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Influence of vitamine ester on lay rate and eggs qualities of layers feeding on dry maize burners, cereals with solvents | Poultry science
Aim of the present trial was to examine the influence of vitamine ester on lay output, oval type yield, oval type fat content, antioxidative capacities and several biological properties of corn-fed layers containing soluble dry granules (DDGS) during the lay time ( 40 to 63 hours per week)....
The chickens were assigned to diet 1 to 6 in a 3 2 x 2 factual pattern.... Dietetic treatment comprised 3 DDGS mirrors (0, 10 and 20%) and 2 vitamine E1 mirrors (0 and 200 mg/kg).... Results showed that egg yellow colour and egg shell size increases with DDGS (P < 0,05)....
Raising DDGS to 20% in layer nutrition, however, led to a significantly lower fodder utilization (P < 0.05).... Nutritional supplement with 200 mg/kg vitamine ester significantly improves eggs and yolks content (P < 0,05).... Raising the level of vitamine ester led to a lowering of the level of blood-cholesterol and an increase of the ?-tocopherol level of eggs yellow and blood-cell ( Pharma < 0,05)....
With DDGS supplement al dente dies vermindert die portion der sättigten Fettsäuren (P < 0,05) und erhöht die portion der ungesättigten Fettsäuren im Eigelb (P < 0,05).... Nutritional supplement with high content of vitamine ester, reduced male dialdehyde and elevated overall concentration of elevated amounts of glaucoma yolks and blood cells (P < 0,05)....
To sum up, our results show that DDGS was successfully feeded to layers with a proportion of up to 10%, without impairing the installation capacity.... In addition, the addition of vitamins increased eggs yield and eggs yield, and provided healthy advantages for the layers.... Dry maize burner Grain with solvents (DDGS) is a by-product of alcohol produced....
Distillation by-products of 4 million tonnes (Hoffmann and Baker, 2011) that promote the use of DDGS in chicken feed.... Dry burner Grain with dissolvable components is not a new component for fowl and has been available as a by-product of the brewing process for many years.... Dry burner granules with solvents are recognised as a precious resource of food sources, proteins, mineral salts, mineral salts, aminosols, watersoluble vitamines, Linoleic oil, Xenthophyll and mineral salts for food of birds (Scott, 1965; Jensen, 1978, 1981; Parsons und Baker, 1983; Wang et al., 2007; Salim et al., 2010; Cozannet et al., 2010)...
Recently, Roberts et al. (2007) report that the addition of 10% EDGS to layer feed did not have a negative influence on eggs produced and the parameter of eggs grade.... Both Lumpkins et al (2005) and Swi?tkiewicz and Koreleski (2006) report that a dietary supplement with up to 15% EDGS could be used in the diet, while the intake of 20% had a negative effect on lay performance and eggs per day....
As Deniz et al (2013) observe, maize DDGS does not impair up to 15% eggs productivity and eggs welfare and lowers fodder costs.... Even with 25%DGS ( Masa'deh et al., 2011), no difference in chicken eggs per day between nutritional treatment was found.... Cromwell et al. (1993), Spiehs et al. (2002), Pineda et al. (2008) and Corzo et al. (2009) report, however, that the use of DTGS in chicken food was low, which may be due to the high fibre fraction, the inedible sulphur contents, the high nutritional versatility (in particular lysine) and the high share of poly-unsaturated fat acids in DTGS...
Vitamine A is an essential cell anti-oxidant (Puthpongsiriporn et al., 2001; Brigelius-Flohé et al., 2002) and can support the chicken immunity system by preventing cell oxidation of chicken larvae, limphocytes, macrophages as well as other cell types (Franchini et al., 2002; Leeson, 2007).... In addition, Ajuyah et al. (1993) and Cherian et al. (1996) report that the rise in the egg yellow protein E1 level and the inclusion of a tocopherol in chicken feed prevent lipids from oxidising....
