Myanmar NawBurma Naw
In addition, he works on "State Faulture in South Asia", in particular on the stable unstability graph, and tests the hypothesis of cyclical failures and functionally anarchic. In addition, he is an associate of the Pakistan Study Research Unit (PSRU), University of Bradford, and was a visiting professor at the Pakistan Studies Programme, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi.
P.R. Chari is a visiting professor, IPCS. A former member of the Indian administration service, he has held various executive posts in the federal and state government.
I' m doing a to-do interview: JANUARY 2016 - Myanmar
The Naw Be----speak about events that took place in Htantabin Township, Toungoo District, between 2012 and 2016, which included rural conflicts, greater mobility and a need for local communities to develop. The Naw Be--- discussed in detail the loan acquisition procedure from the Burma/Myanmar authorities, taking into account the concern that it will not be possible to obtain further loan if they allow KNU to purchase the property.
Though the Burmese and Myanmar governments have pledged to deliver power to Bf----town, the operation was halted because the people of the villages could not afford to make all the necessary payments. A number of people in the villages have been complaining that the funds raised for the scheme are instead kept by the local manager and are now suspicious of community developement work.
Mr Naw Be----reports an increasing number of disagreements between the initial landowners and the present inhabitants since the temporary cease-fire in 2012. The report also addresses the increasing mobility since the provisional cease-fire in 2012, women's participation in the 2015 elections, questions of local taxes and their visions for the coming years.
So can you tell us what you think of the cease-fire agreement? When the[ temporary] cease-fire was initialled, we were free to work as village people and peasants. Burma/Myanmar is now providing us with a loan.
Nor do we need to be informed when we spend the night as foreigners in other towns. We' re free to life and look forward to the truce. So where do you reside? I' m in Bf town. -How many homes are there in Bf--Village?
There' more than enough homes in Bf--Dorf. Some of the people in the villages have moved and so there would be[therefore] more than[censored for security] homes; I don't know the number. You know the number of people in the vill? Do you have a hospital in your town?
There' s no sanitarium in our town. Only midwives and rural healthcare personnel are available in the villages. We' re sending the people to the infirmary. They' re nominated by the state. Burma/Myanmar authorities? So how many of them are there in the town? There' s no middlewife in the town.
The Daw is a town? Yes, Tha Daw town. This a Karen town? No. It's a mon-town. Do you have a local college? At our chalet, the chalet had to employ three of its own staff, which led to difficulties for the people.
Yes, the people of the villages have to give them a wage. Like you know, if you are living in the city and your kids are in Standard Eight, you have to put them in a costly one-to-one school. There are not enough instructors and no tutors because we are living in a small city.
Is he living in Bf-Dorf? Yes, he is living in Bf--- Dorf and leading them in their office, and he also takes care of all the schoolchildren. Are NGOs or the Burmese and Myanmar governments coming to hand out educational material such as textbooks and schoolbags? This year, the Burmese and Myanmar governments also provided the pupils with educational uniform.
We' re very thankful for the guys who lend us the insecticide. This year I payed 70,000 Kyat[US $51. 36] to fix my bike, so I said I won't be paying the taxes this year because I'm not a carrier[someone who uses his bike to transport folks for money].
They' re taxing[villagers] 5,000 kyat[US $3.67] per motorcycle. But after hearing about this information, the village people don't want to be porters, because if something happens to them, no one can help them. At the moment the Tatmadaw administration (Burma/Myanmar) does not pay us taxes and lends us funds if we cultivate our area.
Burma/Myanmar is lending us 100,000 Kyat[US $73.37] if we own one hectare of property. When you own five hectares of property, they lend you 500,000 Kyat[US $366. 84] and when you own ten hectares of property, they lend us 1,000,000 Kyat[US $733.68]. They' re lending you 100,000 kyats per hectare of farmland?
Yeah, they're lending us 100,000 kyats per hectare of almond. When they would not do so (increase the interest on arrears), some would take the credit and not want to repay it. So when did you get started on this credit thing? When we repay them early, they lend us[money] for another period because they lend it maturity by maturity.
