Myanmar Population Distribution

Burma Population Distribution

Demography of Myanmar's arid zone, which shows the population density of the townships and the distribution of landless households. Population - Thailand - Myanmar. The age distribution of Burmese refugees has been transferred to the United States map. Population distribution map of Myanmar. Status: Considered extinct and threatened with extinction.

Ethnical groups

More than 135 different Burmese ethnical groups, each with its own story, its own cultural and linguistic background..... Most of Burma's people (Bamar) make up about two-thirds of the population and control the army and governments in neighboring states. There are seven major minorities: the Chin, the Kachin, the Karenni (sometimes named Kayah), the Karen (sometimes named Kayin), the Mon, the Rakhine and the Shan.

Myanmar is made up of seven states, each of which is designated after these seven racial nations, and seven areas (formerly referred to as divisions), most of which are populated by the Bamar (Burmese). Rohingya are not recognized by the Burmese authorities as an ethnical nation and therefore are suffering some of the most severe discriminations and violations of humanitarian law by the entire Burmese population.

It is estimated that the Rohingya population in Burma numbers nearly 2 million people, most of whom reside in the state of Rakhine, and many others reside as internally displaced people in neighboring states such as Bangladesh. At the Panglong Conference in February 1947, he discussed his government's commitment to minorities' counsel.

In the agreement between the Shan, Kachin and Chin, it states that "citizens of border areas are entitled to basic freedoms and privilege that are considered essential in democracy ", giving Burmese minority groups the same freedoms and equal opportunities as Burmese people.

But Aung San was murdered in July 1947, and the Panglong Agreement was never complied with by Burma's successive civil and army rulers. Numerous indigenous peoples' political leadership have said that the struggles will never end unless another Panglong agreement is ratified and complied with. Burma's many indigenous peoples are not truly protected by the 2008 constitution, and many Burmese community leadership have expressed concern that it will eradicate the different civilizations of the Burmese population.

The Burma Campaign UK has said that the "Constitution is likely to further Burma's minority ethnicisation..... and] to intensify the militarization of ethnical areas, with the ensuing rise in violations of people' s freedoms, which always follows the military intervention of the Myanmar army..... The National Convention, which drew up the constitution's basic tenets, rejects every one of the suggestions made by those representing the different races to ensure greater powers, independence and cultural hegemony.

"{@Burma Campaign UK's March 2011 Briefing: Burma's level of public finances and educational attainment is very low. Burma's authorities spend only about 3% of the country's GNP on basic necessities such as basic needs, medical care and educational services, according to the country's leading global institution. Moreover, the educational system is highly politicized - the curriculum is supervised by the state and schooling is often used to enforce racial segregation.

The indigenous communities must not acquire their own languages and cultures. Bamar or Burma is the vast majority of the Burmese population. Population figures estimate that they account for 68% of the country's population, although some say that these figures are excessive to benefit the Bamar population. As the Bamar population itself is subdivided into different subgroups, it is not a homogeneous ethnical group.

The traditional Bamar civilization strongly affects Burma's modern traditions and identities. Her mother tongue (Burmese) is the formal one of the nation, and they are dominant of the regime and the war. Because of the superiority of the ethnical group, its members are often attributed a societal and policy benefit over the minorities of the population.

Since the 1962 putsch, some ethnical groups have claimed that the Burmese government has been subjected to a politics of "Burmeseisation". Chin tribe, valued at 1.5 million and including many different subgroups, is one of the most important tribal groups in Burma. Of Tibetan-Burmese descent, they are living in the northwestern Chin state that divides Burma from India.

Probably they came to Burma, especially in the later 9-10 centuries A.D. The majority of the Chinese migrated to the West and probably established themselves in today's Chin state around 1300-1400 AD. It is unclear what "Chin" originally meant, although scientists have suggested various theory on which no broad agreement has been made.

In 1889, the first UK mission to Chin Hills was soon followed by annihilation, and the UK government ended the Chin crackdowns on Burma's plain. China hamlets, often of several hundred homes, were traditional independent entities, some governed by councilors of the Elderly, others by chiefs. Thanks to Baptist missions 80-90% of the population are Christians.

A large Chinese majority, however, adheres to their tradition ally faith, as well as Theravada Buddhism. As many other communities in Burma, the Chinese are subject to coercive labor, tortures, rapes, arbitrary arrests and extrajudicial assassinations as part of a Burma administration policies to oppress the Chinese nation and its racial identities.

