Myanmar Internet 2016Internet Myanmar 2016
june 2015-May 2016
Blogger/ICT user arrested: Internet usage rose from less than 2 per cent in 2013 to over 20 per cent (see accessibility and ease of access). In the run-up to the November 2015 election, attackers are targeting the website of Burma's Irrawaddy journal and published a bogus account of Aung San Suu Kyi's public record, despite her National League for Democracy winning a political victory (see Technical Attacks).
Exiting civil servants authorized Viettel's offer to join a JV with domestic companies and a Myanmar Economic Corporation affiliate (see Access and Facilitation). Burma went through its second stage of transformation and in April 2016 moved from the military-backed administration to the National League for Democracy (NLD) under the chairmanship of Nobel Peace Prize winner Aung San Suu Kyi.
It was worrying that Internet useers were hesitant in their discussions about the new administration and remained self-censored after the November election because they feared bullying and bullying by the still mighty army and even adherents of the democratic-electors. Unparalleled momentum in the November 2015 parliamentary election was hampered by the bullying of Internet surfers by followers on both sides of the policy gap.
The new NLD government, which was officially inaugurated on 30 March 2016, is expected to bring about overhaul. In April tens of Zimbabwean detainees were granted pardon and freed. The Norwegian Telenor Group has set up the country's first ever autonomous link to the Internet, and Qatars Ooredoo introduced wireless services in large parts of the state in 2014.
But it was the foundation for several interrogations for on-line speaking in 2015 and 2016. According to a recent survey, all large German politicians were involved in the use of the internet in the big city, and it was 12% higher than normal on polling time. 5 However, it is also widespread on line, exacerbated by discrimination against minority groups such as the Muslim Rohingya,6 who are refused nationality under Myanmar's Law.
Religions of the nationalistic movement have had a negative impact on Internet debates, especially in the run-up to the election and immediately after the new administration took over. Myanmar's Internet connectivity is improved as more and more mobile phone subscribers go live, which is becoming cheaper and cheaper. Nevertheless, Internet surfing is still one of the low end of the spectrum.
Services continue to be of low standard due to insufficient infrastructures and the use of the Internet by the public is further restricted by the lack of access to it. There has been a significant increase in the number of Internet surfers over the last two years. ITE estimates Internet coverage at 22% in 2015 and revises its 2014 forecast from 2% to 12%; in 2013 it was less than 2%.
Chronical blackouts, business disruptions and inadequate transmitter masts are still hindering effective Internet use. But because they don't have the necessary infra-structure to MPT, their low-performance features often trigger people to log on to several vendors and change SIMs to solve connectivity problems. Under an MCIT policy, carriers should not bill more than 20 MMK (US$0.01) per minutes for rush hour and 15 MMK per minutes off-peak call, but MPT calculated 50 MMK per minutes in 2015, minus 25 MMK per minutes in 2016.
MPT's pre-paid services are available at MMK 2 per minutes for GSM radio and MMK 4 per minutes for CDMA 800 and WCDMA operators. Up until 2014, the Ministry of Communications and Information Technology (MCIT) mainly control the country's communications and information technology infrastructures through the state-owned Myanmar Post Telecommunication (MPT), which provides over 90 per cent of the state.
Capacities have risen since the two overseas telecommunication companies began building their own fibre optic network in March 2015. In spite of these diversifications, state agglomerates are still distorting the telecommunication situation through the state-owned Myanmar Post Telecommunication (MPT) and a new, military-linked jointventure. By 2013, the Norwegian companies Telenor and Ooredoo in Qatar were granted a number of interna-tional licences by the Norwegian authorities, enabling them to provide MPT as well as service and infras-ture.
The Myanmar Computer Federation, established under the 1996 IT Development Act and composed of experts from the industrial sector, is the point of contact for ITI. MCIT then published two legislation on license provision and networking and interconnection in October 2014 and January 2015. Competition regulations in June 2015, regulations for frequency spectrum in March 2016 and regulations for December frequency range.
In January, MCIT published a bill to amend the regulation of the use of the World Bank's infrastructure for gateways, which was drafted in agreement with the World Bank. The tactic was to report competing Facebook members for breaching fellowship norms, causing their account to be suspended, as well as rigging policy comments. For the first observation during the report year, Facebook subscribers abused the objectionable submission mechanisms to deactivate competing sites.
One caricaturist using the pen name Maung Maung Fountain briefly closed his bankroll in January 2016 after sharing a comic strip that made a joke of Aung San Suu Kyi's mischief. He had been notified to Facebook by strangers because he had violated a demand that the user should be able to use their name in their daily lives.