They' re only lending to paddies. In February, some inhabitants of the community stopped growing peanuts (plantations) and paid back their credit. They' re gonna give you next year's early repayment of your next year's credit. Are they only making this credit available in Bf-Dorf? You have made it available to every town, also to the towns of Karen and Bamar.
At the moment they are coming to measure the country, and we fear that the Tatmadaw administration (Burma/Myanmar) will not lend us any more money[if we allow the CNU to measure the land], so some village inhabitants have not allowed the local population ( "from the KNU") to measure their area. Another preoccupation is that we also have Myanmar IDs and we fear that they will ask us by asking: "You have Myanmar IDs[so] why do you allow people[the KNU] to monitor your country?
We remain between the two (Burma/Myanmar and KNU ), which causes difficulties. Will it become a living support issue for the village population? It has become a real dilemma for the village inhabitants and we don't dare to tell them because they are our people[Karen].
Do NGOs carry out community based community based developments? Developmentprojects related to drinking and power? Do you mean humanity assistance, such as the distribution of sun collectors, power and inundation? KNU [and other groups] spread it to A--- town because it's a small town, but they don't spread it to Bf-- town because Bf---- is a big town.
Honestly, I don't think KNU leader think the people here in the villages need[the help]. Actually, both wealthy and impoverished are living in this town. There are some unfortunate townspeople who need help. That' s all I can say[the economical state of the village]. They went to A--- Dorf to help them and teach them how to buy fertilizer, cave balms and soap to make some money.
Yes, they had taught them (villagers) how to make fertilizer. but after I got remarried, I moved to Bf--. Didn't the village folks get a workout? Bf---Turks were not asked because, after some folks became guides, they simply do what they want and care about their own use.
They[ community leaders] are worried that if people[from outside the village] come to do something[activity] in our community, they will affect them[community leaders] to do something[they are afraid that folks from outside the community will come up with an agenda for changing the village]. I think they want to come, but as you know, the locals are like different hands, and they will never be able to come together.
All we need is cooperation[to agree on what the community needs] and if you have good cooperation, they will help us[by providing training]. There are some NGOs from denominations and others from the administration, but do they all need to agree with the administration to gain this area?
Do they distribute the help to the people? The people gave out the help, trained the inhabitants and educated them on how to rear the cattle. They' re investing some cash in buying cattle to rear. So, they gave the peasants cash to buy hogs to breed? A few people in Bf-- Villetta purchased a cow to rear them, and they lent them moneys.
Are there any organisations that carry out roads and power engineering developments? As far as the issue of power is concerned, the Burmese and Myanmar authorities have been telling us that they will have installed it for us a long while ago, but it has not yet taken place. You asked for it this way?
Yeah, they asked all village people to give it, but some villagers[had no money]. You let them power it up? We did need and allow them, but some people in the village had no funds, so we couldn't afford to give them all[the whole amount they had asked for].
Said we should give 200,000 to 400,000 Kyat[US $146. 74 to US$293. 47] to install power cables and light poles from E--- to the old elementary schools in our town. Do they[ the power utilities] govern Burma/Myanmar? Yeah, they're from the Burmese/Myanmar administration. Will they give you power cords and lampposts?
And I said to them: "I'll be paying you the date you come to put up the current converter and put my name on the list[to get power]". At the moment, many village inhabitants do not want power because they do not have enough of it. You said we had to buy the wires and the counter boxes, so some people in the village couldn't and didn't do it.
This began a long while ago, and if you remember that, I'm sure you'll see repaired the street with your own shiny bamboosticks on your way (when you get out of the village). So I saw the crowd clear the street and fell the saplings?
They' ll be sending a power translator, but they said that the village people can afford just one translator, but a large town needs two people. So how did the villager do it? That' s why they haven't put up enough power for us and haven't cleaned up the street yet.
