the Viceroyalty of Peru with its capitol Lima, known as the "City of Kings".
Conquering the Inca Empire resulted in spin-off campaigning throughout the viceroy and exploration of the Amazon Basin, as in Spain's effort to suppress Indian opposition. Aboriginal populations have suffered a dramatic collapse due to exploitative activity, socio-economic changes and the epidemics of disease imported by the Spaniards. 34 ] With the discoveries of the great veins of bullion and bullion in Potosí (now Bolivia) and Huancavelica, the viceroy kingdom blossomed as an important supplier of raw materials.
The Peruvian precious metal provided income for the Crown of Spain and drove a comprehensive trading net that stretched as far as Europe and the Philippines. The Peruvian Catholicism follows the concretism of many Roman Americas where indigenous rites were incorporated with Christmas celebreties. 36 ] The Catholic faith played an important part in the indigenous people' s accumulation and drew them into the culture of Spain's orbits.
37 ] The Crown then issued the Bourbon reforms, a number of decrees that raised the tax and divided the Viceroy. The Spanish, however, did not oppose Brazil's Brazilian extension via the river Avenue. Whereas the need to facilitate communications and commerce with Spain resulted in the division of the Vice-Kingdom and the establishment of new Vice-Kingdoms of New Granada and Rio de la Plata at the cost of the areas which constituted the Vice-Kingdom of Peru; whereas this diminished the capacity, fame and importance of Lima as Vice-Kingdom asset and relocated the profitable trading of the Andes to Buenos Aires and Bogotá; whereas the collapse of extraction and textiles manufacturing caused the progressiv ely deterioration of the latter Kingdom of Peru
During the early nineteenth and early nineteenth centuries, while most of South America was ravaged by the War of Independence, Peru was still a royal fortress. Since the elites fluctuated between liberation and allegiance to the Spanish monarchy, it was only after the occupations of José de San Martín and Simón Bolívar that they became independent.
The Peruvian Crown, however, was privileged and faithful to the crown of Spain. It began in Argentina, where independent junta were formed by the collapse of the colonial authorities of the Spain state. Following the struggle for the Viceroy of Rio de la Plata's autonomy, José de San Martín founded the Andean Army and traversed the Andes in 21 short journeys, one of the greatest achievements in armed forcesýhistory.
On September 7, 1820, a navy of eight ships of war entered the harbour of Paracas under the orders of General Jose de San Martin and Thomas Cochrane, who served in the Chilean navy. On 12 November, San Martin moved to Huacho, where he set up his head office, while Cochrane blocked the Callao harbour in Lima.
Since Peru was the fortress of the Spaniards in South America, San Martin's Peru liberation policy was diplomatic. It sent delegates to Lima and called on the viceroy to grant Peru autonomy, but all the talks were dead. In 1821, Simon Bolivar started his Northern campaigns and liberated the Viceroyalty of New Granada in the battles of Carabobo and Pichincha a year later.
The conference of San Martin and Bolívar took place in Guayaquil in July 1822. Bolívar was responsible for the complete liberation of Peru, while San Martin withdrew from the political arena after the assembly of the first parliamen. A new Peruvian Congress appointed Mr Bolvar as Peru's leader and gave him the authority to organise the war.
Between the 1840s and 60s Peru experienced a phase of stabilization under the chairmanship of Ramón Castilla, with an increase in state revenue from the export of guanos. 46 ] Peru started a railway construction programme that assisted the state, but also ruined it. 1879 Peru joined the Pacific War, which continued until 1884.
The Bolivians appealed to their pact with Peru against Chile. While the Peruvian authorities tried to broker the conflict by putting together a missionary force to deal with the Peruvian authorities, the Peruvian delegation came to the conclusion that there was no way around it. It was the competition between this organisation and a rival elitist armed forces that determined Peru's policy for the next three centuries.
Tacna was brought back to Peru by a definitive 1929 agreement between Peru and Chile, known as Lima. From 1932 to 1933 Peru was in a year-long conflict with Colombia over a territory conflict between the Amazon region and its capitol Leticia. Later in 1941, Peru became embroiled in the Ecuadorian-Peruvian conflict, whereupon the Rio Protocol tried to formalise the border between these two states.
The widely spread accusations of deceit, however, caused the Peruvian army to dismiss Prado and set up a Burmese army under the leadership of Ricardo Pérez Godoy. In the Paquisha War, Peru was in a brief, fruitful war with Ecuador as a consequence of a territory war between the two states. Following a period of sustained global warming, the Peruvian single currency, known as the solo, was superseded in mid 1985 by the inti, which in turn was superseded by the solo in July 1991, with the new solo having a combined value of one billion old sols.
