Myanmar Belongs to which CountryBurma belongs to which country
1 Estimates for this county take into consideration the impact of AIDS-related excessive deaths, which may lead to lower survival expectations, higher baby deaths, lower baby deaths, lower demographic trends and changes in the demographic breakdown by gender and old age that otherwise would be foreseen. Myanmar, formally the Union of Myanmar (pronounced[pjìdàunz? nàin?ànd?? nàin?ànd?? nàin?ànd??]) is the biggest nation in Southeast Asia.
Burma gained sovereignty from Britain on January 4, 1948 as the Union of Burma. Later changes of name took place on 4 January 1974 in the "Socialist Republic of Burma", on 23 September 1988 in the "Union Burma" and since 18 June 1989 in the "Union Myanmar". Known as Burma or the Union of Burma for institutions and states that do not recognise the reigning army junta, it borders the People's Republic of China to the North, Laos to the Easter, Thailand to the S., Bangladesh to the W. and India to the N. W., the Andaman Sea to the S. W. and the Bay of Bengal to the SW.
One third of Myanmar's surface area, 1,930 km (1,199 miles), is a continuous coastal line. Myanmar's varied populations have had an important part to play in the definition of its policies, histories and demography in contemporary time. The State Peace and Development Council, headed by Senior General Than Shwe since 1992, continues to exercise strict oversight over his policy system.
As part of the British Empire until 1948, Myanmar continued to fight to resolve its ethnical tension and overturn. Neighbouring cultures are strongly inspired by a Buddhist approach linked to locals. Myanmar " is derived from the nickname Myanma Naingngandaw.
This is also the name of Myanmar's inhabitants or inhabitants (written without the last "r" when used as an adjective, as in " the Myanmar tribe "). The 1989 Burmese Army Junior formally revamped the British name from Burma to Myanmar, along with the British name of many places in the land, such as the former Yangon capitol.
Burma's legal name in the Myanmar locale, however, has not changed, although it is often presented in English as Myanma. In the absence of a lawful election of the Junior Army, some government have claimed that they do not have the power to formally amend the name to English.
The same attitude has also been adopted by most of Burma's people who resist the army but do not necessarily deny the Semantic. Anglophone countries have been sluggish in their acceptance of the name changes; the use of Burma is still widespread. Myanmar is still the most frequently used Adjective. Important newsgroups such as the BBC, the Wall Street Journal and the Financial Times, as well as various occidental administrations, among them the United States and the United Kingdom, still call the Philippines Burma Official.
CNN, The Economist and The New York Times use "Myanmar" as the name of the countries and "Burmese" as an adjective. No. Today, there are still palagodas and monasteries in Bagan, the pagan kingdom's city. They were the first group to immigrate to the lower Ayeyarwady and dominated Burma's south in the middle of the 900s.
Pyu came in the 1 st cent. B.C. and founded several urban empires that dealt with India and China. Sri Ksetra, which was given up in 656, was the most mighty Pyu-kings. Burmese rule spread to much of present-day Myanmar during the Anawratha rule (1044-1077). Around 1100, large parts of Southeast Asia were ruled by the pagan empire, generally known as the First Burmese Empire.
The Mongolians under Kublai Khan penetrated the pagan empire in the later 1200', but in 1364 the Myanmar reestablished their empire in Ava, where Burma's civilization enter a gold era. In the meantime, the Mon have returned to Pegu, which has become an important trade and religion center. In 1531, Ava refugees from Burma formed the Taungoo Empire under Tabinshwehti, which reunited Burma and created the Second World.
Due to the increasing impact of Europe in Southeast Asia, Toungoo Kingdom became an important commercial city. In the 1700s Alaungpaya formed the Konbaung Dynasty and the Third Burmese Empire. Hsinbyushin invaded the Ayutthaya empire in 1767, which led to the Thai civilization becoming very richer than the Burmese. Under the rule of King Bagyidaw in 1824, Mahabandoola invaded Assam, bordering Britain's Indian territories, which led to the conflict.