Well, I don't think it's gonna be that simple to get power. 38 ] for a very long while, so some people got mad and said: "You (the governor ) raised funds and borrowed them for profit", because they (the governor/administrator) did not do what they said. A few people in the villages think that even if we have already made payments, we still have to buy the power metering unit, and they also think:'If it was built by the Burmese and Myanmar governments, why should we buy the metering unit?
Hasn' t the villager and the villager discussed this with the inhabitants? Yes, a few nights ago they discussed with the locals by organizing a visit, but some locals did not attend because they were not interested and had already forgotten their cred. For my part, I think it[development projects] is a good opportunity[for the village] and I am very glad when the people[the Myanmar government] help us[by supplying power].
When we get [Power], it will also benefit our prospective kids. A few people in the village think that we would have to buy a counter boxes, cables and the amount of electrical power (megawatts). A number of them think it is better to use collectors instead of using electric power.
It is what we need, and the people[the Myanmar government] will help us. Nor does anyone today want to be in the dark anymore, for it is an epoch of evolution. Is there any villager still using collectors? Yeah, the village folks in Bf-- they use sunblocks. There is not much to pay for using photovoltaic modules, and all village residents are currently using them.
As for the country, the people in Bf--Dorf have title to it? They all have country names because the Burmese /Myanmar authorities made them available to us and we stuck them in mylar. Is there any problem with the country here? I' m not having problems with the country in my own country. Has the Burmese and Myanmar governments seized property?
There is no seizure of property by the authorities, but a matter of property has arisen here. Farmland (owned by the villagers) was handed down from grandparent to grandparent by one family. None of them had ever taken care of the country in the past[before the signing of the provisional cease-fire in 2012], but after the signing of the cease-fire they wanted the country back.
Those who took charge of the country during the time of the war were furious at the landowners for asking for it after the war. This[ Territorial Conflict] has occurred in our area. Historically, humans have grubbed up and cultivated the soil and after they no longer wanted to cultivate it, they have been selling it to other man.
A few of them have just done their duty[to leave the country] because if they didn't, they would be constantly interrogated by the people[Burma/Myanmar administration and Tatmadaw]. When they had cut the ground, they began to sell it to other men. After the truce was sealed they began selling it bit by bit and asked[the folks who had initially grubbed up the land] to return their lands.
It' happened in our town. Many of them are not happy with each other, because some of them (the initial owners) came to them to reclaim the area. But I don't know how they asked[for their country back]. Old folks said the country would be laughing at you if you argued about the country.
I' m not keeping my eye on the country and I never asked about it. I' ve been told that they[the present inhabitants/owners of the land] gave half of the acres[back] to the[original] landowner. When they own six acre of farmland, they gave three acre of it to the[original] landowners.
In the past, have you worked as a local leader or healthcare professional? Yeah, but when folks need me, I still go around helping them. So, if the locals need your help, will you help them anyway? What do you think as a Midwife about the pre-signature and post-signature situations of the cease-fire?
I had to sneak up on them. A few of them had no funds and if they got health care in the city it was expensive, so we just took care of each other and calculated a very low rate, and some of them I didn't calculate because I felt sorry for them.
At the time of the war, it created a problem for the people of the villages because we were unable to keep medicines with us, and we were worried, but at the moment we can move around free and also stockpile medicines. It is in God's hand to guide us into our own futures in order to be free in our town.
What was the turnout for the 2015 elections? Since the[ Nationwide] Armistice was initialled? When the cease-fire is over, will there be more or less chance for them? With the truce in place, we are free to act as wives. Have any of the village residents been chosen as contestants?
Yes, some of us[women] were voted and we were called to be nominees, but we were not interested in policy-making. All we can do is farm and in our way we can be very peaceful. This is how we do it. We do it. We make money. We were asked to be a candidate, we would tell them we weren't interested in policy.
We' re living our way. We have been swayed by many political groups to choose the different political groups, but I think most village people here have chosen her. She was the only woman who works for us, so we have a duty to approve her, and we also get support[loan from the Burmese government].
