Myanmar BackgroundBurma Background
Myanmar's Mon are regarded as the first residents of Myanmar, possibly as early as 3,000 BC. Mon tribes moved to the east cost of the Gulf of Bengal and downtown CMB. Besides the contacts with India, the Mon also had contacts and influences on their Mon neighbours in Siam (today Thailand).
The Burmese founded a capitol in 628 AD, near today's Prome, but in the middle of the 9th centur y the Burmese arrived in the Mon and Pyu community that were on their way. In the pagan kingdom, King Anawrahta (r 1044-1077) produced the first united state of Myanmar.
However, in the 13th century Myanmar began to sink, partly because a lot of spending a lot of energy and resources on the construction of a pagoda. Kublai Khan plundered Pagan in 1287, beginning a long lasting conflict that lasted for many centages. Europeans had little influence on Myanmar because of their domestic (and external) conflict until they injured the Raj in Bengal.
That led to the UK occupying these lands in order to maintain tranquillity at their frontiers, and after 60 years it took over all of Myanmar. Myanmar became the world's largest exporting country for raw materials. The Burma Independent Army (BIA), a group previously formed by the Japanese, was assembled by a students' guide, U Aung San.
By 1942, when the Japs marched into Myanmar, the FIA was joining the Japonese armed force. Though they did not engage in many fights, their numbers rose sharply and finally enabled them to bring down the then feeble Japan administration at the end of the conflict. Meanwhile they were known as the Antifascist People's Freedom League (AFPFL), with U Aung San still the head.
The AFPFL spoke with the British after the conflict to achieve Myanmar's sovereignty, and in April 1947 it won the parliamentary seat. Saw had him murdered three month later along with most of his office by US Aung San's group.
Myanmar's leaders, like the AFPFL, were U Nu, a former Ba Maw students' guide and secretary of state. 1962 the U Nu administration was taken over by General Ne Win and U Nu was imprisoned for four years.
Myanmar's goal was to turn General Ne Win into a socio-democratic state. It collapsed quickly and developed into a very lucrative subprime mortgage swap fund. A number of Myanmar residents disappeared through a verdict that created "associated citizens" who were just humans whose forefathers did not come from the "original" Myanmar breeds. The target groups were the Sino-Burman and Indo-Burman populations and their laws contained the right to elect, but they were not permitted to be voted for or to occupy a position of power above a certain high.
That was enough, and the nation eventually rebelled after the depreciation of the money, thus erasing all excess money. Myanmar has had great turbulence for several month after Ne Win retired. Demonstrations, plundering and a violent policing reaction (the leaders of the Riiot policemen were changing governments) resulted in up to a thousand deaths in Rangoon and tens of thousands in other parts of the state.
He took command and tried to pacify those who rejected warlordship and successfully won a relationship with Brigadier Aung Gyi, General Tin U and Daw Aung San Suu Kyi (the subsidiary of U Aung San). This group seemed to be joined by the army, which led the army to mount a putsch against its regime.
The Genreal Saw Maung in September 1988 announced the creation of a State law and order restoration council (SLORC), which among other things pledged to restore order and order, but the fulfilment of the first point led to the death of several hundred, possibly even more than a thousand. Aung San Suu Kyi was the 1991 Nobel Peace Prize winner, putting great stress on the SLORC.
SLORC placed them under housebreaking and detained General Tin U in July 1989, as they were the National League for Democracy (NLD) leader. Though the NLD had won 80 per cent of the NLD seat and 60 per cent of the vote, the SLORC took revenge by detaining many of them and stating that a non-military regime could not be formed without a new constitution.
General Than Shwe took over as SLORC President, Premier and Secretary of Defence in 1992. A lot of Zimbabwean detainees were freed and Daw Aung San Suu Kyi was able to visit her wife and daughter, and two years later a US congresswoman, a UN officer and an US report. As she did not want to flee Myanmar (in exile), she was held longer than the statutory border (which was then amended by the government).
Eventually she was discharged from home in August 1995 and was allowed to remain in Yangon, where she talked to tens of thousand individuals, both residents and aliens, outside her front door every week. The SLORC chose a NCC in 1993 to begin drawing up a new constitutional and called on the NCC to give the army an important governmental part.
The SLORC intensified tension between the two groups (SLORC and NLD) in 1996 by detaining over 200 NLD members on their way to a sub-congress and re-arrested them in May 1997. The SLORC was dissolved in November 1997 and superseded by the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC), which still had the same government as the SLORC.