The town of Nijmegen (Dutch pronunciation: Nijmegen[?n?m????x?]), traditionally known as Nimeguen,[b] is a commune and town in the Netherlands region of Gelderland. It' s on the Waal, near the Germans frontier. The oldest town in the Netherlands, the first to be recognised as such in ancient Rome, Nijmegen celebrates its 2,000th anniversary in 2005.
Arnhem-Nijmegen is part of the Arnhem-Nijmegen Stadsregio (Arnhem-Nijmegen Municipal Region), a conurbation of 736,107 residents (2011). Nijmegen consists of the town of Nijmegen with the former towns of Hatert, Hees and Neerbosch and the Waalsprong extension development projects located to the northern side of the Waal with the towns of Lent and't Zand, and the new outskirts of Nijmegen-Oosterhout and Nijmegen-Ressen.
Located just a few kilometres from the German frontier, the town is to some degree home to the most western parts of the community of Kranenburg, Germany, for those working in the Netherlands town of Nijmegen, partly due to the influx of local residents from the Netherlands who were drawn across the frontier by lower housing prices.
Duisburg (in the Ruhr area) is about 78 km away. Nijmegen was first mentioned in Nijmegen's historical record in the 1 st centuries B.C., when the Romans set up a base on the site where Nijmegen was to appear; the site had great strategical value because of the neighbouring hilly terrain, which gave (and gives) a good panoramic position over the Waal and Rhine valleys.
The X Gemina was moved to Vindobona, today Vienna, in 103, which was perhaps a great hit for the local community's economic development around the camps and lost about 5000 people. Emperor Trajan re-named the city in 104, which today is known as Ulpia Noviomagus Batavorum, or Noviomagus for short Nijmegen.
Charlemagne is said to have kept his palace in Nijmegen at least four times in the eighth centuries. In 830, during his short deposit, Louis the Pious was sent to Nijmegen by his father Lothar I. Thanks to the Waal, commerce prospered. Henry VI, the Holy Roman Imperator, was a mighty man from Nijmegen. He was founded in 1165.
Nijmegen was given town charter by his son Frederick II, the Holy Roman Emperor, in 1230. 1247 the town was assigned to the counts of Geldern as security for a credit. Nijmegen has been part of Gelderland ever since. That did not hinder commerce; Nijmegen even became part of the Hanseatic League in 1364.
Renowned mediaeval artists such as the Limbourg friars were borne and trained in Nijmegen. The Dutch uprising brought commerce to a standstill, and although Nijmegen became part of the Republic of the United Provinces after being captured by Spain in 1591, it still remains a frontier city and has suffered several besieges.
Waal near Nijmegen, 1641. The Nijmegen townhall (left) around 1900. Nijmegen hosted the 1678 negotiation between the various forces of Europe to end the permanent war that had plagued the continents for years. This resulted in the Treaty of Nijmegen, which unfortunately did not foresee any permanent peaceful agreement.
During the second half of the nineteenth centuries the ramparts around the town became a big issue. Too many people lived inside the wall, but the ramparts could not be torn down because Nijmegen was considered to be of crucial importance for the defense of the Netherlands. Nijmegen continued to grow during the second half of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.
The Radboud University Nijmegen was established in 1923 and in 1927 a canal was excavated between the Waal and Maas river. The Netherlands was attacked by Germany in 1940, with Nijmegen being the first town in the Netherlands to be taken over by the Germans. Nijmegen was severely hit by US aircraft on 22 February 1944, and caused major damages in the center of the town.
Later the Allies asserted that the US pilot thought they were going to bomb the Kleve town in Germany, while the Germans asserted that it was a proposed surgery approved in exiles by the Netherlands authorities. In January 2005, the Netherlands organisation for the investigation of acts of atrocity in times of war, the Netherlands' National Intelligence Organisation (NIOD), stated that its study [citation required] of the event confirms that it was an air borne disaster due to bad communication and mayhem.
In September 1944, during Operation Market Garden, there were serious battles in the town. In Nijmegen, the main aim was to stop the Germans from building roads that would destroy the viaducts. Germans' belated attempts to blast the street viaduct may have been thwarted by a young indigenous opposition fighter, Jan van Hoof, who is said to have severed the wire to the viaduct.
In September 1944 Nijmegen was freed from being occupied by the British Grenadier Guards of the Guards Armoured Division and members of the 82nd Airborne Division. Later, the town was to serve as a stepping stone for Operation Veritable, the incursion of Allied troops across the Rhine.
Most recently, on 23 February 1981, Nijmegen police and the Netherlands Army attacked Piersonstraat and Zeigelhof, a occupied apartment building in the Nijmegen area. Whilst the municipality wanted the occupiers to construct a multi-storey car park, the majority of the inhabitants wanted accessible flats in the area.
Since then Nijmegen has been known by some right-wing extremists as "Havana am Waal". Nijmegen is the only large Dutch town with a purely left-wing administration because the Socialist Party, the Greens and the Labour Party have a strong two-thirds parliamentary representation in the town council. In 2005 Nijmegen was celebrating its twentieth anniversary.
The town is the oldest in the Netherlands. It competes with the town of Maastricht with this qualifying title. Louis Sévèke, a former politician Marcel T. Marcel T., who was imprisoned in Spain in 2007 and handed over to the Netherlands, murdered a former politician in the center of Nijmegen in November 2005.
The Nijmegen region is one of the hottest towns in the Netherlands, especially in summers, when the highest temperature in the Netherlands is usually found in the Roermond - Nijmegen - Eindhoven area. Several of the world's most northerly vineyards are located outside Nijmegen, near Groesbeek, a suburb southeast of Nijmegen.
