Myanmar used to beOnce Myanmar was
The BBC News - Should it be Burma or Myanmar?
Protests in Burma have reached a 9th trading days. In 1989, the reigning Burmese army june renamed Burma Myanmar, a year after the killing of tens of thousands in the crackdown on a national revolt. So is Rangoon, the name that is generally better known to Yangon.
WHAT IS MYANMAR PRONOUNCED? My' can be'mee' as in'street' or'my' as in'cry', does the election of Burma or Myanmar indicate a particular policy post? Burma Campaign UK's Mark Farmener says: "You can often tell where the sympathy lies when you use Burma or Myanmar.
"There is no really powerful demand by the democratic movements that it should not be named Myanmar, they only question the legality of the government. It is likely to continue to be known as Myanmar after the disappearance of the regimes. Both have long been used in Burma, says Gustaaf Houtman, an expert in anthropology who has spoken at length about Burma policy.
"There is a technical concept that is Myanmar and the casual, daily concept that is Burma. The Myanmar language is the most ceremonious, officially authentic and smelly of governance. The renaming is a kind of censor. "When Burma writes for release, they use "Myanmar," but when they speak, they use "Burma," he says.
That mirrors the regime's attempts to enforce the idea that the literature has a mastery, says Mr Houtman, but there is definitely a policy underpinning it.
In Myanmar, why did Burma changed its name?
In the second half of the 20th cent., like many lands that became dependent on their colonizers, the land was renamed. Myanmar was renamed in 1989 after a military putsch overthrew Burma's governing socialist programme party. Nonetheless, the symbolism of the name changes (and those that have taken place) remains controversial around the world.
From where do the Burmese and Myanmar from? Myanmar was the name of the land from the early years of colonization - around the middle of the 18th century. Englishmen took the name from the Portugese name for the land, Burma. Probably the Portugese term was derived from the slang term Bama, which was the name of the biggest ethnical group in the area.
The name Bama itself is probably a derivation of the name Myanma/Mranma, a notion that was used for the land as early as 1235 AD. Although Myanma was not the only name used for the land over the ages, some anti-colonial independent groups revived the nickname in the 1920s.
For them, Myanma mirrored their anti-colonial feelings because it was a period in which the land governed itself and was not under alien settlement. Meanwhile, the MAINSTRUMENT INDEPENCE MOVEMENTS did not take such an attitude and used Bama, the more well-known notion. In the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s, after gaining sovereignty in 1948, the nation was subjected to a string of armed uprisings.
The vast majority of Burma régimes used the country's legal name in their versions until 1989, when General Saw Maung's military overthrow of the name. Myanmar's transformation was based on its greater involvement of indigenous minorities and culture than Burma, a name that derives from the name of the ethnical group.
In spite of the rational reasoning, many opposition members of the regimes considered it incorrect to alter the name of the state without asking the population for a voice. Whilst some organisations (such as the United Nations) immediately adopted the new name, other states and organisations declined to use the new name in any formal function to object to the new system.
Both the United States and the United Kingdom still use Burma in formal administrative documentation. On President Obama's visit to the U.S. in 2012, he left the U.S. conventions by instead invoking Myanmar and saying that he was "optimistic about the opportunities for Myanmar. Burma's Nobel Peace Prize winner (and present Secretary of State) Aung San Suu Kyi has frankly stated that she does not mind whether diplomatic and diplomatic foreigners use either Burma or Myanmar, as the country's constitutional system does not require either name.
However, more and more goverment and large intelligence organisations are moving to the exclusive use of Myanmar. In addition to nations such as India and Indonesia, the Myanmar administration has taken steps to substitute the name it considers to be a collective hand-me-down. Myanmar, like most post-colonial name changes, is not uncontroversial. However, as the transition progresses, more and more individuals and organisations take the new name as a sign of openness and hopes for the countrys prospiciency.