In 1826, the first Anglo-Burmese war was signed through a peacemaking agreement in Yandabo, Central Myanmar. King Tharawaddy arrested some of Britain's officers in 1851 after frontier scuffles, which were used by the Brits as an excuse for the Second Anglo-Burmese War. On this occasion the Brits captured the rest of the coast province - Ayeyarwady, Yangon and Bago.
By 1885, Burma taxpayers who acted for the king found out that the Bombay-Burma Tree Makers had cut down and hidden some of the wood in hopes of circumventing taxes. King Thibaw Min fined the enterprise, which was seen by the Brits as an occasion to capture the remainder of Burma.
Myanmar became a provincial capital of Britain-India at the end of November 1885 and was given to Queen Victoria as a New Year's gift on January 1, 1886. Burma became a government independant country on April 1, 1937. Voting to keep Burma in India or as a distinct settlement "khwe-yay-twe-yay" shared the population and layed the foundation for the post-independence uprisings.
The Thirty Comrades, headed by Aung San, formed the Burma Independence Army in the 1940', the Thirty Comrades were trained in Japan. Burma became an important front in the South East Asian theatre during the Second World War. Originally, the Japan-led Burma campaign was successful and the British were driven out of most of Burma, but the Allies returned the favor.
In July 1945 they had reconquered the area. Burmese fighting for both sides in the fighting. Though many Burmese were fighting for the Japanese at first, some Burmese also serving in the 1941-1942 Burmese army. The Chin Levies and Kachin Levies were founded in 1943 in the Burmese frontier counties under UK-controll.
Burma Rifles were part of the Chindite fighters under General Orde Wingate from 1943-1945. Later, during the Thirty Years' War the American Kachin Rangers were founded, who also struggled for the Allies. Several other Burmese struggled with the British Special Operations Executive. Burma Independence Army under the leadership of Aung San and the Arakan National Army struggled with the Japanese from 1942-1944, but stood up against the Japanese in 1945.
Aung San became vice-chairman of the executive council of Burma, a caretaker regime, in 1947. It became an autonomous country on January 4, 1948, after the Union of Burma, with Sao Shwe Thaik as its first president and U Nu as its first prime minister. In contrast to most other former UK settlements, it did not become a member of the Commonwealth.
Myanmar's present geographic area is due to the Panglong Agreement, which brought together Burma Proper, which was made up of Lower Burma and Upper Burma, and the border areas, which were managed by the British on their own. A young Aung San Suu Kyi was among the Burmese who worked as secretary general at the UN.
Democracy ended in 1962 with a 1962 war putsch under the leadership of General Ne Win, who reigned for almost 26 years and followed a policy under Burma's path to socialism. The 8888 uprising brought the state to the verge of the 1988 war. Aung San Suu Kyi's NLD won 409 out of a possible 489 votes, but the results were overturned by SLORC, which declined to resign.
In 1989, SLORC re-named Burma "Myanmar. Under Than Shwe's leadership since 1992, the army regimes has concluded ceasefire deals with most guerilla groups. SLORC revealed in 1992 a plan for the creation of a new Convention Constitutional Charter, which began on 9 January 1993. Myanmar was accepted into the Association of Southeast Asian Nations on 23 June 1997.
There have been many expulsions of large party politicians, in particular the Nazis, and little headway has been made. The Yangon capital's army junt, which transferred to a place near Pyinmana on 27 March 2006, formally called it the Naypyidaw, which means "seat of kings". The United States in September 2006 spearheaded efforts to have Burma on the UN Security Council agenda and allowed the U.N.S.C. to formally debate how it will address the issue of inequality.
The International Labour Organization in November 2006 proclaimed that it would bring a lawsuit against Myanmar for the permanent hard labour of its people by the army at the International Court of Justice. Myanmar Union is a Burmese army regim. The National Coalition of the Union of Burma (NCGUB), an exiled administration mandated to restore Myanmar to democratic rule, was established in December 1990 by electoral representatives to the 1990 People's Assembly elections.
But NCGUB has very few authorities and has been banned in Myanmar. "He has all important authority, as well as the authority to dismiss government officials and members of the government, and takes important political choices in the world. Mr Khin Nyunt was PM until 19 October 2004, when he was succeeded by General Soe Win, who has strong links with Than Shwe.