Peru's per capita per capita annual per capita Peruvian incomes declined to $720 (below 1960 levels) and Peru's GNP declined by 20%, with Peru's domestic reserve at minus $900 million. In Peru, the turbulent economy at the times aggravated tension and helped to create violence among the rebels such as Sendero Luminoso (Luminous Path) and MRTA, which wreaked great devastation throughout the state.
While Fujimori took action against the rebels and was able to largely suppress them until the end of the 90s, the struggle was hampered by horrors by both Peruvian and insurgent guerrillas: the massacres of Barrios Altos and La Cantuta by government paramilitaries and the bombardments of Tarata and Frecuencia Latina by Sendero Luminoso.
Ever since the end of the Fujimori era, Peru has been trying to combat bribery while maintaining vigorous macroeconomic expansion. 48 ] Despite the advances in the field of humanitarian law since the uprising, many issues are still evident and show the continuing marginalisation of those who have been affected by the Peruvian war.
Peru's Act contains the Constitutional Treaty and a number of laws and regulations. Peru's external relationships were marked by historical frontier disputes with neighbouring states, most of which occurred in the twentieth world war. 61 ] Peru recently contested its marine borders with Chile in the Pacific Ocean. 62 ] Peru is an activist member of several provincial blocks and one of the founding members of the Andean Community.
Andean free-trade zone. Peru is also a permanent member of APEC and the World Trade Organization and is actively participating in the FTAA talks. In the Bolivarian Venezuela region, Peru played a leadership part in mediating the Venezuelan conflict by being involved within the Lima Group.
Peru's army is Peru's army, consisting of autonomous army, navy and air force units. Peru's National Police is often considered part of the army. Peru's army is reporting to the Ministry of Defence, while Peru's national police are reporting to the Ministry of the Interior.
For Peru, several conurbations have been identified - these intersect with the districts and have restricted powers. The country encompasses 1,285,216 square kilometres (496,225 square metres) of the west of South America. There are also many different species of flowers in Peru. Peru's Iranian population is the twentieth biggest in the country (after PPP) and the highest in terms of incomes by the EB.
11 ] Since 2011[update] Peru has been one of the most rapidly expanding countries in the global economy due to the booming economy in the 2000s. Peru's aquatic and wastewater sectors have made important progress over the last two centuries, among them the rise in the demand for drinking and wastewaters from 30% to 85% between 1980 and 2010.
Peruvian societies have been varied throughout its entire existence. American Indian worship continues to have a great influence on Peruvian faith. Skip up ^ "Ethnic Groups of El Perú". Skip high to: a to Shugart, Matthew Søberg (September 2005). Skip high to: a to Shugart, Matthew Søberg (December 2005).
It is only in Latin America that all new democratic states have maintained a purely presidency with the exception of Peru (presidential-parliamentary) and Bolivia (assembly-independent). Skip up to: a d i d ou. Skip up ^ "Gini Index". 2016. Top of page ^ Servicio Nacional de Áreas Naturales Protegidas (ed.):Perú: Perús Mega viverso Archiveed 22 June 2014 at the Wayback Machine.
Skip up to: a d "Human Development Reports, Peru". hdr.undp.org. 2016. Skip up to: a the World Bank, data by country: Archived on November 8, 2016 at the Wayback machine..... Skip up to: a bar "Peru Overview". McKercher, BoJC (2012). A middle power like Peru lacks embassy and other ressources.....
Leap to the top: a d "Peru has 31 million 488 thousand 625 inhabitants". www.inei.gob. pe (in Spanish). July 11, 2016. Leap high ^ Porra's Barrenechea, Raúl. ¿El Niombre del Perú. Raúl Porras Barrenechea, El Napbre del Perú, p. 84, Raúl Porras Barrenechea, El Napoleon, p. 86.
Leap upwards ^ Vega, Garcilasco, Commentarios Reales de los Incas, Editorial Mantaro, Lima, ed. 1998. pp. 14-15. Jumping upwards ^ Raúl Porras Barrenechea, El Niombre del Perú, p. 87, jumping upwards ^ Dillehay, Tom, Duccio Bonavia and Peter Kaulicke (2004). Hip up Alvaro (!) Haas, Jonathan, Creamer, Winifred and Ruiz (2004).
"of the late archaic occupancy of the Norte Chico in Peru". Leap up ^ Cordy-Collins, Alana (1992). Leap up ^ Pre-Inca cultures filed on November 3, 2016 at the Wayback Machine..... countrystudies.us. High jumping ^ D'Altroy, Terence (2002). Leap up ^ Peru The Incas filed on November 3, 2016 at the Wayback Machine.
