Modern Day BurmaContemporary Burma
om_namel= "mw-headline" id="Origin_and_history_of_the_name">Origin and story of the name
Burma - fast and powerful (from the indigenous words, muan means fast and ma means strong). Known as the Union of Myanmar, (also known as Burma or the Union of Burma through organs and states that do not recognise the reigning army junta), this country is the biggest in Southeast Asia and has a total populace of just over 50 million in number.
Burma has grown from the richest southeast Asiatic country in the early 20th to one of the worlds richest in the 21st centuries. Myanmar is in turn the slang language of Myanmar () (or Mranma in ancient Burma), both of which refer to the historical minority of its people.
" Burma has been used in Anglophone since the days of Britain's Colonisation. The 1989 Burma Myanmar Army Junior Army Government formally revamped the name from Burma to Myanmar. Also, it modified the German abbreviations of many placenames within the state. However, the state' s legal name in the Myanmar region has not yet been altered.
Its new name is a derivation of Burma's nickname Myanma Naingngandaw. Since some believe that the army junta had no authorization to "officially" alter the British name, and it was never sanctioned by a seated legislative in Burma, the amendment was disputed from a political point of view. Though the United Nations, of which Myanmar is a member, supported the name amendment five working day after it was announced by the administration.
5 ] The adoption of the name shift in the English-speaking countries was sluggish, and many still call the land Burma. Important intelligence agencies such as the BBC and governments of the West, the United States and the United Kingdom included, still formally call it Burma. Among the most popular occidental books using the word "Myanmar" are The Economist and The New York Times.
" Burma is the biggest nation in Southeast Asia. Between Bangladesh and Thailand, with India and China in the northern part, Myanmar stretches over an area of 678,500 km2, of which almost half is wood. The Hengduan Shan Mountains are the northern frontier with China.
Irrawaddy and Thanlwin are located in the middle of the Myanmar plain. The largest part of the country's populace live in this lowlands. Martaban Gulf also crags the South Myanmar coastline and flows into the Andaman Sea. Myanmar's Mon tribe is regarded as the first to settle in what is now Myanmar, possibly as early as 3,000 BC in the Gulf of Bengal and to create watering schemes.
And they also developed relations with the Thai and then Siamese population. In 628 AD they founded a capitol near today's Prome. The Burmese arrived in the middle of the 9th millennium and the Mon and Pyu colonies were incorporated. Tibeto-Burm speaks Burmans, or the Bamar, began to migrate from the present Nanzhao empire of Yunnan into the Irrawaddy River basin in the seventh cent. BC.
The Burmese filled the Pyu empire and in 849 they built a small empire in Bagan. However, it was not until King Anawrahta (1044-1077) that Bagan's presence spread to much of what is now Myanmar. In 1057, after Anawrahta had conquered the capitol of Thaton, the Burmese took over Theravada Buddhism from Mons.
Myanmar writing was written on the Mon typeface during the rule of King Kyanzittha (1084-1112). Prolific in commerce, Bagan Magi constructed many great shrines and palagodas throughout the land - many of which can still be seen today. Cublai Khan's Mongolian troops entered North Burma in 1277 and plundered the town of Bagan itself in 1287.
Burma was defeated by the Brits in a string of battles (1824-1826, 1851-1852 and 1885-1886) and became a provincial country of India under Britain's domination. Burma became a separate government autonomous and managed settlement on April 1, 1937. Burma became an important front in the South East Asian theatre during the Second World War.
Following the Japanese's first success in the Burma campaign, during which they were able to drive the British out of most of Burma, the British resisted and reconquered the land in July 1945. The Burmese were fighting for both sides in the fighting. Burma 1st Division, Kachin Levies, Karen Rifles and bands like American-Kachin Rangers were fighting for the Allies, and the Burmese National Army under the leadership of U Aung San was fighting for the Japanese.
At the end of the conflict, the Burmese National Army was known as the Antifascist People's Liberation League (AFPFL), still led by U Aung San. It became an autonomous country on January 4, 1948, known as the Union of Burma, with Sao Shwe Thaik as its first president and U Nu as its first premier.
Democracy ended in 1962 with a 1962 war putsch under the leadership of General Ne Win. Free election was inaugurated in 1990 for the first in almost 30 years, but the landslide win of the National League of Democracy (NLD), the Aung San Suu Kyi faction, was lifted when the army declined to resign.
But in February 2008, the Burmese army June said that there would be an election in 2010. They adopted a new banner and renamed the republic "Republic of the Union of Myanmar". "The election led to a triumph for the military-backed Union Solidarity and Development Party. But after the election, the regime ended the home detention of Aung San Suu Kyi.
