Myanmar Country Profile 2016Burma Country Profile 2016
In the nineteenth and eighteenth centuries, various city-state or ethnic minorities of Burma invaded today's frontiers.
In the nineteenth and eighteenth centuries, various city-states and ethnic minorities occupy today's boundaries. For 62 years (1824-1886) Britain captured Burma and integrated the country into its Indian Empire. Myanmar was governed as a provincial government of India until 1937, when it became its own self-governing settlement; in 1948, Burma gained sovereignty over the British Commonwealth.
Gen. NE WIN ruled the administration from 1962 to 1988, first as army leader, then as self-proclaimed chairman and later as king of politics. As a reaction to the wide-spread civilian riots, NE WIN retired in 1988, but within a few month the army broke the students' demonstrations and took over. At the beginning of May 2008, Cyclone Nargis hit Burma, leaving over 138,000 casualties and ten thousand wounded and displaced.
In spite of this drama, the Burmese regime continued its recent constitution referenda in May, the first poll in Burma since 1990. Though the overwhelming majority of the persons nominated by THEIN SEIN were former or present soldiers at the country stage, the regime introduced a range of policy and economical reform that led to a significant opening of the long insulated country.
AUNG SAN SUU KYI was appointed to the country's legislative body in April 2012, at least in part because of these changes, and became Chairman of the Committee on the Rule of Law and Rest. Burma's first credible civil rule after more than five years of military rule was inaugurated on March 30, 2016.
By August 2017, members of the Arakan Rohingya Salvation Army (ARSA), a Rohingya militants' group, assaulted military personnel in the north of Rakhine State, resulting in a disproportionately strong reaction by Burma's military and community vigilante groups, resulting in an unprecedented death toll and over 671,000 Rohingya who fled to neighbouring Bangladesh as migrants.
The flow of migrants followed a minor expulsion from Rohingya to Bangladesh following similar ARSA raids in October 2016. UN has urged Burma to grant entry to a fact-finding operation to examine allegations of violation and violation of humanitarian law and to work with Bangladesh to help repatriate Rohingya migrants.
Myanmar has denied allegations of ethnical persecution and has decided not to cooperate with the UN fact-finding missions. From the beginning of the country's transformation to a civil governed state in 2011, it has embarked on a process of re-integration and re-integration of FDI into the world economies. In 2012, Burma set up an administered floating of Burma's Khat, in July 2013 gave the central bank operating autonomy, in September 2013 passed a new anti-corruption bill and in 2014 licensed nine non-Burma financial institutions and four more in 2016.
Council of State AUNG SAN SUU KYI and the National League for Democracy, which took over in March 2016, are trying to change the investmentclimate in Burma after US sanctioning was lifted in October 2016 and the Generalized System of Preferences was reintroduced in November 2016. Burma adopted a reformed FDI bill in October 2016 that consolidated capital expenditure requirements and simplified the licensing procedure, and a business simplification bill in 2017.
Burma's economy rallied from a low 6% in 2011, but has been between 6% and 7.2% in recent years. Burma's rich biodiversity and young workforce have the capacity to draw in attracting FDI in the areas of power, clothing, information technologies and foods and beverages.
Progress has also been made by the US authorities to increase visibility in the coal and petroleum sector through the release of Extractive Industries Transparancy Initiative (EITI) reporting in 2016 and 2018. Myanmar continues to be one of the impoverished nations in Asia - around 26% of the 51 million population lives in extreme poverty. 24% of the population lives in the poor.
Burma has been abandoned by the insulationist policy and maladministration of former government economies, with bad infrastructures, indigenous bribery, undeveloped personnel and insufficient availability of funds, requiring a great obligation to turn back. There has been a gradual response by the government of Burma to obstacles to the country's economy, such as ambiguous property laws, a restricted system of trading licences, an obscure system of collecting revenues and an outdated system of banks.
As a reaction to the August 2017 attack by a Rohingya group of militants on the police force, Burma's armed services started an operation that resulted in over 671,000 Rohingya fleeing to Bangladesh, leading to a relief crack. Trustworthy accounts suggest that the Myanmar army has perpetrated wide-spread violations of Rohingya people, which the US Secretary of State called racial cleanup.