Than Htut Aung, PhD, Eleven Group' Chief Executive Officer, said his Facebook bankroll was suspended in January after criticizing the way a leading NLD guide dealt with the newsmedia. The popularity of Facebook is that many people have become accustomed to using the site to exchange information, take joint actions on societal and policy topics, or track exiled communities when website blockades were still widespread.
It is estimated that there were about seven million Facebook visitors in October 2015, compared to three million in January. For some people, Facebook is the only resource for on-line messages that frustrates them about the challenges of browsing between websites with bad links, and it may rob retailers of publicity from them.
Several pro-government Facebook sites such as Myanmar Express and blogging sites such as oppositionEye proactively tamper with on-line commentaries to carry out slander against Muslims or the rioter. Burmese ethnical internet surfers also posted racist commentaries on welfare networks throughout the reporting year. During the reporting year, on-line activities grew thanks to the 2015 election and on-line campaigning for human aid.
While the Telecommunications Act of 2013 changed the sector, it added a libel clause that imprisoned Internet surfers for making policy speeches during the reporting year. It has also neglected to abolish the infamous 2004 Electronic Transaction Law (ETL) in 2013, which was used as a routine means of criminalising Internet activity.
At least six Internet surfers were indicted before the transition and four were convicted under the Telecommunications Act 2013 for using Facebook to share and share Facebook related public and policydata. This is the highest number of criminal prosecution measures for e-speeches since the inauguration. Article 75 gives undesignated representatives of the governments the power "to instruct the organisation in question, if necessary, to obtain any information concerning either domestic safety or the state under the rules of the constitutional state, regardless of the means of communications.
Just one example: an anti-Muslim extreme campaigner posed a threat to Burma's media in June 2015 after Burma's voice reported the Rohingya immigrants trapped in the Andaman Sea and Malacca Straits. The Internet was also a means of bullying and annoyance. In February 2016, Ye Lwin Myint threatens to murder Aung San Suu Kyi on Facebook (see "Accusations and detentions for online activities").
Unleash Research Labs, the Swedish Internet safety company, published in November the results of a three-year study that identified the group behind the assault and others who were "Union of Hacktivists" for the period before the November 2015 poll. Myanmar's military-led junta reversed the name of the land of the Union of Burma in Myanmar without a 1989 referenda, a move that the Burmese government dismissed as politicised.
Burma became more and more frequent, especially after the Burmese rule took on a more civil state. Myanmar wählt Htin Kyaw zum ersten zivilen zivilen Präsidenten seit Jahrzehnten", 15. März 2016, http://www.bbc. com/news/world-asia-35808921 ; Euan McKirdy, New Goverment roll created for Myanmar's Myanmar's Aung San Suu Kyoto, 7. April 2016,http://www.cnn.com/2016/04/06/asia/aung-san-suu-kyi-state-counsellor-role-created/. 4 Shibani Mahtani, "Myanmar's Telecom Revolution Revolution Bogs Down", The Wall Street Journal, 25. Oktober 2013. http://aappb.org/2016/05/aapp-b-monthly-chronology-of-april-2016/. http://on.wsj.com/1w4lTPD.
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37Internet Journal, August 11, 2015, http://internetjournal. media/news/3696 . 39yen Saning, "Facebook passt zu Ihren Hochwasserspenden", Irrawaddy, 10. août 2015, www.irrawaddy.com/burma/facebook-will-match-your-flood-relief-donations. html . html. 41 Internet Journal, 27 mai 2016, http://internetjournal. media/news/6484 und "Tax paid auf elphone portable top-ups to be spent auf reichte", Coconuts Yangon, 27 mai 2016, http://yangon.coconuts. co/2016/05/27/tax-paid-cell-phone-top-ups-be-bee-spent-education.
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49Elevenedia, Facebook, http://bit. ly/2eGUvCu ; Su Myat Mon, "Kachin Aid Worker Journal istes Kachin Aid Worker Post Walks Free", Irrawaddy, 1er avril 2016, http://bit. html und PEN International, "Myanmar : Poets in court for slander", 30 May 2016, http://www.pen-international. org/newsitems/myanmar-poet-on-trial-for-defamation/ . ABC News 52 "Myanmar's'penis poet' Maung Saungkha released after six month in prison for libel", May 24, 2016, http://www.abc.net. au/news/2016-05-24/myanmars-penis-poet-freed-after-six-months-in-jail/7442908.
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