Burma's third constitutional treaty since liberation was drawn up by the Burmese army leaders and promulgated in September 2008. It is a two-chamber, two-chamber, presidential state, some of which are passed by the army and others by universal suffrage. From 1962 to 1988, the nation was reigned by a militar yunta under the leadership of General Ne Win, and its system of politics is still under the strict supervision of its militar y regime, which has been run by Senior General Than Shwe since 1992.
The United States' sanction against the US Army Administration has been largely ineffectual, due to gaps in the sanction system and the readiness of mainly Asiatic companies to keep reinvesting in Myanmar and to start new investment, particularly in the production of resources. Myanmar has no sovereign justice system and the Burmese authorities will not tolerate it.
There is growing global segregation in the Burmese military regime. Burma's position was first refered to the UN Security Council for formal consultations in December 2005. The ASEAN has also expressed its frustrations with the Burmese authorities. But as China supports the regime, a drastic transformation of the country's politics seems unlikely.
Burma's 20th-century nationwide heroes are the founders of Burma's modern military and one of the country's leading fighters for freedom, General Aung San, a pupil-active. U Thant, who was UN Secretary-General for two years and has been held in high regard in the United Nations' annals, is another well-known person in the country, particularly for his dealings with the Cuban crisis.
Burma is subdivided into seven states and seven Divisions. Burma is subdivided into seven states and seven divisions. Most of the divisional units are Bamar, the dominating ethnical group, which makes up about 68 per cent of the people. Myanmar was the richest nation in Southeast Asia under Britain's Colonies and was considered to be on the fastest path to prosperity.
Today, it is one of the worlds impoverished countries that has suffered from Burma's 1962 take-over of the army and its plans for a socialist path, a consolidation and nationalization scheme for all industry. This is a resource-rich nation plagued by omnipresent state checks, ineffective macroeconomic policy and widespread urban poor. The Myanmar administration began decentralising macroeconomic governance in 1989 and has since liberalised certain branches of the industry.
The profitable precious stones, petroleum and forest sectors, however, are still under the supervision of the army rulers. Governmental support for tourist activities is provided, but less than 750,000 visitors come to the state each year. The Tatmadaw (the name of the military) is often co-owned or not.
Over the past few years, both China and India have sought to reinforce relations with the Myanmar authorities on account of Myanmar's large petroleum resources. A number of countries, including the United States, Canada and the United Kingdom, have adopted trading penalties against Myanmar. Burma does not have sufficient infrastructures and is suffering from it. Bottlenecks in power supply are widespread throughout the entire state.
Burma is the second biggest manufacturer of smack in the word. A shortage of skilled labour is also contributing to Burma's economic growth. Approximately three fourths of the local people live in the countryside, the rest live in the cities of Yangon, Mandalay and Moulmein. Myanmar's Bamar is related to Tibetan and, further away, China.
It includes the common use of honors and is age-appropriate. Burma's oldest known epigraphs date from the 11th cent. Scripture is also used to spell Pali, the holy tongue of Theravada Buddhism. Mongolian minority groups, with the exclusion of groups from the international community, have a tendency to talk Myanmar as a second tongue.
Burma is a country of ethnical diversity. Even though the administration recognises over a hundred different ethnical groups, the real number is much lower. Bamar are the predominant ethnical group, accounting for an estimated 68 per cent of the Burmese people. Shan, who speaks Shan languages, are related to Lao and Thai by ten per cent of the people.
Kayin (Karen) make up seven per cent of the local populace and are fluent in a wide range of Tibeto-Burmanese. Rakhine (Arakanese), which make up four per cent of the people, are related to the Bamar in ethnicity, but have different cultures. Foreign Chinese (mainly Hokkien and Speaking Cantonese) make up about three per cent of the total Chinese but are not recognised by the Chinese authorities (in relation to citizenship).
Mon, which make up two per cent of the Khmer people, are ethno-linguistically related to the Khmer. The Overseas Indians (mainly Tamil, Hindu and Bengali speakers) also make up two per cent and, like the Chinese, have no civilisations. Once accounting for around 8 per cent of the country's overall populace and accounting for at least a fourth of Rangoon's own people, the Anglo-Burmese have fallen to around 52,000 across the nation, an estimated 1.6 million of them outside Burma's border (see Anglo-Burmese).
Since the 1930' there have been no reliable numbers for the land. Any estimations regarding the proportion of the total populations are only guesses without scientifically-based. Respecting both post-independent nationality legislation and post-colonisation legislation, the current administration only grants it to those who had a line in Myanmar's former entity before colonisation.