That is why we were voting for her, because we thought she would stand up for us by consulting[to borrow more money] with the authorities, so we would get more help from the authorities. The Burma/Myanmar and KNU authorities have now ratified the cease-fire treaty, so they are helping us in financial terms, they are not disturbing our work and we can move as well.
It will be very good if our Karen tribe (KNU) doesn't taxes and annoys us, but if they still annoy us, the government[Burma/Myanmar] or the Tatmadaw could do the same. Unless they cause us a problem by not taxation us, they (Burma/Myanmar government) might think that we can be peaceful if no one taxes us.
Since we are agriculturists, I think we want to be alone and work in peace on our own holdings. There' s no other work in this town, and unless we are bothered by an[armed] group, we can be alone in peace. However, when we are disrupted because we are controlled by both government (in a joint controlled area between Burma/Myanmar and KNU), this sometimes causes inconvenience.
If taxes interfere with our lives, we have to deal with concern and misfortune. We' re concerned that if our own tribe (KNU) taxes us in this way, the Burma/Myanmar administration will also bother us. When they[ both the KNU and the Burma/Myanmar government] bother us, we will be very tired.
We have had unrest in the past[problems], but now that the truce has been sealed we can move and enjoy a peaceful life. There will be a peaceful atmosphere if we are living and working alone, and if we are not bothered by some[armed] group, we can work as happy people.
When our kids don't have to act as troops and our men don't taxes us, then we don't regret it and don't think we're bad in our lives. If[ Burma/Myanmar government] has been told that another government[KNU] is coming to disrupt us[by taxation us], the other government[Burma/Myanmar] could reiterate these acts and] also disrupt us.
I' m thinking if we remain alone, the authorities won't bother us either. I' d like to discuss the needs of the village population. Burma/Myanmar government] said they would install the power for us, but it never has. So, I just want to know if there's a group that can help us?
You want the power according to the needs of the inhabitants? Burma/Myanmar government] wants to help us[but they] needed our help and therefore some of our inhabitants could not afford it. Do you want power? Yeah, our town is near E---[town] and this town has been receiving power for many years, but our town hasn't got it yet.
There is fertilizer to use and although we have invested a great deal of time in our agriculture, we can do very little. And we don't have any growing groundnut seed either, so we had to get it from the chef (rich people), and if we get a bag of groundnuts, we have to give them two and a half bags of groundnuts for their winnings.
A few village people took two bags of groundnut seeds and have to repay five bags because the fair is very high this year. It is difficult for the village inhabitants to earn a livelihood. You asked us to buy five bags of groundnuts for the profit[interest on the loan].
A few folks who don't have groundnut seed to breed, lend it to them from the wealthy. That is why the village inhabitants work in this way only for a livelihood. They will think it[the groundnut commodity price] is a good value and can earn a great deal of money if they don't know[about the situation].
We ( "villagers") actually breed cattle to generate an incomes for the purchase of it. We' re hoping the state understands. 1 ] KHRG is training parishioners in south-eastern Burma/Myanmar to record violations of personal freedoms through a standardized report form, to interview other village residents and to provide general information about the situations in the areas they know.
2 ] In order to enhance the visibility of the KHRG method and to more directly convey the experience and perspective of the village people in south-eastern Burma/Myanmar, KHRG strives to provide all information obtained on the KHRG website after processing and translation only from a safety perspective. 3 ] One norm relates to one academic year in the educational system of Burma/Myanmar.
On 15 October 2015, following a negotiating trial marked by controversies over the remarkable non-inclusion of several ethnically based gun groups and the ongoing conflict in ethnically based areas, a Nationwide CeazeFire Agreement (NCA) was concluded between the Burmese authorities and eight of the fifteen ethnically based groups initially convened to the negotiating platform, among them the KNU, see "Myanmar Signing Armistice with Eight Goups", Reuters, 15 October 2015.
NCA followed the provisional cease-fire between KNU and the Burma/Myanmar authorities in Hpa-an on 12 January 2012. The Karen civilian population and the KNU have recently voiced their concern about the failure to move from a cease-fire to a real policy dialog.