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In Myanmar, what is the future of media?
As Edmund Burke, a member of the UK parliament and thinker, once referred to as the "fourth power" in our day-to-day life, the masses play an important part in the development of democratic and open debate. It is particularly important in new democratic countries because companies are developing both in economic and political terms and citizens have the possibility to think in a critical way and choose from among those of their choice.
It has never been more important to be an open and free medium to examine and objectively inform about misconduct. In addition, the free, equitable and - not "counterfeit" - free and fake medias are important because of the place of the medias in the formation of popular opinions and the responsibility of politicians for politics and advancement.
Myanmar's medial developments are in an important phase. Myanmar's new democratically based transformation - which began in 2011 - has brought new freedom of the mass and development of the mass press after 60 years of armed rule and complete scrutiny and censure of the judiciary, along with a heritage of repressive legislation and regulation that is still being used for journalism and publication.
In the coming years, a powerful and watchful press will have an important impact on Myanmar's growth as a country and a truly open people. Please click here to register for full account. Subsequently, the Law on the Use of the Mass Media and the Law on Printing and Publishing adopted in 2014 were the first new laws that laid down the laws and obligations of the mass media throughout the transitional period and granted the mass media greater freedom and freedom for the first and foremost.
Opening up the medias also promoted the creation of local ethnical medias, a repatriation of exile editors from outside Myanmar and the creation of visa for international press. Hopes that the NLD and Aung San Suu Kyi landsliding elections in 2015 could accelerate free expression and a truly free press landscape have failed, however.
Myanmar currently ranked 131st out of 180 in the World Press/ Freedom Index 2017. While Myanmar has made great progress in the last four years since Myanmar came to the end of the debate alongside North Korea, the media is still not really free and reporters still face arrest and penalties.
Disputed free of expression legislation such as 66(d) of the Telecommunication Act 2013 - where any individual can bring an action against an authors for contents that have been published via the web, phone, radio or TV - continues to hinder media freedoms and free access to websites such as Facebook.
A well-known case of this bill was when a Facebook accountant was accused of offending the chief of the armed forces and the armed forces after he compared Myanmar's new brightly green uniforms to those of Aung Suu Kyi's verdant Longyi. Also § 17 Abs. 1 of the Act about illegal associations still stands in the laws and avoids that jounalists gather to happen.
A recent raid against the press was when the Shan State army detained reporters after the Ta'ang National Liberation Army (TNLA), an ethnically based group of gunmen, reported a drug-burning incident. In addition, some detective reporters have died or vanished in mysterious ways in isolated areas and under conflicting conditions.
While Myanmar has made progress, oppression is continuing. While there are many issues facing the masses, both the press and the press, there are gradually changing positively. It' often used to summon and prosecute members of the press and onliners. In a way, the equivocality of the Act has made it even more difficult for local reporters, as it is not clear what "slander" means.
As a result, reporters, activists and on-line commentators cannot be sure which topics and topics can be "defamatory" because there is no clearly established policy. In particular, this applies to reporters reporting on policy topics and sensible topics. Recently, six reporters were arrested for their work, mainly for reporting critically, which was then used against them using Section 66(d).
The army has thrown down the charge in a favorable state. Here, too, the sensitive developments in Myanmar's press laws are evident. That they were indicted in the first place shows the challenges still facing the press. Chris Peken, a consultant at the Myanmar Journalism Institute, sees this playing directly with the Myanmar film world.
Peken's context for journalism and press publishing can best be summarised as "two footsteps forward, one footstep back", but it is undoubtedly upbeat. "One example of a favorable shift would be the fact that the federal administration has just granted five licences for the provision of contents for state television stations.
Those pilots, together with the amendments to radio legislation that have been put forward, would make the EU mass communication medium the third level of medium (with pubic and business channels), which would have been inconceivable a few years ago," said Peken. Like the recent releases of the six reporters, this case is an indication of the two stages forward, a retrograde stage in which the press is active.
The Myanmar audio-visual industry is still in many ways still trying out Myanmar's water, and some topics are still taboo. Further regulation reform is needed for Myanmar's communications to evolve, as well as the development and promotion of the next breed of digital, on-line journalist. About four to five thousand reporters work in Myanmar - the overwhelming majority of them without official schooling.
This " bottom-up approximation to train " is of the utmost importance for Beijing to support the development of capacities in the press. "It is necessary, as a journalist, to establish a climate of interviewing and analysing - a climate of journalistship. It is these discerning mindsets that form the foundation of the journalistic world, be it TV, Internet, printed or on-air.
The Myanmar Journalism Institute offers a one-year full-time course with the best native and internat. The Myanmar Journalism Institute offers specialized, short working-classes. Whilst the number of copies of the press is declining in other parts of the world, Myanmar's population still reads a large number of them. A UN survey found that one third of homes had no direct contact with information and communications equipment, so broadcasting and the print media are still essential to reach these areas.
Much has been said about the importance of the use of wireless communications, but in Myanmar conventional means of communications such as newspaper, television and wireless are still crucial, but that is slowly shifting. In Myanmar there is also a trend towards the use of electronic music. There has been an enormous upturn in the use of online and offline forms of content, such as Facebook, which has been fuelled by extensive investment in the telecommunication technologies infrastructures that have greatly boosted the spread of wireless and the web.
According to recent polls, Myanmar has at least 33 million wireless phone subscribers, or about 50 per cent of the total populace, and about 80 per cent of these 33 million subscribers use smartphones. It shows that there is an important place for the use of modern media technology in the state. In Myanmar, a recent IRI survey shows the enormous impact of Facebook, especially in the way the country's citizens use it.
In Myanmar, many who have wireless connectivity use Facebook as a messaging resource. The poll also found that the vast majority of respondents often saw articles about racial or worship conflicts on Facebook, which raises further concerns about the spread of "fake news" on the web. Facebook, as is the case worldwide, is becoming increasingly important as an aggregate and mediator of messages in Myanmar.
Myanmar Press Council Secretariat U Thiha Saw says that the messaging community and accessing information on-line is transforming Myanmar quickly; a failure to identify true and unreal information represents a true menace and challenges for the newsmedia. "Everyone becomes a consuming and producing person at the same token with the help of SMC.
Counterfeit messages are now being sent from all sides," says Saw. Myanmar's next major challange for the Myanmar mass communication is to produce Facebook-enabled contents that can compete with counterfeit and often meaningful narratives. Yangon Myanmar Council. In spite of the ever-challenging situation facing the masses, the journalist and publishers are still struggling, many are pushing the boundaries, trying to see how far and what issues they can go - and sometimes they pay a high cost.
Despite the set-backs, the overall trend in the Myanmar audio-visual industry is good, and it is expected that regulation will ease further over the years. Myanmar's growing mass press has come a long way since the reign of the Burmese regime - one of the most important of these is the mere number of papers now working in Myanmar and the progressive improvements in this area.
Progressive liberalisation of the mass mediums - i. e. broadcasting, television and printed publications with greater liberties - is proof of the advances made. Now the most important test will be whether Myanmar can move forward or back. Myanmar Press Council is currently working with the Myanmar authorities on a "right to information law" that will work in a similar way to a information liberty bill in other states.
In order to facilitate the media's accessibility and information to the administration, the PR department also works with the administration to promote the creation of "public relation departments" in each department, which would provide information and further governance accessibility for reporters. The important part that the autonomous community has a responsibility to take in the community has also been recognized by the government," Saw added.
Burma has made and continues to make great strides, but the pressure of regulation and interinstitutional obstacles are still hampering developments in the mass communication industry and restrictions on freedoms.