United Nations World Nutrition Programme is of the opinion that the Chinese state's diet is the least consumed in Burma. Over the last few years, the shortage of human nutrition has been compounded by a pest of rat that has ravaged the Chin cultures. There''s not many health services in Chin State. Free Burma Rangers, a Christian NGO, is one of the few resources for health care.

The Chin Human Rights Organization (CHRO) reports that more than 60,000 Chin migrate to India, where they are compelled to fight for limited natural resource supplies with the already poor population. They are hindered from permanent work or adequate health care because of discriminatory treatment and are afraid of bodily abuses and eviction.

According to CHRO, another 20,000 Chinese have escaped to Malaysia, where the Malaysia authorities refuse to recognize Chinese applicants for political refugee status as anything but legal migrants. They are also harassed, arrested and deported to Burma. Kachin tribe, which consists of various ethnical subgroups, mainly lives in north-eastern Burma and parts of China and India.

Burmese Kachin are valued at between 1 and 1.5 million and are traditional Hill inhabitants living on the rotation of ricefields. Most of Kachin's territories were specifically managed as border regions during Britain's reign in Burma (1886-1948). The Christianity was spreading among the Kachin at this period.

Burma's north mountain end was called the Kachin state when it achieved sovereignty in 1948. Kachin also has a large population in the north of Shan State. Many Kachin became more and more unhappy with the discriminating policy of the regime in Cuba. In 1961 this resulted in the foundation of an articulated Kachin Independent Organization (KIO) and KIA, its armoured wings, which developed into one of the greatest forms of ethnical opposition in the state.

This was followed by several decade-long conflicts that led to the expulsion of many Kachin Highlands inhabitants to the lowlands of the Kachin state. The KIO entered into a cease-fire with Burma's army in 1994 and maintained the right to its own administration and defence infrastructures in certain areas of Kachin and Shan states.

Unfortunately, the cease-fire accord did not resolve the Kachin people's abuses that caused the war. The Kachin state, like the remainder of Burma, stayed under a country of armed rule and its population refused the right to democratically elect its state. They used the cease-fire treaty to strengthen their representation in Kachin State.

Burma's 2009 government demanded that all remaining national cease-fire groups, and the KIA included, be transformed into border guards under the command of the Myanmar army. Encouraged by the KIA's rejection of the regime's call to become a border guard force and the KIA's policy controls over areas of profitable hydroelectric power in China, on 9 June 2011 the Burma Army started a comprehensive assault on the KIA and broke the decades-long cease-fire.

As a result of the fresh war, the number of violations of the Kachin people's right to life has increased, leading to the expulsion of several thousand of their civilian population, most of whom now live in temporary shelters along the Chinese frontier. Firstly, in violation of basic humanity, the government obstructed help for these internally displaced persons and banned NGOs and non-governmental organisations from providing humanity to them.

UN-OCHA reports in December 2011 that the number of IDPs who abandoned their houses and seeking sanctuary in the affected area, either in refugee camp and with friends or in the forests, rose to 50,000 in Kachin and Shan states from an estimate of 29,000 in October. Thein Sein ordered the military to stop the attack on December 10.

The struggles, however, went on, suggesting that Thein Sein did not rule the state. Karenni, also known as the Karen Rouge (-ni means ginger and refers to their favorite color of clothing) are a subgroup of Karen. The Karenni, which cover about 9 different subgroups, are thought to be about 300,000 in number.

Along with the Mon, they are the oldest tribe in Burma to emigrate from China in the sixth or seventh centuries. The Karenni (or Kayah) State lies between Karen and Shan State along the Burmese Thai frontier. The Karenni state was sovereign until the colonisation of Burma in 1886. The Karenni state was integrated into the new Burma in 1948 without the recognition or approval of the Karenni population.

In March 2012, after more than 60 years of conflict, the Karenni military sealed a truce with the Myanmar military. Burma's Karen tribe, which numbers about 7 million inhabitants, is one of the biggest ethnical groups in the state. Karen religion is a mixture of Buddhism, animism and Christianity.

Most of them are living in the southern and south-eastern parts of the land, while over the Thai frontier they are living in a state of limbo. The decolonization led, however, to the Karen state remaining part of Burma, which, together with the ongoing aggressive reaction against Burma's indigenous people, contributed to an ongoing military insurgency against the state.