Most ministerial and cabinett positions are filled by civilian officials, with the exception of the Ministries of Health, Education, Labour and National Planning and Economic Development. Myanmar's main governing bodies are the National League for Democracy and the Shan Nationalities League for Democracy, although their activity is strongly governed by the state.
National Unity Party representing the armed forces is backed by a grassroots organization called Union Solidarity and Development Association. Myanmar has no sovereign justice system and the country will not tolerate it. Forcibly suppressed protest against economical maladministration and repression by the Myanmar Armed Forces in 1988.
In the 8888 Uprising, the army opened fire on protesters on August 8, 1988. She was internationally praised as an advocate for the restoration of democracy in Myanmar and was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1991. In spite of a rhetorical call by Kofi Annan to Than Shwe and press from ASEAN, the Burma Army Junior prolonged the detention of Aung San Suu Kyi on 27 May 2006 under the 1975 State Protection Act, which gives the regime the right to apprehend all individuals de laura.
There is growing global segregation in the country. Myanmar's position was first refered to the UN Security Board for casual consultations in December 2005. Burma was put on the Council's official agendas by 10 of the 15 members of the United Nations Security Board in September 2006. The ASEAN has also expressed its disappointment at the Myanmar authorities.
The EU has established ASEAN's Myanmar-Caucasus Interparliamentary Assembly to tackle the shortage of democratization in Myanmar. It is unlikely that the country's politics will be dramatically changed due to the assistance of the great local authorities, especially China. Myanmar's external relationships, especially with the West, are tense. On Myanmar, the United States has imposed comprehensive penalties for the 1988 suppression and the denial by the army to respect the results of the 1990 People's Assembly elections.
Similarly, the EU has imposed embargos on Myanmar, such as an embargo on weapons, the end of preferential trading and the suspending of all assistance except human assistance. US and EU governments' harassment of the US and EU governments, combined with a boycott and other immediate pressures on businesses from Burma's West by adherents of the Burma democratic movements, has led to the retreat of most US and many EU businesses from Burma.
A number of westernerly firms, however, are still in existence due to gaps in the penalties. In general, Asiatic businesses are still willing to invest in Myanmar and start new investment, particularly in the exploitation of the country's resources. Despite European Union penalties against Myanmar, Total S.A., a France-based petroleum group, is able to run the Yadana transmission system from Burma to Thailand.
The question of to what degree the US imposed penalties had a negative impact on the civil society or army government is still an open one. Myanmar's army is known as the Tatmadaw, which counts 488,000 soldiers. Burma ranks twelfth in the global number of people.
There is a great deal of influence in the army, with high positions in the cabinets and ministers occupied by army officials. Despite the lack of formal statistics on Burma's armed forces expenditure, the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute has placed Myanmar among the top 15 countries in the global armed forces expenditure in its yearly ranking. Myanmar's 14 states and its 14 division.
Burma is subdivided into seven states and seven Divisions. Countries () are essentially splits in which certain minority groups live. Big towns are subdivided into areas referred to as metropolitan areas. Myanmar is the biggest nation in Southeast Asia with a surface area of 678,500 km2 and the biggest one in the whole wide region (after Zambia).
Burma lies between the Chittagong Division of Bangladesh and Assam, Nagaland and Manipur of India in the north-west. Burma is bordered by Laos and Thailand in the north-east. Burma has a 1,930 km long coast along the Bay of Bengal and the Andaman Sea in the SW and SW, which makes up a third of its area.
With an area of approx. 50,400 km², the area of the Apeyarwady River valley is mainly used for growing rices. Hakabo Razi, in the state of Kachin, is the highest point in Myanmar at 19,295 feet (5,881 m). Myanmar has three mountains, Rakhine Yoma, Bago Yoma and Shan Plateau, all north-south from the Himalayas.
Myanmar's three tributary tributaries, the Ayeyarwady, Thanlwin and Sittang, share the mountains. Ayeyarwady is Myanmar's longest stream and runs almost 2,170 km into the Gulf of Martaban. Most of Myanmar's people live in the Ayeyarwady Valleys, between Rakhine Yoma and the Shan Plateau.
