Myanmar InternetInternet Myanmar
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Myanmar's Internet (formerly known as Burma) has been available since the first Internet connection was made in 2000. From September 2011, the historic widespread Internet censure in Burma has been significantly curtailed. Before September 2011, the army regime worked vigorously to restrict and monitor Internet connectivity through software-based security censorships, infrastructures and technological restrictions, as well as legislation and regulation with heavy financial penalties and long jail terms for infringers.
1 ] In 2015, Internet usage rose significantly to 12. 6 percent with the launch of the 3G high-speed wireless Internet by multinational telecommunications operators Telenor Myanmar and Ooredoo Myanmar, and later by Myanmar MRPT. 4 ] While the Internet landscape in Myanmar has evolved steadily since its launch in 2010 and the abolition of the censor in 2011, legislation such as the Telecommunications Act 2013 continues to limit citizens' access to the Internet.
6 ] Despite limitations, the spread of the Internet is continuing to increase throughout the entire state. The Yatanarpon Teleport,5BB Broadband, Skynet, the state-owned Myanmar Post and Telecommunication (MPT), WeLink Myanmar, Myanmar Net, Myanmar Speednet, AGB Communication and Kinetic Myanmar Technology are the Internet Services Suppliers in Yangon and Mandalay. 10 ] Before democratisation in 2011, Internet cafes were a shared Internet user centre in the state and most use different types of computer programs to circumvent the government's public sector network of proxies.
3 ] The rise of the low-cost Internet and the improvements in telecommunications infrastructures following liberalisation led to a decline in the number of Internet caffés. The Internet on portable equipment is widespread today. Internet connection for home use in cities other than Yangon and Mandalay is only available via MPT.
However, the internet charges are so high. The cost for MPT's landline telephone MPT (new installation) is 325,000 Myanmar Kyat (US$240 estimated) in 2017. MPT's initial setup fee for MPT's initial setup is 50,000 Myanmar Kyat (US$37 estimated) without credit card. The annual charge is 50,000 Myanmar Kyat (US$37 estimated), and the minimum band width of 512kbit/s is 17,000 Myanmar Kyat (US$13 estimated) and 2.
5Mbps (highest bandwidth) is 80,000 Myanmar Kyat (US$60 estimated). There is no F-Th-internet available in the cities. In the midst of the increase in Internet connectivity across the nation, ACM Computers & Society has found that Burma's Zawgyi typeface "could affect the country's digita -tional capabilities. "Zawgyi, which is the most widely used typeface in Myanmar, is not Unicode, which means that it does not "use an smart renderedngine to ensure that each scripts item has one and only one dots.
Among others, the blogging community focuses on fun (14%), tech, computer and internet (17%), reading and reading (9%), breaking newsworthiness ( (6%), leisure and travelling (6%), political (5%) and religious (4%); 52% of Burma's blogging community writes from Burma and 48% from abroad; 72% of blogging communities are men and 27% are females;
Read the full story about blogging in Myanmar. Myanmar still has a lower than 10% share of public and private consumption of publicity. "Yet the use of the Internet and community services is still growing and powerful as Facebook is used by a wide range of Myanmar residents, many of whom include peasants.
24 ] While the use of online forms of communication is spreading, those who use Facebook are using it for controversial purposes, for both good and evil souls. While Myanmar is progressively expanding its technology and Internet connectivity across the nation, it is still addressing issues of censure, with Freedom House declaring in its 2017 countryprofile that Myanmar's situation for the mass media has significantly changed since the nation began its shift from junta to election-democratic.
Yet the regime retains strict controls over the press through the use of slander and other legislation. "Over the last hundred years, after Internet penetration began in Myanmar, the nation became known for its activities regarding the censor, some of which are presented below: In Myanmar, many Myanmar detainees have been indicted under the above legislation.
30 ] However, in the second half of 2011, the army regimes freed a number of reporters and blogs in a major amnesty shoot. Acts that regulate the Internet are the Computer Science Development Act (1996), the Wide Area Network Order (2002) and the Electronic Transactions Law (2004), while the Printers and Publishers Registration Act (1962) regulate the use of the press.
60 ] These acts and the associated provisions are broad and may be interpreted and enforced arbitrarily or selectively. Burma, 8 Ed. Internet Services Tariff", Myanmar Posts and Telecommunications, Information Technology Departments, Ministry of Communications, Posts and Telegraphs, Zugriff am 10. Juni 2011 Archiviert am 20. April 2011 an der Wayback Machine.
Two Telecommunications Races around Myanmar. Myanmar Internet Usage and Telecommunications Reports". www.internetworldstats.com. freedomhouse.org. Country code list: Myanmar Internet penetration". Asia", Internet World Stats, 23 September 2013. "Myanmar Internet Usage Status". htm#mm, Internet World Stats, November 15, 2015.
"Myanmar Mobile: Developing a Yangon based application platform based on the Yangon platform. Cellular Media & Communication. "Coding for Access: How Zawgyi's Achievement Prevents Full Subscription to D-MY. The state of social media and messaging in Asia-Pacific: "The Facebook-Loving Farmers of Myanmar". "U "U.N. detectives quote the part of Facebook in the Myanmar crises.
Myanmar information manager are learning about the use of soft and mobile communication, large amounts of information and how to respond to crises. Internet Filtration in Burma 2005: Country study". Burma prohibits Google and g-mail". Myanmar Net News. "Myanmar National League for Democracy at a Crossroads". Burma: Archiveed from the orginal on May 1, 2011.
Accessed May 8, 2011. "against the Burmese rebels." Accessed April 17, 2011. Top-class Burmese amnestists released". "Burma maintains strict communication rights clauses despite calls..."