Both Bollengier-Lee et al. (1998) and Ciftci et al. (2005) also showed that the addition of vitamins EC to eggs significantly enhanced eggs produced by layers subjected to thermal stresses.... Little information was available in the scientific community about the effect of vitamine ester in 10 or 20% fattening chicken diet with dGS....
Therefore, the underlying assumption of the trial was that vitamine ester could enhance the yield and other parameter of layers feeding with high DDGS values containing a high content of poly-unsaturated fats prone to oxydation.... Our research focused on the effect of vitamine E1 on lay production, oval eggs production, ovarian fat content, antioxidative capacities and biological properties of layers from 40 to 63 days of the week in a diet containing different DDGS values.
DDGS was acquired by Fuel Alcohol Limited from Jilin in China.... 50% pure vitamine ester acid ate was bought by Biotechnology Limited in Zhejiang, China.... ? ? tocopherol acidetate was the primary resource of vitamine ester used in this trial. Nutritional levels of basic B vitamins without added B vitamins were 10 mg/kg.
Chickens were assigned to diet 1 to 6 and feeded in weeks 40 to 63 in a 3 2 x 2 factual pattern. Dietetic treatment comprised 3 DDGS mirrors (0, 10 and 20%) and 2 vitamine E1 mirrors (0 and 200 mg/kg). It was a basic food from maize soya flour with or without DDGS at 10 and 20%, designed to fulfil the NRC (1994) nutritional requirements for layers.
Dietary combinations are shown in Table 1. 1DDGS: dry distillation granules with soluble components. The analysed DDGS content used in the AOAC International (1990) analysed experimental study was as follows (%): DDGS fat acids content (%): 2The pre-mix of vitamins included (per kg diet): 12,000 IE vitamins A, 2,400 IE vitamins 3, 4, 5, 015 mg vitamins B12, 0, 015 mg vitamins B3, 3, 7 mg vitamins B3, 4 mg vitamins 6, 4 mg folate 1 mg 1,000 mg 1,000 mg choline 30 mg tobacco acids and 10 mg panthothenic anhydride.
1DDGS: dry distillation granules with soluble components. The analysed DDGS content used in the AOAC International (1990) analysed experimental study was as follows (%): DDGS fat acids content (%): 2The pre-mix of vitamins included (per kg diet): 12,000 IE vitamins A, 2,400 IE vitamins 3, 4, 5, 015 mg vitamins B12, 0, 015 mg vitamins B3, 3, 7 mg vitamins B3, 4 mg vitamins 6, 4 mg folate 1 mg 1,000 mg 1,000 mg choline 30 mg tobacco acids and 10 mg panthothenic anhydride.
Two chickens were placed in a 48 34 39 cm x 39 cm metallic pen during the lay-up phase, with a reproduction area of 10 chickens in five adjacent pencils. The chickens were kept on a 16L:8D photo cycle throughout the entire trial. The chickens were kept in an ecologically monitored stable, which was kept at a constant level of about 20°C. The chickens were kept at a constant level of humidity.
Provide service. Fodder intake was measured once a week using the mean per diem fodder intake of the 10 chickens in each replication. Estimated eggs per cubic metre were laid using eggs per cubic metre ( eggs per cubic metre ), while fodder utilisation (fodder per cubic metre) was measured on a per weeks basis during the trial time. CP contents of the eggs were measured by batch preparation with a cupric catalytic converter and vapour still to form Boric Dioxide (AOAC International, 2005) and a Stickstoffanalysator (Foss, KT-2300, Foss Co. Ltd., Beijing, China).
Composition of the eiftetate. Fats were extrapolated from yolk with chloroform/methanol (2:1, vol/vol; Folch et al., 1957) for analysing fats. Ethyl ester of fats were produced with BF3 and KOH ethanolic and isolated on a GC-2010 Shimadzu Co. using a flash ionisation sensor.
