Mon MyanmarMyanmar Mon
Myanmar's Mon generally reside in the south-east of Yangoon and along the coastline in the states of Mon and Kayin. They emigrated from the northerly areas to today's Thailand and Myanmar (Burma) and founded the first great civilisation in this area. Complementary trades for men are joinery and tile making, while men run potteries, waving and wickerwork.
The Mon family is not particularly patchrilineal (male dominated), except in handling the "house spirit". Most of them are ethnical religiousists who practice a mix of ghost veneration and Buddhism. People who are traditionally entertainers believe that good and bad minds do not live in nonliving things. Part of their faith was inspired by Hinduism, where ghosts known as Tewataos are associated with plants and grass.
Others such as ancestor ghosts, disease-causing ghosts, and ghosts of magic power are named kalk. Buddha religious friars act as intermediaries between the village inhabitants and the ghosts. Often sorceresses cause diseases or spiritual possessions. In order to relieve the disease, the shaman (usually a woman) puts on ghost dancing, in which they are usually obsessed by bad souls.
Doctors then try to exorcize the ghosts by singing songs. Ask the Lord of the Yarrow to dispatch workers to Myanmar (Burma) to serve the Mon. Ask the Holy Spirit, the mission agency that is on the Mon.
Whilst some Mon groups claim that there are between 4 and 8 million in Burma, other estimations are much lower and are close to 2 percent of the country's overall populace or just over 1 million.
Whilst some Mon groups claim that there are between 4 and 8 million in Burma, other estimations are much lower and are close to 2 percent of the country's overall populace or just over 1 million. It is a moniacal language from the Mon Khmer group of Austrian-Asian speakers, although many also use the Myanmar tongue and read and write only in Hispanic.
They were one of the first groups to establish themselves in Burma, possibly before the first millenium BC. Much of Burma was governed by a number of Mon kings over the next 1000 years, but their domination was gradually undermined as the Burmese and Tai tribes moved to the area, as they did in 1057, when Burmese founded the Bagan Empire after defeating the Mon.
Most of the Mon literary was ruined, the use of the Mon languages was banned and a large number of Mon refugees to Thailand. The British came less than a hundred years later and founded the present Mon state in Burma until the end of the Second Anglo-Burmese War in 1852.
At the end no Mon empire was re-established and in 1886 and at the end of the Third Anglo-Burmese War all of Burma was invaded by the British. The Mon territories were largely managed during the Colonization as part of "Burma Proper", or what was sometimes called " ministerial Burma " as distinct from the border areas.
Soon the first Mon. Panglong organisation came into existence, largely barred from the historic Panglong Agreement on the form of what would soon become an autonomous Burma. In 1948 the Mon National Defence Organisation (MNDO) was founded in answer to the increasing threats from a Burmese domiciled state, regardless of the Mon.
That same year, the MNDO launched its first ever violence attack by confiscating arms and a policing post alongside Karen groups - although the Mon and Karen uprisings usually date back to a later incident in January 1949. In 1958, the Mon rebels, along with many other militarized groups, reached an armistice with the U Nu people.
The New Mon State Party (NMSP), however, fought further against the army regime. However, the NMSP's armistice efforts against the Myanmar authorities were pursued until a cease-fire treaty was signed in 1995. Burma's state and army have been continuing to violate the civilian Mon people's humanitarian law ever since. As the first moves towards these objectives were made, the problem persisted: the Social Democratic Party (SPDC) placed greater constraints on the use of the Mon languages in public sector education at the end of elementary schooling, and there have been reported bans by the state.
There have also been testimonies from civil servants and soldiers that even Mon communal colleges were forbidden to use the Mon languages as teaching languages, even though the NMSP had initially successfully tried to establish this system of privately funded schooling. Burma's armed forces continue to raid the areas of Mon where the cease-fire was not respected on occasion.
Serious breaches of international law have been recorded, such as forced labor, expulsion, sexual assault and homicide, and extensive seizure of acres. In 2016, the HURFOM (Human Rights Foundation of Monland) announced that the seizure of property continued, but while in the past the army was in charge of the seizure, it is now increasing to include overseas and local businesses.
Although there are now legitimate ways to deal with seizure matters, they are largely inconsequential. The question of landholdings remains unsafe and the cases of seizure of property in the past are still unsolved. The Mon-Landtag in April 2014 approved the Mon lessons among elementary pupils - for the first case in many years a minor tongue is used in state schooling.
However, the realisation was hard because the school was understaffed and it was hard to find monolingual masters.