Myanmar Citizenship CardBurma Citizenship Card
Citizenship concept in Burma and the status of Rohingyas
In accordance with "Appendix A" of this agreement, it was stated that "a Burmese national is designated for the purposes of voting and candidacy in the forthcoming elections as a United Kingdom or Indian state entity resident in Burma for a full term of not less than eight years in the ten years immediately prior to January 1, 1942 or January 1, 1947".
It has been established that'who was borne in Burma and resides there for a term of not less than eight years in the ten years immediately prior to January 1, 1942 or January 1, 1947' is a Burmese citizen and may elect and run in the forthcoming constitutional elections.
Nu-Attlee Agreement (Treaty between the Government of the United Kingdom and the Provincial Government of Burma, 1947) was very important in determining the ethnic and racial nationalities of Burma. Under the 1947 Constitution, a citizen is a person who belongs to an "indigenous race", has a grand-parent of an "indigenous race", is a child of a citizen or used to live in British Burma before 1942.
According to this Act, nationals are obliged to obtain a national registration card (NRC), while non-citizens receive a foreign registration certificate (FRC). Candidates whose FRCs are held by their parent may not stand for government service. Aboriginal race was identified in 1948 Burma Citizenship Act Art. 3 (1), which states that:
" The term one of the Burmese tribes for the purpose of Section 11 of the Constitution shall mean the Arakanese, Burmese, Chin, Kachin, Karen, Kayah, Mon or Shan and any such group of peoples who have established themselves as permanently homeland in any of the areas of the Union enclosed from a pre-1823 A area.
Both of these classes of persons and those who come from them are automated civilians. Rohingyas are Aracanese for all intentions and ends and they are also a group of races who had established themselves in Arakan/Union of Burma as their fixed residence from a time before 1823 A.. However, in 1982, the Burma Citizenship Law defined tribal ethnical groups (Taing-Yin-Tha), which stated: "Nationals such as Kachin, Karen, Chin, Burma, Mon, Rakhine or Shan and ethnical groups who have resided in one of the areas enclosed in the states have been permanently resident since a time before 1185 BC, In 1823 A.D." are Burmese Civilians.
In this case the term "Rakhine" replaces the term "Arakanese" and is ascribed to the Buddhist Arakanese, excluding the Muslim Rohingya Arakanese. In contrast to the 1947 Constitution and the Citizenship Act of 1948, a three-tier system of citizenship (full, associated and naturalized) was introduced in 1982, which is actually more a matter of categorisation and discriminations and an apparatus of repression of Rohingyas and so-called non-indigenous races.
Associated citizenship should be eliminated as it tends to generate high-class and lowclass nationals. Associated citizenship should be eliminated in accordance with the generally recognised notion of citizenship. Every citizen, whether a full citizen or a naturalised citizen, should be constitutional equals in terms of human and legal status.
They are a very depressing instrument for everyone to denationalise marginalised groups such as Rohingya and to create many internally displaced persons and fugitives, and they should be eradicated over time. Myanmar is an ethnic rich nation. Some of the majority of the population live in outlying areas or places in the countryside who do not know the language of Burma or who do not know any of the so-called tribal tongues.
"There are now in various parts of Burma different individuals who, because of their origins and isolation, look completely different or talk about incidents that have taken place outside the borders of their place of residence.......
It is not, therefore, the simple racial or physical condition or whether a Member State speaks the Union's own languages that tests whether it is a national. Mr. Rohingya had the right to a deductible rate (the right to citizenship and the right to vote) in all Burmese general election campaigns from the time of Britain's settlement to the present day, such as 91 Departmental Administration Presidentialeatures ('1936), Aung San's Constituent Assembly ('1947),
Numerous political parties participated in all general and federal polls during Parliament' s reign (1952, 1956, 1960), Ne Win's BSPP (Burma Socialist Programme Party) constitution referenda and general poll (1974) and SLORC multiple MPs ('90), SPDC's 2008 constitution referenda and multi-party polls (2010). National Registration Cards (NRCs) for all citizens of Burma and Foreigner Registration Certificates (FRCs) for all foreign nationals who have been register.
In fact, since there was no citizenship certificate/card at the date, the NRC was the only document generally used as evidence of citizenship in Burma. The NRC was first published in 1952 by Maungdaw Township, where 96% of the local people at that age were Rohingya. They are the same ID cards that Rakhine and all other racial groups and people in the nation have been given.
As part of the state program, the migration and federal registry crews went through the communities, reviewed the families list and photographed the detainees for the NRC exhibition. This was a good faith paper that enabled one to continue all his domestic operations without renting or handicap: - owning movable and immoveable or disable property, receiving training, inclusive of higher and vocational training at places of study in the land, the right to work and community service, inclusive of the military, and the Myanmar Travel Permit for travel abroad, inclusive of the Holy Makkah Schoenstatt Campaign of Burma.
The Rohingya, like all other NRC owners, enjoys all fundamental human and political prerogatives, although there has been severe discriminatory treatment since 1962. Which Rohingya have what kind of state in Burma? Rohingya are children of the land of Arakan/Burma. But the xenophobic regime denies Rohingya's livelihood in Burma.
You used to say that "there was no Rohingya in Burma; the Rohingya was not in the story, the Rohingya was never heavy.... etc.". Instead, with hate for this nation, they can say: "There was Rohingya, recognised by Burma's parliament administration as an ethnical group on an equal footing with other ethnical nationality in the nation; but now we refuse to be a part of us just because we do not like her because of her corporeal nature, speech, civilization and religious beliefs.
Part of their tradition home was recognised as the "Muslim territory of northern Iraqan" during the colonisation of Britain. During 1946, Genreal Aung San guaranteed them equal opportunities in terms of human liberty and justice with other Burmese nationals of Arakan and one of Burma's tribal states. According to Aung San Attlee Treaty Art. 3 (1947) and the First Timetable of the Burma Independence Act 1947, the Rohingya are Union of Burmaans.
You are also one of the native breeds of the land under sections 11 (1) (II) and (III) of the 1947 Constitution. Rohingya " was recognised by the parliament (1948-1962) as one of Burma's tribal people. Mr Rohingya has never been considered a foreigner in various forms and manifestations by the UK COLONI and all the Burmese authorities that kept Burma from becoming independent in 1948.
The Burmese people properly elected their elected members in all Burma general election sessions and elected their elected members to the legislature or parliament and at various boardlevel. We had Rohingya MPs. Remarkably, people whose FRCs are owned by their parent are not eligible to run for government offices. These are some of the many facts that testify that Rohingyas are an integrated part of Burmese culture and are authentic Burmese people, like any other recognised ethnical group or race in the state.
The Rohingya problem is not a matter of "illegal immigration", which the Algerian authorities pretend with their own interests and try to deceive the world' s public in order to warrant the prosecution of Rohingya. Only the will of the current Burmese authorities will ensure that they are properly accommodated in the Union of Burma.
Not least, the indiscriminate withdrawal of citizenship from Rohingya is an internationally charged criminal offence. However, the Rohingya issue must first and foremost be solved within Burma, which calls for strong global pressures. Even in view of the depletion of all internal legal means, the entire hopes for the re-establishment of citizenship with joint prerogatives are in the world.
The wisdom of the current regime will be to respond immediately to Rohingya's cry and global responses. 4 ) Prof. Dr. Aung Zaw, "Tineyin Muslims Papyusasu Poggu-kyawmya-2" (Indigenous Muslim Elite-2), (in Burmese), 20009, p.188. Bengal Muslims or Arakan Muslims", Euro Burma Office (EBO) Briefing Paper No. 2, 2009.