Fettsäureidentifikation was carried out by comparing their residence time with the Supelco 37 components FAME Standardmix (Sigma-Aldrich Co.). The results were presented as area percentage of each Fatty Esters in relation to the overall quantity recorded. Maleondialdehyde (MDA) levels were measured using the sulphur production technique barbiturate dioxide (TAB).
GSH-Px gluathione kinase reactivity was measured by the 5,55?-dithio bis- (2-nitrobenzoic acid) colour GSH-Px gluathione kinase reactivity was measured by the 5,555?-dithio bis- (2-nitrobenzoic acid) colour determination technique. The chickens were fasting for 12 hours at the end of the experiment and the veined anaemia was taken from the wing. Chocolate Cheolesterol (CHO), Low Dense Protein (LDL) Cheesterol, High Dense Protein (HDL) Cheesterol, Aspartic Acetate Amino Transferase (AST), Alpha Amino Transferase (ALT), Potassium and Ca level in serum were measured using Biosion Bio-Technology and Science Inc. kit, Beijing, China, according to the manufacturer's instructions and a fully automated analytical biochemistry instrument.
For the 2-way anova to evaluate the major actions of the DDGS and vitamine E1 and their mutualactions. No significant reciprocal effect was observed between level of HDGS and level of Vitamin D for a single manufacturing factor (Table 2). Impacts of dietary supplements of this type on food consumption, eggs per unit volume, eggs per unit volume and eggs per unit volume were not significant.
Masa'deh et al (2011), who found that an increase in DDGS from 0 to 25% in white Leghorn chickens had no adverse effect on dietary uptake, eggs per day and eggs per day. Dietary 20% dietary supplementation of DGDs showed the poorest food efficiency in comparison to 0% dietary DGDs (P < 0.05), which is in line with earlier studies (Shalash et al., 2010; Ghazalah et al., 2011).
In 2013 Deniz et al (2013) report that the egg production with 20% CDGS is due to the low taste and the high content of fibre ingredients, so that the chickens could not completely cover their demand for protein and protein. In addition, Creswell (2006) reports that 20% levels of DDGS were low in starches, which means that chickens were reliant exclusively on the conversion of part of the dietetic aminoacids to glucose via the path of glyconeogenesis to sustain regular levels of glycogen in the blood stream and increased reliance on fat burning for power supplies.
Such changes may have affected the poultry's metabolic rate over a period of times and may have eventually affected egg production. a,b Means with different high rates within each fissure are significantly different (P < 0,05). 1VE: Vitamine A; DDGS VE: DDGS-VE interactions. Means with different high rates within each colum are significantly different (P < 0.05).
IVE: Vitamine E1; DDGS VE: DDGS-VE interactions. Dates are means from 6 replicas of 10 chickens each. It has also been found that a diet complemented with vitamine ester improves eggs produced. The Bollengier-Lee et al (1998) report that nutritional supplements with vitamine ester improve oocyte reproduction by easing the delivery of viellogenin from the hepatic system and raising its level in the hemisphere.
Nevertheless, Eigewicht, Futteraufnahme, Eimasse und Futterverwertung were not significantly affected by vitamine ester, which agrees with earlier studies (Scheideler et al., 2010; Irandoust et al., 2012). Results presented in Table 3 showed that no significant impact on total eggs per hen yield and protein content was found to be due to the inclusion of DDGS in the diet of layers.
Nevertheless, the colour and shell size of the eggs hells were significantly enhanced by the inclusion of DDGS in the chicken diet (P < 0.05). The colour of the eggs was raised in a linear manner with the DDGS-share. These observations were anticipated since maize kernels contain about 20 parts per million of Xanthophyll (NRC, 1994) and the concentration of Yanthophyll in DDGS is three fold higher due to the elimination of starches in the digestion of maize.
Egg shell fracture resistance and Haugh unit were not significantly affected by DDGS in line with earlier reporting (Deniz et al., 2013). Both DDGS and vitamine had no significant effect on CP and raw fats. a-cMeans with different high doses within each fissure are significantly different (P < 0.05). 1VE: Vitamine E1; DDGS VE: DDGS VE: DDGS -VE interactions. Data are mean of 6 replicas, with 4 specimens per replica. a-cMeans with different high scripts within each col are significantly different (P < 0.05).
