Myanmar Regionof Myanmar
County and Government
"Myanmar has undergone historical changes in its civic, organizational and societal organization in recent years, and the state has taken important strides towards undemocratic government. In May 2008 a new constitution was adopted and in November 2010 the first general election under the new constitution (2008) took place, followed by by-elections in April 2012.
The new constitution, after centuries of dictatorial power, provided for a shift of power from the army to elective civil structure and proclaimed democratic values, the constitutional state and basic freedoms. The Constitution also introduced the division of power between the police, legislative and judicial branches and between different levels of government: the level of the Union, the level of states and regions, with the capitol constituting a distinct Union area, and a number of self-governing entities which enjoy autonomous power at an area.
But the new constitution did not introduce a level of municipal administration.1...." Descriptive/Topic:"....Subnational governing bodies and central-local relationships are crucial to Myanmar's growth, and they are changing. The aim of this document is "to educate policymakers, politicians, donors and others about the new state and regional structure established by the 2008 Constitution and its relation to wider governmental, peacemaking and decentralisation processes".
Descriptive/Topic:Executive Summary: "Subnational government agencies and central-local relationships are crucial to Myanmar's growth, and they are changing. The purpose of this document is to provide information to policy-makers, policymakers, donor organisations and others about the new state and regional structure established by the 2008 Constitution and its links with wider processes of government, peacemaking and decentralisation.1 These new sub-national regimes have begun to open up the wider public sphere, but are faced with significant restrictions.
Although the existence of partly electoral committees at this stage represents a great deal of change, they face bottlenecks in capacities. State and regional government is still in a top-down nomination procedure and government officials have little oversight of the administration, which limits the efficiency of the new states. National and regional finances are still small and set up in such a way that they strengthen the key clout.
There is a need for further refinements to adapt the new policies to management and taxation, to extend the application of decentralisation to more important areas and to combine it with broader democratisation, peacemaking and civil service reviews.... The aim of the report is to address three general questions: What is the constitutionally, legally and institutionally binding frame for the state and regional governments, and what is the focus of the decentralisation overhaul?
What are the results of these national and regional changes and how do they differ? What kind of challenge, chances and ways are there to enhance the sub-national structure of the state, the provision of services and the management of conflicts? STATE AND REGIONAL GOVERNMENT FRAMEWORK: THE SYANMAR sub-national administration structure; the structure of state and regional government according to the 2008 constitution; the interpretation of state and regional government structures; the sub-national governmental regulatory environment... THREE: the determinative dimension: state / regional government
FOUR: THE FASCAL DIMENSION: STATE AND REGION BUDGET; POVERTY REDUCTION FUND; STATE AND REGION REVENUE; ASSESSMENT OF DECENTRALISATION..... FIVE: THE POLICICAL DIMENSION: PRIME MINISTER; CABINET MINISTER OF COUNTRIES AND TERRITORIES; HLUTTAWS OF COUNTRIES AND TERRITORIES; PUBLIC RELATIONS OF GOVERNMENT AND HLUTTAWS OF COUNTRIES AND TERRITORIES; REGIONAL AND STATE POLITICS FACTIONS..... SIXTH: CONCLUDING AND MOVING ON: EVALUATING THE DECENTRALISATION OF THE STATES AND TERRITORIES OF TOMYANMAR TO DATE; DECENTRALISATION AND THE PEACE PROCESS; DECENTRALISATION AND DEMOCRACY; TOWARDS A ROADMAP FOR GOVERNANCE AND REGIONAL GOVERNANCE REFORMS?
AREA OR STATE LAW LIST (SCHEDULE TWO)..... APPENDIX II: COUNTRY AND REGION LEGISLATION..... APPENDIX III: TAX COLLECTION BY REGION OR COUNTRY (TABLE 5).