Myanmar ClimateThe Myanmar Climate
The Myanmar Climate Change Alliance
Myanmar is one of the most susceptible to climate changes, according to several surveys. In this section we are providing some fundamental information about climate changes in general and in Myanmar. Combating climate changes calls for a strategy involving all areas of the population. Burma is in the process of drawing up its national climate protection strategy and action plans to be adopted in 2016.
Our mission and our goal is to inform more in Myanmar about the importance of climate change. We have put together a short glossary of climate change related words that you can use when you write a thesis, Ph. We' ll be updating these reference numbers on a regular basis, so please check our dictionary periodically to see the words and their definition.
Impacts of climate change and the case of Myanmar
Some of the changes in climate-related threats in Myanmar that have been seen are, among others In Myanmar, the changes that have been seen in the past, present and prospective have many implications for all areas of the economy, production, society and the environment. Myanmar has seen a countrywide rise in temperatures averaging around 0.08°C per decennium and an overall rise in precipitation (29-215 millimeters per decade) over the last 60 years.
It is important to note changes during the period of the rainy monsoons and the reoccurrence and gravity of severe meteorological incidents (NAPA 2012). Some of the changes in climate-related threats in Myanmar that have been seen are, among others Increased incidence of droughts: Increased cyclone/powerful wind intensities and frequency:
Of these, eighty (6.4 percent of the total) hit the Myanmar coast. Cyclone Mala (2006), Nargis (2008) and Giri (2010) are among the most recent hurricanes. Precipitation versatility includes irregular and record-breaking torrential rains: The 1960-2009 rainy season was short, with irregular and strong rains leading to many floods; from July to October 2011 there were strong rains and floods in the regions of Ayeyarwady, Bago, Mon and Rakhine.
In June 2001, a serious tidal wave hit the community of Wundwin in the centre of Myanmar, sweeping away a number of settlements. A rise in extremely high temperatures: There were 1,482 cases of heat-related disease and 260 heat-related fatalities across Myanmar in the summers of 2010.
In Myanmar, the changes that have been seen in the past, present and prospective have many implications for all areas of the economy, production, society and the environment. The rise in temperatures has a strong effect on industries such as farming; in the dry zone, for example, many individuals are compelled to migration and find new livelihoods due to changes in precipitation and pests.
In the MCCA programme, the awareness of these threats was assessed in five states and five territories and 23 cities were consulted as shown in the following table: more specifically, if the climate changes forecasts are accurate, the following effects are either already seen or foreseeable: Myanmar's economies and societies remain heavily reliant on farming, which is mostly supplied with shelter.
Climate change is therefore having a major effect on this important industry. That may involve the following: A number of resources, incl. NAPA 2012. 1 ) effects on the productive capacity of existing farming technologies and cultures; 2) abrupt crop degradation due to serious threats or poor crop yields due to drought; 3) long-term soil degradation.
These are just a few Rising Myanmar is likely to have a detrimental impact on farm output and nutritional safety. Rising extremely high tem-peratures are already causing difficulties in the dry zone, for example the serious 2009 dry spell that affected large grain cultures (WFP, 2009). By 2010, the supply of drinking and drinking waters to villages throughout the entire land had shrunk and the farm produce of pea, beetroot, tomatoes and paddy had been devastated.
The effects of climate changes have affected the coastline and maritime environments and led to a worsening of mangrove, reef and seagrass soils, which are essential nesting and feed sites for livetock. cyclone causes the disappearance of fishery boats and affects off-shore, onshore, and freshwater fishery, leading to high commercial catastrophes (NAPA, 2012). Climate-related catastrophes hit cattle hard: Hurricanes cause animal population casualties, while extremely high temperature leads to parasites and diseases such as foot-and-mouth epidemic (NAPA, 2012).
Burma is environmentally diverse: forestry and ecosystems support a variety of socio-economic and community life. It is changing on several front lines, under pressure from domestic reform, liberalisation of the economy and emerging markets and emerging markets, as well as climate changing . Driving forces of transformation are: developments in the fields of power and industries, town planning, land use changes and forestation.
Between 1989-1998, Myanmar's average rainforestation per year is 466,420 acres. Myanmar has forfeited more than three percent of its forests' eco-systems in the last two centuries (Forest Resource Assessment, 2015). Even though the mine accounts for a rather small proportion of Myanmar's GDP (0.54 percent), it causes considerable and growing ecological damages.
It is the biggest user of fossile fuel and is expected to see a dramatic rise in its use. In 2002 the greenhouse gases from the transportation industry contributed 20 percent (INC, 2012). Climatic changes have very strong effects on sensitive ecosystem balance sheets. In Myanmar, forest management, bio-diversity and the use of fresh waters are particularly endangered.
However, environmental industries - such as the tourist industry - are also at stake, as the natural world is exhausted or affected by changes. The climate is likely to influence both the allocation and make-up of Myanmar's rainforests. Climate and rainfall changes and extremes of climate (drought and floods) have led to the dying of woods, the transformation of woods into grassland, steppe and desert, and the spreading of invading speci ation and insects.
Forecast increases in drought and extremes of temperature increases evaporation from the top of the tree and leads to greater humidity stresses. This, in turn, will make the forest more vulnerable to fire. Advancing glacier melt may affect the Myanmar Himalayas which provide many parts of Myanmar with fresh ore.
It is likely that climate changes will have an effect on the diversity of species in fresh water. Rising ocean temperature and changes in the chemistry of the water have affected the biological diversity of the seas, especially the ecosystem of the reefs. The deterioration in plant coverage and bad landmanagement around the Inle ('Myanmar's biggest lake) have led to heavy ground erosion as well as sedimentary deposition, flattening the lakes and affecting local tourist, leisure and bio-diversity.
The NAPA expects these changes to make electricity production more vulnerable, as Myanmar has the second highest hydroelectric capacity in Asia after India and rivers will be significantly affected by irregular precipitation and rain. In the case of reservoirs, too, there is a danger of degradation, which can lead to life-threatening dangers in the event of a fall.
Since they will be affected by climate change, the industry can also be affected. However, industry and plants are also facing serious acts of nature (Cyclone Nargis caused a loss of 1,814 million US dollars (NAPA 2012) as its infrastructures could be damaged, affecting the livelihoods of its employees. Concentrating urban wealth and populations makes them more vulnerable to serious climate-related incidents.
The lower level of output can also lead to higher street grocery costs in towns and villages, which can lead to conflicts and socio-economic weakness. Rising temperature and irregular rainfall pattern are creating favorable preconditions for the spreading of communicable disease. Further impacts of rising temperature on public safety are, among others, thermal distress, thermal shock and desiccation (NAPA, 2012).
There were 1,482 reports of heat-related disturbances and 260 heat-related fatalities throughout Myanmar in the summers of 2010. Increased temperature shortens the period of pathogen progression and thus increases the rate of infection, e.g. mosquito-borne illnesses such as mosquitoes and dementia. Increases in non-drinkable freshwater resources will lead to municipalities getting by without clean drinkable waters, the risk of desiccation will rise and diarrhoea will become even more acute (NAPA, 2012).