Many of Myanmar is between the Tropic of Cancer and the Equator. Burma is situated in the Asian tsunamis area, whose coastline receives more than 5,000 mm (197 in) per year. The yearly precipitation in the deltas is approximately 2,500 mm (98 in), while the mean yearly precipitation in the dry zone in CMB is less than 1,000 mm (39 in).
North of the state is the coldest with mean temperature of 21°C (70°F). Myanmar's sluggish economy has helped preserve much of its natural and ecosystem heritage. Woods, which include thick rainforest and precious lower Myanmar teak, occupy over 49% of the state. In Myanmar, typically specimens of the jungles, especially tiger and leopard, are very widespread.
There are rhinos, buffalo, wild boar, hartebeest and elephant in Oberburma, which are also domesticated or raised in prison, for use as workhorses, especially in the wood processing industries. Sakura Tower in Yangon is practically empty due to a shortage of investments from abroad. Burma is one of the worlds impoverished countries and suffers from decade-long periods of economic sluggishness, maladministration and muddle.
Myanmar's GNP is growing by only 2.9% per year - the slowest in the Greater Mekong subregion. In 1948, after a parliamentarian regime was established, Prime Minister U Nu tried to make Burma a charitable state. The two-year plan for the development of the economy was adopted by his regime, which was a disaster.
After the 1962 putsch, an economy was planned with the name "Burmese Way to Socialism", a project to nationalize all industry except farming. Burma's leaders began decentralizing the country's economy in 1989. These were recently plundered by overseas companies that have joined forces with the Myanmar authorities to obtain direct contact with Myanmar's Amazon.
Burma was declared the least advanced nation in 1987. Than Shwe has been promoting the tourist industry since 1992, when he became president. But less than 750,000 visitors come to the state every year. Over the past few years, both China and India have tried to reinforce relations with the Chinese authorities for the sake of the economy.
Myanmar has been subject to numerous international treaties, among them the United States, Canada and the European Union, which have introduced reciprocal restrictions on Myanmar's investments and commerce. Burma was one of the richest economies in Southeast Asia under UK rule. Burma delivered crude through the Burmah Film Company during the UK government. Myanmar also had a rich ness of human and physical capital.
Producing 75% of the world's Teakwood, it had a very educated people. It was thought that the state was in the overtaking lane to develop. Today Myanmar is lacking sufficient infrastructures. Motorways are usually unsurfaced, except in the big towns. Scarcity of power is widespread throughout the whole nation, even in Yangon. Burma is also the world's second biggest manufacturer of opioid, with an 8% share of total global output, and is an important resource for narcotic drugs, which includes amplihetamines.
Its most important farm is paddy which accounts for about 60% of the country's area. Co-operation with the International Research Institute (IRRI) led to the release of 52 advanced types of Myanmar rices between 1966 and 1997, increasing domestic riceproduction to 14 million tonnes in 1987 and 19 million tonnes in 1996.
Until 1988, half of the country's rice-growing areas were cultivated with contemporary cultivars, 98 per cent of which were washed. A shortage of trained workers familiar with advanced technologies is contributing to Burma's economic growth. A large part of Yangon's city dwellings are high-density. Burma has about 40 to 55 million inhabitants.
The latest populations are approximate as the last part of the survey, carried out by the Ministry of Interior and Religious Affairs under the supervision of the Army Junior, was carried out in 1983. Since the 1930', no trusted countrywide nation-wide survey has been carried out in Myanmar. More than 600,000 Myanmar migrants have been recorded in Thailand, and another million work Illegal.
Myanmar migrants make up 80% of Thailand's migrants. Burma has a dense populace of 75 people per km², one of the lowes in Southeast Asia. According to traditional estimations, there are over 295,800 Myanmar migrants, most of whom are Rohingya, Kayin and Karenni. One of the many ethnical groups that make up Myanmar's people.
