Myanmar BackgroundBurma Background
Bagan, the empire's capitol, was located on the Ayeyarwaddy (Irrawaddy) riverbank in the south. Myanmar adopted characteristics of the Mon and Pyu civilizations, which included Theravada Buddhism. The new Myanmar empire emerged as the Second Myanmar Empire, established by Queen Bayintnaung in Taungoo during the 1500s. Myanmar's third and last empire was established by Alaungpaya, after the Mon-Rebel.
There were three battles with the Britons - sparked off by Myanmar's opposition to Britain's trade and territory aspirations - which caused the fall of the war. Over the years, the Brits began to annex the whole land and call it Burma. 1942 Japan invaded Myanmar. Burmese young citizens founded the Burmese Independence Army with the help of the Japanese and expelled the Brits from Burma.
As a result of their reluctance to Japan's domination, a group of Myanmar scholars, headed by General Aung San, founded a federation known as the Antifascist People's Liberation Leagues (AFPFL) to combat the Japans, and they assisted Britain and the Allied forces to re-conquer Burma and resume control in 1945. Due to the resounding influence of the AFPFL, which had become a powerful parliamentary group, and the struggles of the entire people of Burma against the government, the British had to give Burma full autonomy on January 4, 1948.
Myanmar's new administration (Burma), which was opposed by some communists and various ethnical groups, had many difficulties, but the governing AFPFL won the 1951 and 1956 election. However, in 1958 there was a division between the supporters of then Prime Minister U Nu and another AFPFL group, which brought the state to the verge of civilian conflict.
At U Nu's insistence, General Ne Win established a provisional army regime and re-established order. No longer able to exercise oversight over Burma's struggles, Ne Win took over the Burmese administration in March 1962 in a non-bloody attempt to keep Burma together. The Burma socialists formed the Burma Socialists Programme Partys and governed the Burma until 1988, when many Burmese protested against the Burmese regime and demanded an end to one-party power.
In May 1990, the army had to take over because the whole state was in uproar, and founded the State Law and Order Restoration Council and permitted multi-party election. It has also amended the formal name of the Burmese Union to the Union of Myanmar.
In 1997, the army regime was reorganised and renamed the State Peace and Development Council.