Myanmar 2011Burma 2011
The World Report 2011: The World Report 2011: Myanmar
Burma's defencelessness continues after the first multi-party election in 20 years. In the past, the governing State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) consistently denied all fundamental liberties and greatly restricted co-decision. There were still severe restrictions on the right to free speech, unification, assembly and the free use of the press.
Demands an intergovernmental fact-finding committee on serious breaches of public international rights by all sides in the continuing Burmai Civil Wars. Burma's army was accountable for the continuing abuse of civilians in areas of tension, which included proliferation of hard labour, extra-judicial killing and enforced displacement of the people. Non-governmental militarized ethnical groups have also been involved in serious abuse, such as the recruiting of children troops, the executions of Burma's POWs and the random use of anti-personnel mines in non-governmental areas.
Long-scheduled polls took place in Burma in November. This took place in an environment of harassment, duress and wide-spread corrupt practices, with legislation and regulation greatly benefiting the militarily underhanded. The SPDC established the Union Electoral Commission (UEC) in March and published a set of legislation regulating the holding of the election, including rules excluding any individual who serves a jail term from partisanship.
Others regulate the election campaigns of political groups and nominees, warn of civil unrest and explicitly prohibit open criticisms of the state and the war. Prime Minister Lieutenant Thein Sein and 27 MPs from the SPD and the federal administration stepped down from their army committees in April and founded the Union Solidarity and Development Party (USDP).
The USDP took over all the property and facilities of the Union Solidarity and Development Association (USDA), a massive community relief organization founded by the army in 1993 with more than 26 million members. It underwent its largest transformation in years, with numerous high-ranking officials stepping down to stand as USDP Candidate.
Out of a group of 1,551, the remainder are reserved for soldiers in accordance with the 2008 charter. As of November, 37 political groups had signed up to take part in the poll. Burma's armed forces continue to lead assaults on civilians in ethnical areas, particularly in Karen, Karenni and Shanghai states in the east of Burma and parts of the west of Burma in the states of China and Arakan.
Tension with ethnically militarized groups that had reached a ceasefire with the Chinese authorities, such as the Kachin Independence Organization (KIO) and the United Wa State Force (UWSA), over the government's plan to convert these militia into Border Guard Force troops under the immediate command of the Myanmar armies, grew. Until the end of 2010 only five militia had consented, so that large groups like the Kachin, Wa and Mon were exposed to increasing political pressures to reform, partially demobilise and abandon their area.
Due to increasing tension, parts of 32 Burma' s cities - most of which are on the Chinese side of the Wa River - did not carry out surveys in November. Widely expressed concerns that the 2011 war could flare up again in areas of ethnical origin that have seen a restless peaceful atmosphere over the past two centuries. Burma's armed forces' abuse of civil servicemen in contravention of human rights includes the proliferation of anti-personnel mines, sex crimes against trafficked persons, extra-judicial killing, hard labour, tortures, blows, targeted alimentary activities and means of support for civil life, as well as the seizure of lands and belongings.
While the Tatmadaw (state military) continues to use them, the Social Democratic Party (SPDC) continues to work with the International Labour Organization (ILO) to demobilize childrenoldiers. About half a million persons have been internally displaced due to the East Burma crisis, more than 140,000 in Thailand shelters.
Burma's migrants, refuges and aspirants are thousands of thousands of people living in Thailand, India, Bangladesh, Malaysia and Singapore. Burma's human rights record did not noticeably deteriorate in 2010 despite efforts by Burma's aid organizations and civic organizations to increase the country's operation room and programmes. Tripartite Core Group (TCG), a multi-lateral arm of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), the Social Democratic Party (SPDC) and the United Nations following Cyclone Nargis in May 2008, completed its work in July.
Before the November election, Burma's entire relief area was severely restricted, with refusals by multinational aid agencies to work visa for personnel, visa authorizations and permissions to extend programmes in some areas. Tomás Ojea Quintana, the Myanmar HRC expert on the status of the country, in his March HRC review, outlines a" longstanding model of serious and systemic violations".
Burma's U Wunna Maung Lwin refuted the current state of affairs in Burma during a general discussion at the UN Council on International Trade in Myanmar on 17 September, saying that there were "no offences against Myanmar's humanity"..... w ) regarding the question of immunity from prosecution, every member of the armed forces who violated domestic laws was legally punished.... there was no need to investigate Myanmar because there were no breaches of it.
At the end of October, US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton said she wanted to "underline the US engagement to take responsibility for the violation of Burma's humanitarian law by working on the establishment of an intergovernmental commission of inquiry. But the European Union, which prepared the Burma resolutions, has not followed the demand for the CoI to be incorporated into the UN General Assembly resolutions.
In spite of inquiries to the SDC, Ban's Burma Adviser, Vijay Nambiar, was not allowed to come to Burma in 2010. Mr Tomás Ojea Quintana paid a trip to Burma in February, but the Social Democratic Party (SPDC) refused him further admittance after his HRC statement. As Burma's most supporting global coalition partner, China persistently blocked Burma's critique of its performance in multi-lateral fora.
On June 2, China's Prime Minister Wen Jiabao made a state trip to Burma, and Burma's President Than Shwe came to China from September 7-11. At the end of July, Than Shwe made his second state trip to India, where he concluded a number of bi-lateral agreements on investments with Prime Minister Manmohan Singh. It has neglected to express criticisms or concern about the election in Burma.
U.S. Assistant Secretary of State for East Asian and Pacific Affairs Kurt Campbell paid a visit to Burma in May and held a "pragmatic engagement" meeting with the SSDC with high-ranking army leader and Aung San Suu Kyi as part of the Obama administration's policies. U.S. Senator Jim Webb, who had made personal trips to Burma to speak with high-ranking Social Democratic Party leader, delayed a visit in June due to accusations in the press about Burma's alleged atomic programme and co-operation with North Korea.
In 2010, the ASEAN ( "Association of Southeast Asian Nations") lessened its criticisms of Burma so far. Vietnam, the present chairman of the federation, declared in a declaration that ASEAN stressed the importance of "national reconstruction in Myanmar" and "the free and equitable conduct of general election with the involvement of all interested parties", which had helped the stabilization and further economic growth of the state.
Indonesia and the Philippines, however, criticised the shortage of reforms in Burma, particularly the election, which Philippine President Benigno Aquino III described as a "farce". "Burma's neighbours China, India and Thailand continue to make intensive investments and trading, particularly in the raw materials and hydropower industry. Two power lines are being built in China from West Burma to Yunnan and a number of large-scale hydropower plants on the Irrawaddy River in Oberburma.
At the same time, Russia and Korea continue to trade guns to the US Security Council, although the US feared that the sale of the US could violate UN Security Council Resolution 1874, which puts a stop to the spread of guns.