Leaproché nach oben ^ L'Inca - Tous les Empires Archivé le 20 janvier 2012 à la Wayback Machine. The Inca" an der Wayback Machine (archiviert am 10. November 2009) The National Foreign Language Center an der University of Maryland. Hop up ^ Lovell, W. George (1992). Sickness and depopulation in colonial Spanish-America".
Highjump ^ Bakewell, Peter (1984). Hip up ^ (in Spanish) Suárez, Margarita. Highjump ^ Andrien, Kenneth (1985). The Viceroy of Peru in the 17th cent. Leap up ^ Burkholder, Mark (1977). The powerlessness of authority: the crown of Spain and the US audience, 1687-1808. Highjump ^ O'Phelan, Scarlett (1985).
Rebellion and revolt in the 18th centuries Peru and Upper Peru. Leap up now ^ Peru Peru Peru Archived on November 3, 2016 at the Wayback Machine..... High jumping for Túpac Amaru II. Leap to the top of the ledge Anglo-Saxonism ^ Scheina, 2003, "Latin American Wars: The Age of Caudillo, 1791-1899", p. 58. High Jumping Chengdu Gootenberg (1991) p. 12.
Leap to the top ^ Gootenberg (1993) pp. 5-6. Jumping to the top ^ Gootenberg (1993) p. 9. Highjump ^ Klarén, Peter (2000). Peru: Community and nationality in the Andes. Leap up to: a by The Economist (17 October 2007), Peru. High Jumping ^ White, Gavin David (2009). "Displacement, decentralization and reparations in Peru after the conflict."
Leap to the top ^ "Peru's Fujimori condemned to 25 years in prison". Leap to the top ^ staff writers (March 31, 2015). Skip up ^"Peru's Vizcarra Chair begins with 57 pct approval rating". Branch up ^ Constitución Política del Perú, Artikel Nr. 112. Branch up ^ Constitución Política del Perú, Artikel Nr. 122.
Branch up ^ Constitución Política del Perú, Art. No. 90, Branch up ^ Constitución Política del Perú, Art. No. 107-108, Branch up ^ Constitución Política del Perú, Art. No. 146. Platform of the Peruvian Congress, Parliamentary Groups Archive 29 December 2007 at the Wayback Machinery.....
Leap up ^ St John, Ronald Bruce (1992). Peru's external policies. Platform up ^ BBC News (November 4, 2005), Peru-Chile Frontier Series escalated Filed on January 15, 2009 at Wayback Machine..... High up ^ Ministerio de Defensa, Libro Blanco de la Defensa Nacional. Leap up ^ Ley No. 27178, Ley del Servicio Militar, Article No. 29, 42 and 45.
Journalism up ^ Law No. 27867, Organic Law of Regional Governments, Art. 11, Journal up^ Law No. 27867, Organic Law of Regional Governments, Art. 10, Journal up^ Law No. 27867, Organic Law of Regional Governments, Art. 66, Journal up^ Monika Huber; Wolfgang Kaiser (February 2013).
Platform up ^ Andes Manual, Huascarán Filed October 8, 2016 at the Wayback Machine... June 2, 2002. Leap into the sea ^ Instituto de Estudios Histórico-Marítimos del Perú, El Perú y Sus RECURSORS: Sprung nach oben ^ Instituto de Estudios Histórico-Marítimos del Perú, El Perú y Sus RECURSORS: Sprung nach oben ^ Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática, Perú: Compendio Estadístico 2005, S. 21.
Leap up ^ "Using strontium isotopes to understand the hydrology and paleo-hydrology of the Altiplano, Bolivia-Peru". Leap up ^ Oficina nacional de evaluación de recursos naturales to the top (previous INRENA). "National Register of Lagoons and Dams" (PDF). Leap to the top ^ Institute of Historical and Marine Studies of Peru, Peru and its resources:
Leap into the sea ^ Instituto de Estudios Histórico-Marítimos del Perú, El Perú y Sus RECURSORS: Sprung nach oben ^ Instituto de Estudios Histórico-Marítimos del Perú, El Perú y sus recursos: Sprung nach oben ^ Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática, Perú: Compendio Estadístico 2005, S. 50. Skip up to: a bar "Peru:
The solo aceae of the Loma Formation of Coastline Perú and Chile" (PDF). sacha.org. Released November 28, 2016. Platform up BBC (July 31, 2012), Perú Countries Archive on November 5, 2016 at the Wayback Machine... Jumping upwards ^ Thorp, p. 4. Jumping upwards ^ Thorp, p. 321.