The temperature on this particular date, 18 July, was around 36 C (96.8 F) in the town. The Nijmegen is located in USDA resistance zones 7b and AHS heat zones 3. The following chart measures the rainfall in Nijmegen itself, the amount of daylight at the nearest offical meteorological base in Deelen (25 km) and the other figures at the nearest offical meteorological base in Volkel (23 km).
Only a few remnants of Rome are still to be seen today; a part of the old walls can be seen near the castle and the foundation of the amphitheater can be seen in the pavement of today's Rembrandtstraat. Valkhof Museum on the Valkhof permanently shows the story of Nimwegen, as well as artefacts from Römer times.
There are not many very old houses preserved in the city: first the Americans bombarded it with a rug in February 1944, later the Germans bombarded it for about five month after the September 1944 deliverance, and eventually in the 1950', 60' and 70' there were a number of dedicated urban designers who completed the teardown.
Councilman has 39 places. Following the 2002 local election, the three main political groups GroenLinks (9 seats), PvdA (8 seats) and SP (6 seats) founded a government alliance. Nijmegen was nicknamed "Havana on the Waal" because it was a left-wing party. Even though such majority is no exception (cf. Amsterdam) and sometimes also forms alliances (cf. Muntendam), this is uncommon for a town of this magnitude.
As such a left-wing government could be possible at federal government levels after the 2006 parliamentary elections, the performance of this body is often questioned. On the other hand, the Leefbaar political groups, which at the outset suffered the losses and this occasion won most of their vote, do not have a Nijmegen office, which makes this less meaningful.
Following the 2010 local government Dutch presidential polls, the Netherlands government dropped three of its eleven presidential positions. Shortly before the electoral period there were SP issues. In the local government elections of 19 March 2014, the Socialist party became the biggest political group in Nijmegen's Nijmegen citadel after three more years.
Forming the governing party was the three centre-left and left-wing SP, GroenLinks and PvdA as well as a regional political group, The Nijmegen Group (De Nijmeegse Fractie). Paul Eigenhuijsen, a member of VVD's municipal executive, retired from the VVD Group later in 2014. Former group manager Hayke Veldman had gone to the House of Representatives and thus walked out of the municipal parliament.
After that he abandoned the group and founded his own one-man group named Liber Nijmegen. Because Nijmegen is a partner country: For a long time, Nijmegen has been known for its four-day marches (Dutch: Nijmeegse Vierdaagse), which start on the third Tuesday in July. By 1968, celebrity liberals of the Roman Catholic Church had published the so-called Nijmegen Declaration, which demanded comprehensive reform of the Holy Office of the Vatican, formerly known as the Inquisition, and more room for manoeuvre for theological investigation.
The undersigned included the then prolific theoretician Father Joseph Ratzinger, then a member of the University of Tübingen Department, but later a much more Conservative character as director of the Holy Office's successors, the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, and later Pope Benedict XVI.
In the Nijmegen Declaration: "In Nijmegen there are several meeting places in various languages. Sports in the town are concentrated above all on the N.E.C. Nijmegen soccer team or just NEC, or Nijmegen Eendracht Combinatie for short, playing in the 12,500-seater Stadion de Goffert. There is also one of the oldest crime teams in the county, Quick 1888, a member of the KNCB.
Nijmegen Devils, an ice hockey team, is also located in the town. In Nijmegen there is also the Nijmegen Seven Hills Run (Zevenheuvelenloop), a 15 km long run recognized by the International Association of the AAF as a Bronze Label Tour. In order to avoid floods in the near term, the Netherlands authorities are modifying the course of more than 30 river systems throughout the state.
This action, which is taken along the IJssel, Lek, Maas and Waal streams, is known as "space for the river". Nijmegen is one of these actions. There are five railway stops in Nijmegen: Nijmegen, Nijmegen Dukenburg, Nijmegen Heyendaal, Nijmegen Lent and Nijmegen Goffert. Breng (a Hermes subsidiary) runs the urban busses in the Arnhem-Nijmegen area.
It is a bustling cargo traffic lane with ships into the town and between the German industry areas and the Amsterdam, Rotterdam and Hook of Holland ports. Maas-Waal -Kanal also transports cargo through the town. The Nijmegen University hosts Radboud University Nijmegen.
It was the first Dutch Roman Catholic College to be established in 1923 and was known as the Nijmegen Roman Catholic College until 2004, when it received its present name. The Radboud Universität operates the high-field magnetic laboratory, which is able to reach 38 Tesla (continuous), some of the highest available European magnetic field levels.
Nijmegen is also home to the HAN University of Applied Sciences' educational and welfare services, the University of Higher Professional Studies and the University's health services. Besides these facilities, there is also a middle technical college (ROC Nijmegen) and a number of further schools: Groenschule Nijmegen, Kandinsky College, Nijmeegse Scholengemeenschap Groenewoud (NSG), Citadel College, Stedelijke Scholengemeenschap Nijmegen (SSGN), Canisius College, St. Jorisschool, Mondial College, Stedelijk Gymnasium (formal die "Lateinschule", gegründet im 16. Jahrhundert), das Karel de Grote College, Montessori College und das Dominicus College.
The Leefwerkschool Eigenwijs, which is aimed at pupils from all over the Netherlands who have frequently been sent away from "normal" grammar schools, is also remarkable. The Leefwerkschool Eigenwijs has its origins in the early 80s and is the only Dutch recognized educational institution of its kind.
The city of Nijmegen is also an important center of psycholinguistics, with the Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics and the F.C. Donders Center for Cognitive Neuroimaging. André Geim and Konstantin Novoselov received the 2010 Nobel Prize in Physics during his studies at Radboud University "for pioneering experimentation on the two-dimensional materials graphics.
The Wikimedia Commons has news related to Nijmegen. Vikivoyage has a tour leader for Nijmegen.