Much of the local community has been functioning for years without formal nationality. In the 1960' the "Burmese Way to Socialism" was introduced and million of persons abandoned the state. But in recent years many Chinese have come to the state. Warfare with different ethnical groups in the frontier areas compelled many more persons out of the state.
It is widely known for its persecutions of minorities throughout the entire countryside, particularly because of civilian disturbances and demands for separation and independence. In the mid-1990s, the German authorities renegotiated contracts to end the war. Nonetheless, the authorities continue to hold minorities and move them out of Bamar-dominated areas. Myanmar's educational system has been suffering under the Burmese army system mainly due to the government's disproportionately high spending on the war.
The United Nations reports that the United Nations is spending 222 per cent more on the army than on training and heath. The majority of the advantages of the restricted educational possibilities go to Burma's armed forces and prosperous Bamarians, and training is in either the English or Myanmar language; there is little or no official training in the minorities' world.
In 1999, the Burma administration reported an enrolment of 83 per cent, although some organisations, such as the United Nations International Children's Fund (UNICEF), have a more than 30 per cent enrolment of people. UNICEF's 1995 poll revealed the following educational statistic for Myanmar: Following the 1988 pro-democracy uprising, the reigning army Junta imposed the closing of all Myanmar's campuses for several years.
It then began to open new colleges in the outskirts and countryside of Mandalay and Yangon to spread student population across several locations to avoid greater upheaval. Initially founded as Rangoon Colleges, an associated university of Calcutta, it later fused with the former Judson Colleges (also known as "Karen College" because of the large number of Karen ethnical students) to become the University of Rangoon.
The rise of the army government and the ban on the English language in the 1960' meant that the college became part of the Yangon Universities. Myanmar's Buddhism is predominantly Theravada Buddhism and is practised by 89 per cent of the people, especially the Bamar (and their sub-groups, the Rakhine included), Shan, Mon and Chinese.
The Christianity is practised by 4 per cent of the people, mainly among the mountain dwellers Kachin, Chin and Kayin as a consequence of the mission work in their area. The majority of Christians are Protestants, especially Baptists of the Myanmar Baptist Convention, which was established by the US misionary Adoniram Judson in the ninth century.
Islam is practised by four per cent of the people; these Muslims are Indians of Indian-Burmese origin, Persians, Arabs and Panthay of Chinas origin and the Rohingya Muslims of the state of Rakhine. Muslims are marginalised and largely excluded from society. There are small sections of the Hindu community practicing Hinduism or antagonism. It is not possible to give definite numbers for the percentage of the people following certain faiths.
The Buddhism has been promoted by both civil and army regimes since it became independent. In the 1950' large amounts of state money were provided both under the army and U Nu regimes for the establishment of Buddhaist memorials and general Buddhism promotion. It is persecuting Christians and Muslims all the time.
Though Myanmar has a large number of tribal peoples, the predominant cultural background is mainly Buddhist and Bamaric. It is mirrored in various facets of speech, cooking, music, dancing and theatre. Art, especially literary, was traditionally inspired by the Theravada Buddhist style of Burma. There is at least one convent in a typical Myanmar town, and religious are worshipped and sponsored by the laity.
Most of the Myanmar Buddhist friars live in the Mandalay Division and Sagaing Division. Burma's civilization is most visible in communities where festivities take place throughout the year, the most important being the Pagodas (hpaya pwe). A lot of communities have a watchdog, and superstitions and bans are common in Burma's people.
The colonization by the colonies also brought to Myanmar cultural features from the West. Burma's community, from history to the present, has emphasized the importance of learning. Alphabetization in Myanmar is regarded as important for the interpretation of Theravada Buddhist script. The 2014 Myanmar Population and Housing Census Highlights of the Main Results Census Report Volume 2 Department of Population Ministry of Immigration and Population, 2015.
Accessed June 27, 2018. www. Myanmar Population Worldometers. Accessed June 27, 2018. International Monetary Fund, Burma (Myanmar) World Economic Outlook Database. Accessed June 28, 2018. Three CIA, Burma The World Factbook. Accessed June 28, 2018. Leslie Scrivener, The Burma Issue Toronto Star, 6 October 2007. Accessed June 28, 2018.
? 6.06.1AsianInfo. org, Myanmar's geography of June 28, 2018. AsianInfo. org, Myanmar's Wildlife Relieved June 28, 2018. 8.08.1AsianInfo. org, Myanmar's story and background of June 28, 2018. Accessed June 28, 2018. www. Burma's New Capital Stages Parade BBC News, March 27, 2006. Accessed June 28, 2018. Myanmar Story Note: Some limitations may exist on the use of single pictures that are sold under separate licenses.