The insurrection was headed by the Karen National Liberation Army and resulted in one of the longest civilian battles in the world. After more than 60 years of violent conflicts, the Karen's most important democracy, the Karen National Union (KNU), concluded a cease-fire deal with the Myanmar authorities in January 2012.

But the Burma army broke this truce in March and the battles continue. Most of the Mon live in the state of Mon, which lies in the south of Burma and is bordered by the Bago area ( "Pegu"), the Tanintharyi area ( "Tenasserim") and the state of Karen. Mon are regarded as one of the first tribes in Southeast Asia and the first to establish themselves in Burma.

You have been in charge of the spread of Theravada Buddhism, the oldest religious education, in Burma and Thailand. Currently there are an estimate of about 8 million Burmans. There is a great impact on Burma's dominating cultural life and the Mon font has been integrated into Burma's standardized vocabulary.

Mon tribe actively participated in the anticolonial fight for Burma's liberty. In spite of the ceasefire, the area remains very vulnerable and there are serious doubts about the security and respect for the peoples of the Mon. Rakhine or " Arakanese " is the biggest ethnical group in Rakhine State, formerly known as Arakan, which stretches along the Bay of Bengal in western Burma.

Rakhine or Arakanian dialects are also used by around 35,000 inhabitants of neighboring Bangladesh. As with most areas in Burma, the population is hard to determine, especially as the incomplete information from the Population Survey only includes the number within the state and not the population of indigenous groups. 5 percent of Burma's population.

Most of them are Theravada Buddhists and belong to the four most important Myanmarist communities (the others are Bamar, Shan and Mon). It is also home to peoples of other ethnical groups such as Chin, Mro, Chakma, Khami, Dainet and Maramagri. A large majority of Muslim Rohingya also exist (see below).

ALTSEAN Burma puts that about 60% of the Rakhine population is undernourished and suffering from a serious shortage of infrastructures - only three major roads pass through the Arakan Hills in the Rakhine State - as well as clinics and efficient health care. It was finally fully received into Burma at various periods under Burma domination in 1783; it was the center of many revolts against Britain's domination during the nineteenth and eighteenth centuries; in 1826, it was the first Myanmar area to be surrendered to the Brits after the first Anglo-Burmese war.

Rakhine gained independence during the Second World War under the Japans' occupations and even its own force known as the Arakan Defence Force. After the Panglong meeting in 1948, all three regions became part of the new Union of Burma. There was a secessionistism in Burma in the 1950', but it was not.

Though they have lived in the state of Rakhine (Arakan) in the west of Burma for hundreds of years, the government of Burma regards them as foreign nationals in Burma. For the Rohingya, who have escaped from Burma, the position is not much better. Approximately 30,000 Rohingya people are in Bangladesh's southeastern Cox' Bazar region, with another 17,000 to 40,000 without assistance in temporary storage facilities near by.

A further 200,000 non-registered "victims" from Burma are living in Bangladesh without judicial rights, mostly in towns outside the camp. The majority of the ethnical shans are living in the state of the sharan in the east of Burma, but smaller sharan societies also inhabit the Kachin state in the northern part and in China, Thailand and Laos, which are bordering on the state of the shar.

Although Burma's latest data are not available, there are an estimate of 4-6 million Shan in Burma. In Shan state, too, there are many smaller ethnical groups, among them the Kokang, Lahu, Palaung, Pao and Wa. Whilst most Shan Theravada Buddhists are, Christianity is also practised by a number of other ethnical groups in Shan State.

The Shan leadership in 1947 concluded the Panglong Agreement with the Myanmar government aiming to establish a united Burma, in which the Shan state would be largely independent and would have the opportunity to separate from the Union after ten years of autonomy. However, the agreement never came about because Burma's Aung San was murdered in the same year and the country's politics were in an uproar.

The Shan State is home to a number of civilian troops, among them the Shan State Army-South (SSA-South), which fight against the Myanmar army. SSA-South' recent cease-fire deal with the Government of Burma, ratified in December 2011, collapsed in February 2012 when clashes erupted in areas across Shan State.

Civil servants in Shan State are exposed to violation of civilian life by the army and other federal agencies, both when there are and are no armed conflicts, involving hard labor, porting or drafting, indiscriminate imprisonment, torturing, rape and extra-judicial killing. Burma's army is also known for confiscating lands from Shan state village dwellers, often giving them no way to earn a living.

More information about ethnical groups: Campaign Burma UK, .

Mehr zum Thema