Myanmar Physical FeaturesBurma Physical characteristics
Burma | Facts, Geography & Histories
Myanmar, also known as Burma, is situated in the west part of the Southeast Asian continent. Since 1989, the Union of Burma transformed the British name of the land it had had since 1885 into the Union of Myanmar; in the Myanmar tongue, the land has been known as Myanma (or more specifically Mranma Prañ) since the thirteenth cent.
During 2005, the administration began relocating its administration center, first to the town of Pyinmana (about 320 km from Yangon ) and then to Nay Pyi Taw (Naypyidaw), a new town near Pyinmana. In 2006 Nay Pyi Taw was declared the capitol of Myanmar. Myanmar is the most northerly of Southeast Asia and has the shape of a dragon with a long tale that extends along the Malay Peninsula to the souths.
It borders China to the North and Northeast, Laos to the Easter, Thailand to the SE, the Andaman Sea and the Bay of Bengal to the SE, Bangladesh to the SW and India to the NW. It has a length from N to S of about 2,050 km and is about 930 km (580 miles) from E to W of the broadest part of the land, across the center, about on the degree of breadth of the town of Mandalay.
Burma falls from a height of 5,881 meters on Mount Hkakabo (the country's highest mountain) in the far northernmost part to the Irrawaddy (Ayeyarwady) and Sittang (Sittoung) delta. As a rule, the range of hills runs from the North to the Southeast. There are five physiographical areas of the whole land - the northerly hills, the westerly hills, the east plain, the main valley and the lowland and coastline.
Mount Hkakabo's northerly peaks are made up of a row of chains that make a complicated noose. With regard to tectonic plates, this node represents the north-eastern boundary of the Indian-Australian tectonic plates, which have been in collision with the south rim of the Eureasian plates for about 50 million years, pushing up the Myanmar and beyond massifs.
The area contains the springs of several major Asian watercourses, among them the Irrawaddy, which springs and runs all over Myanmar, and the Salween (Thanlwin), which springs in China's farthest North. Myanmar's west mountain range covers the whole west side, from the northerly hills to the south tip of the Rakhine peninsula (Arakan), where they run under the ocean and re-emerge as Andaman and Nicobar Islands of India.
They are made of old crystal stones encircled on both sides by thick, densely crimped rock sediments. The Patkai Range, Naga Hills and Chin Hills constitute the boundary between India and Myanmar from Naga to Southeast. The Rakhine Mountain range (Arakan Mountains), which lies completely within Myanmar, separates the coast from the main area.
Shan Lake in the eastern part of the island suddenly emerges from the main pool, often in a walk of about 600 meters. It originated during the Mesozoic (about 250 to 65 million years ago) and is thus much older than the west mountain range, but the platform also has a younger and more intense fold, with the north-south longitude areas climbing sharply to altitudes of 1,800 to 2,600 meters above the platform area.
To the north the plain passes into the north and to the south into the Dawna Range and the Tenasserim Peninsula (Tanintharyi Mountains), a row of mountain chains with small valleys each. Between the Rakhine and Shan Plateaus, the main valley and plains are structureally linked to the fold of the west mountain chains.
There are two different parts of the pool, the Irrawaddy and Sittang valleys, through the Bago Mountains. At the center of the pool and structural linked to the Bago Mountains and its north extent is a series of dormant volcanos with small volcanic ponds and rocks, the biggest being Popa Hill at 1,518 meters.
Its coastline consists of the small Rakhine and Tenasserim plain, bordered by the high mountain range of the Rakhine and Tenasserim peaks and lined by a large number of small and large islets. Myanmar's most important watercourses, like the hills, run from North to South. Approximately three-fifths of Myanmar's land area is being dewatered by the Irrawaddy and its creeks.
It flows completely through Myanmar and is almost 1,000 mile (.600 km) passable. The Chindwin, its large affluent, is draining the water from the west area. Bassein River (Pathein River) dewaters the Rakhine Mountains to the south and Yangon River (Rangoon River) the Bago Mountains; both flow into the Irrawaddy on the Danube River estuary. Shan Plateau is dewatered by the Salween River, which flows from South China into Myanmar and flows into the Gulf of Martaban south-east of Sittang.
Well-rooted, it traverses the platform in a row of canyons. Most of its affluents are more than 300 nautical mile ( "480 km") long and connect the Salween in cascade. Rakhine coastlines are dewatered by fast, shallow brooks that form wide delta and lead into the Bay of Bengal.
In the Tenasserim plain there are also fast and narrow streams that flow into the Gulf of Martaban. There are two great Myanmar seas. Lake Indawgyi, in the foothills of the mountains in the south and in the southwest, is one of the biggest lake in Southeast Asia and stretches for about 24 km from coast to coast and 13 km from coast to coast.
Slightly smaller is Lake Inle, which stretches about 14 mile (. 22 km) from North to South and 7 mile (. 11 km) from east to westerly on the Shan Plateau. Myanmar's highlands are coated with heavily depleted, iron-rich, deep scarlet and red-brown soil.