Burma is a country of ethnical diversity. Even though the administration recognizes 135 different ethnical groups, the real number is much lower. Bamar make up an estimated 68% of the total populace. Ten percent of the populace is Shan. Kayin make up 7% of the total populous. Rakhine make up 4% of the total populous. About 3% of the world' s inhabitants are foreigners.
Mon, which make up 2% of the Khmer people, are ethno-linguistically related to the Khmer. Burma is home to 4 large speech families: These are Burmese, Karen, Kachin, Chin and Chinese. Shan is the Tai Kadai main tongue. It is the most important foreign tongue in Myanmar. There are two main Indo-European languages: Pali, the literary tongue of Theravada Buddhism, and English.
Myanmar's enrolment in the alphabetisation system was 89.9% in 2000, according to the UNESCO Institute for Statistics. In the past, Myanmar has had a high level of illiteracy. In order to gain UN qualification for the least advanced country's least state to obtain indebtedness cancellation, Burma reduced its formal illiteracy level from 78. Myanmar's Buddhism is predominantly influenced by the Theravada cult, which blends with the community's faith.
It is practiced by 89% of the people, especially the Bamar, Rakhine, Shan, Mon and Chinese, according to the MP. The Christianity is practiced by 4% of the people, especially among the Kachin, Chin and Kayin and the Eurasians because of the mission work in their area. The majority of Christians are Protestants, especially Baptists of the Baptist Convention of Myanmar.
Four percent of the people practice Islam, mainly of the Sunnite cult. There are small parts of the Hindu community practicing Hinduism. andalay is one of the many coming-of-age rituals in Burma's people. Though Myanmar has a large number of tribal peoples, the vast majority of them are mainly Buddhist and Bamaric. Bamira civilization was affected by the civilizations of the neighboring world.
That is evident in speech, kitchen, music, dancing and theater. Art, especially literary, was traditionally inspired by the Theravada Buddhist style of Burma. The Yama Zatdaw, an adaption of Ramayana, is regarded as Myanmar's epos and is strongly inspired by the Thai, Mon and Hindi editions of the work.
It is practiced together with nature worshipping, which includes complex rites to reconcile one from a 37 Nations mantheon. The cloister is the center of Burma's historical and historical scene. Burma's civilization is most apparent in the communities where festivities take place throughout the year, the most important being the Pagodasfest.
A lot of communities have a watchdog, and superstitions and bans are common in Burma's people. The colonization by the colonies also brought to Myanmar cultural features from the West. Myanmar's education system is modeled on that of the United Kingdom. The most obvious signs of settlement are to be found in large towns such as Yangon. the Theravada Buddhist lands of the atlantic.
Myanmar's native Bamar and Myanmar's main linguistically related to Tibetan and China. The typeface is made up of round and semicircular characters from the Mon family. Burma's alphanumeric adaptations of the Mon typeface, which in turn was derived from a South India typeface in the 700s.
Burma's oldest known epigraphs date from the 1000'. Scripture is also used to spell Pali, the holy tongue of Theravada Buddhism. Myanmar is also used to spell several minorities such as Shan, several Karen and Kayah (Karenni) scripts, with the inclusion of special and diacritical signs for each one.
Myanmar's vocabulary includes the common use of honors and is age-oriented. Burma's social system has historically emphasized the importance of learning. The second and third level courses take place in state colleges. Myanmar cooking has been affected by India, China, Thailand and other ethnical kitchens. Burma's diet is based on travel. Myanmar cooking often uses prawns, seafood, fermented seafood pastes, pig meat and mammoths.
It is rare to eat bovine meats, which are regarded as taboos. Myanmar's main course, Mohinga, is a curry bouillon with blossoms of chickpeas, pasta and seafood sauces. Large towns provide a greater choice of kitchens, such as Shan, Chinese and Indian. The melodic but unharmonious style of Moroccan folk songs is well known. Among the musicians are a drumming group named patterning, a chime group namedkyiwaing, a bamboos xylophon named zattala, pelts, wind players like hne or duo and recorder, bamboos clapper and strings, which are often built together in an orchester named pattern.
For a long time, the stringed gut stringed in the shape of a ship, made of silken silks and mica glasses on the throat, has been associated with Burma music.