Leap upwards ^ "Peru and the IMF". Skip upwards ^ Thorp, pp. 318-319. Hop up Sheahan, John. In search of a better society: Peru's 1950 economies. Leap upwards ^ (in Spanish) Banco Central de Reserva, Producto grosso international per se productivos 1951-2006 Archive on September 9, 2016 at the Wayback Mach.....
Skip up ^ 2006 numbers. Banco Central de Reserva, Memoria 2006 Filed on 9 September 2016 at Wayback Machine. Leap up ^ (in Spanish) Banco Central de Reserva, Memoria 2006 Filed on September 9, 2016 at Wayback Machine. Platform ^ U.S. Trade Representative, United States and Peru sign Trade Promotion Agreement, April 12, 2006.
Skip up ^ 2006 numbers. Banco Central de Reserva, Memoria 2006 Filed on 9 September 2016 at Wayback Machine. High Jumping ^ INSTITUTO NACIONAL DE ESTADISTICA E INFORMATICA. "PERU: The" ESTIMACIONES AND PYECCIONES DE POPLACIÓN POR SEXO DE LAS PRINCIPALES CIUDADES" (in Spanish). Jeopardy Cook, Noble David (1982) Popular collapse:
Peru, 1520-1620. Razorbills, Magnus (1967), A blend of races in Latin American fame, p. 131. Leap to the top ^ National Institute of Statistics and Informatics, Peru: Studies and Projections of Población, 1950-2050, S. 37-38, 40. Leap up ^ "First results of last year's Peru census".
Leap ingout of the National Institute of Statistics and Informatics, Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática, Perfile Socio-demographic Information, S. 93 ^ Sprung nach oben ^ Political Constitution of Peru, Artikel Nr. 17 ^"Decreto Supremo que Ayprueba en Reglamento de la Ley N 29735, Ley que reglula el u eno, preervación, disarrollo, recuperación,omento y dentusión de las lenguas".
Leap upwards ^ Belaunde, Víctor Andrés (1983). Lima: BCR, p. 472. Dive up high ^ Bailey, pp. 72-74. Hop up now ^ Bailey, p. 263. Hop up^ Lucie-Smith, Edward (1993). Latino Arts of the Twentieth C. Archives on August 20, 2016 at the Wayback Machine.... London: and Hudson, ISBN 0500203563, pp. 76-77, 145-146. Leap upwards ^ Bayón, Damián (1998).
Cambridge: Cambridge University, ISBN 05216262626269, pp. 425-428. Martin, "Literature, Art and Sculpture, c. 1820-1870", pp. 37-39. Leap to the top ^ Martin, "Erzählung seit ca. 1920", pp. 151-152. Leap to the top ^ Martin, "Erzählung seit ca. 1920", pp. 178-179. Leap to the top ^ Martin, "Erzählung seit ca. 1920", pp. 186-188. Skip up ^ Custer, pp. 17-22.
Skip up ^ Custer, pp. 25-38. The Peruvian Embassy of Peru in the United States, The Peruvian Gastronomy.peruvianembassy.us. Leap up ^ Romero, Raúl (1999). "Andes-Peru." NY: New York: Books by Schirmer, pages 385-386. Highjump ^ Olsen, Dale (2002). Leap up ^ Turino, Thomas (1993). NY: New York: Mac Millan Press Limited, vol. I, ISBN 0333333337878, p. 340. Leap up ^ Romero, Raúl (1985).
ln: Popular and Porvenir patronage, La musica en el Peru. Política del Perú. Peruvian cuisine. "Peru Siglo XXI", 11 working paper serials, which describe sectoral long-term prognoses, Grade, Lima, Peru, 1986-1987. The 21st century in Peru: Future opportunities and challenges: the Journal of Forecasting, Planning and Policy, vol. 22, no. 4, Butterworth-Heinemann, London, England, May 1990.
the post-independence trade and the Peruvian state. Historical Maritime Institute of Peru. Peru and its resources: Geographical and economic map. National Institute of Estadística and Informática. "Peru: Compendio Estadístico 2005" (PDF). National Institute of Estadística and Informática. Perfile sociodemográfico del Peru. National Institute of Estadística and Informática.
Peru: population estimates and forecasts, 1950-2050. Martin, Gerald. Cambridge: University of Cambridge, 1998, pp. 3-45 Martin, Gerald. ¿El Niombre del Peru. Banco Central de Reserva. Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática. Peru: Perfil de la bobreza pour départmentos, 2004-2008.