Data are average of 6 replicas, with 4 specimens per replica. The results showed that the colour of the eggs, the fracture resistance of the shell, the shells' thicknesses and the Haugh unit were not significantly affected by the content of dietetic vitamine E1. The results were in line with Irandoust et al (2012), who found that 250 mg/kg supplements of vitamine had no significant effect on oocyte nutrition.
Chickens given a diet containing 200 mg/kg vitamine ester (vitamin E) had an elevated egg yoke content and a lower protein content than chickens given 0 mg/kg vitamine ester (P < 0.05). A diet enriched with a high content of vitamine ester resulted in an elevation of the ?-tocopherol content in the egg yolk area ( A < 0.05).
Vitamine E1 can be saved as a fat-soluble protein in tissue so that the ?-tocopherol content in tissue and blood was increased. 2006, who report that a supplement with a higher content of vitamine ester reduced the CHO level in quails in Japan. The ?-tocopherol and CHO contents, however, were not significantly affected by DDGS. Dietetic DDGS clearly affected the dietary fibre content of the egg (Table 4).
Percentages of palmitic Acid (C16:0) and of Stearic Acid (C18:0) in eggs fell (P < 0.05) with elevated DDGS values in the diet due to a decline in dietary saturation (P < 0.05). On the other hand, the percentage of the linoleic (18:2n-6) and ? linolenic enzyme (C18:3n-6) in the follicle rose in a linear manner with increasing DDGS level (P < 0.05).
In addition, we found that monounsaturated fats (PUFA), monounsaturated fats, and the proportion of monounsaturated fats to monounsaturated fats rose in a linear fashion with increasing DDGS (P < 0.05). Food fats as a nutrient could accumulate in animals and influence the profile of fats (Wiseman and Agunbiade, 1998).
Distillators dry granules with solvents contain about 10% grease and are high in PUFA, especially linoleic oil (C18:2). Consequently, high DDGS dietary regimens have altered the oocyte content. a-cMeans with different high rates within each fissure are significantly different (P < 0.05). 1VE: Vitamine Equivalent; DDGS VE: interactions between DDGS and Vitamine Equivalent; SFA: satisfied fats; MUFA: simple monounsaturated fats; PUFA: multiple singles; UFA: singles fats; U/S: ratios of singles fats to singles fats.
18:2n-6 + 18:3n-6 + 20:4n-6)/(18:3n-3 + 20:5n-3 + 22:6n-3), insaturated to supersaturated fat content proportionally computed as follows: IVE: Vitamine Equivalent 1; DDGS VE: interactions of DDGS and Vitamine Equivalent 1; SFA: satisfied fat equivalents; MUFA: simple non satisfied fat equivalents; PUFA: poly satisfied fat equivalents; UFA: non satisfied fat equivalents; U/S: proportion of non satisfied fat equivalents to satisfied fat equivalents.
18:2n-6 + 18:3n-6 + 20:4n-6)/(18:3n-3 + 20:5n-3 + 22:6n-3), insaturated to supersaturated fat content proportionally computed as follows: Dietary supplement with 200 mg/kg vitamine ester, which significantly reduces the content of steeringic acids (C18:0) in accordance with Wang et al. (2012). There is clear evidence to suggest that the level of polyunsaturated fat needs to be lowered and substitution by PUFA has possible advantages (Givens, 2005).
Therefore, the use of DDGS in feed for fowl was low in order to prevent a negative impact on the overall product feed product of livestock. Chart 5 showed significant impacts of 200 mg/kg vitamine ester on the MDA, GSH-Px and T-SOD activity of eggs yolks and plasma samples (P < 0.05), similar to Lin et al. (2005) and Song (2013).
It is the most important fat-soluble anti-oxidant that interrupts the process of lipids oxidation. Due to its action to extinguish free radicals, it interrupts proliferation in the chains and thus ends the early stages of the free radical assault, a similar effect of vitamine ester on poly-unsaturated biomembrane fats (McDowell, 1989).
Our results, however, showed no significant effect of supplementing MDA, T-SOD and GSH-Px with DDGS. Consequently, the supplement with a higher content of vitamine ester is increased anti-oxidant capacity of eggs and layers. a,bMittel with different high rates within each pillar are significantly different (P < 0.05). 1VE: Vitamine Equivalent E1; VE: Mutation between VE and VE and DDGS. MDA: Male dialdehyde; GSH-Px: Glutathione kinase; T-SOD: Totally Superoxiddismutase.
MDA: male dialdehyde; GSH-Px: gliathione kinase; T-SOD: complete supoxide dismutase. MDA: male dialdehyde. AST, ALT, Ca, HDL, LDL, CHO and ? tocopherol levels in Serum were not significantly affected by DDGS (Table 6). The increase of DDGS to 10 or 20% in chicken feed significantly (P < 0.05), however, raised the level of DDGS in plasma in comparison to 0% DDGS.
Nutritional supplement with 200 mg/kg vitamine ester significantly reduced CHO (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, a 200 mg/kg supplement of dietary supplements containing vitamine ester significantly enhanced ?-tocopherol concentrations in both blood glucose levels and egg yolks. AST, ALT, Ca, HDL-Cholesterin, LDL-Cholesterin and PT were not significantly affected by vitamine ester, which is in line with earlier studies (Nadia et al., 2008).
To summarize, DDGS and vitamine E1 did not have a negative effect on hepatic function (AST and ALT) or hepatic components. a,bMedicals with different heights within each fissure are significantly different (P < 0.05). 1VE: Vitamine E1; AST: Assartate Amino Transferase; ALT: Assartate Amino Transferase; CHO: Chocolate Protein; HDL = High Dense Protein; LDL = Low Dense Protein; DDGS VE: DDGS and Vitamine E1 interact. The data are average of 6 replicas, with 4 specimens per replica. a,bMeans with different highs within each column are significantly different (P < 0.05).
IVE: Vitamine Equivalent E1; AST: Assartate Amino Transferase; ALT: Assartate Amino Transferase; CHO: Chocolate Concentrate; HDL = High Dense Protein; LDL = Low Dense Protein; DDGS VE: DDGS and Vitamine Equivalent2 interactions. Data are average for 6 replicas, with 4 specimens per replica. Results showed an increase by nutritional supplements of 200 mg/kg vitamine ester regardless of the existence of DDGS when the vitamine ester levels in the basic nutrition were 10 mg/kg.
Both Scheideler and Froning (1996) report that a 50 mg/kg supplement ation of vitamine ester (vitamin E) had a higher oocyte output than a 27 mg/kg supplement of vitamine ester (vitamin E). Ciftci et al. (2005) showed that a 125 mg/kg supplement ation of vitamine ester (vitamin E) significantly increases oocyte output in heat-stressed layers.
Lin et al (2005) also report a food supplement of 40, 80, 120 and 160 mg/kg vitamine enzyme which increased oxydative stable in the brains and livers of indigenous Taiwanese cubs. The results suggest that under certain conditions the need for vitamins may be higher than that of NRC.
Results showed that 10% DDGS supplements had no negative effect on lay rate and eggs produced. Supplementing with 20% DDGS, however, resulted in the poorest fodder use. High DDGS content diet modified the content of eggs acids. In addition, the 200 mg/kg supplement of vitamine ester improves eggs yield and qualities and increases the antioxidative capacities of layers.
There was no interplay between DDGS and vitamine E1, however, suggesting that vitamine E1 improves layer efficacy due to vitamine E1 regardless of the absence of DDGS. The effect of full-fat linseed with and without antioxidants on the constituents of the main lipids in poultry meat.
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