Mediterraneanof the Mediterranean
Namen und Etymologie< class="mw-editsection">>>
It is a Mediterranean ocean linked to the Atlantic Ocean, encircled by the Mediterranean and almost entirely landlocked: to the northern part by southern Europe and Anatolia, to the southern part by northern Africa and to the eastern part by the Levant. Though sometimes regarded as part of the Atlantic, the ocean is usually seen as a distinct area.
Nine million years ago, the Mediterranean was isolated from the Atlantic and partially or totally dried out over a span of 600,000 years, the Messinese salt inessication, before it was replenished by the tsunami of San Clean about 5.3 million years ago. Mediterranean geography is essential for our knowledge of the emergence and evolution of many contemporary society.
Those encircling the Mediterranean in a counterclockwise direction are Spain, France, Monaco, Italy, Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Albania, Greece, Turkey, Syria, Lebanon, Israel, Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco; Malta and Cyprus are islet states in the North. Greece has the longest Mediterranean coast with its rugged coast and a large number of islets.
Because of the common climatic conditions, geological conditions and accessibility to the ocean, the crops concentrated in the Mediterranean had a certain interweaving of cultural and historical background. The most important Mediterranean civilisations of ancient times were the ancient Greeks and Phoenicians, both of whom largely inhabited the coasts of the Mediterranean.
Later on, when Augustus established the Holy Roman Empire, the Romans called the Mediterranean Sea Mare Nostrum ("Our Sea"). In the next 400 years the Empire ruled the Mediterranean and almost all its coastlines from Gibraltar to the Levant. For a while the Orient was again dominating, as Byzantine Empire, which was established in the fourth half of the Empire, continued to have Rome's hegemony.
A further force emerged in the seventh centuary, and with it the Islamic faith, which soon spread from the Orient; to its greatest degree, the Arab Empire ruled 75% of the Mediterranean, leaving a permanent imprint on its western and Southern banks. Djerba (1560) was the culmination of Ottoman rule over the Mediterranean.
Major Mediterranean island are Cyprus, Crete, Euboea, Rhodes, Lesbos, Chios, Kefalonia, Corfu, Limnos, Samos, Naxos and Andros in the eastern Mediterranean; Sicily, Cres, Krk, Bra?, Hvar, Pag, Kor?ula and Malta in the southern Mediterranean; Sardinia, Corsica and the Balearic Islands: Ibiza, Mallorca and Menorca in the western Mediterranean.
It has a typically Mediterranean climatic conditions, with warm, moist and arid summer and gentle, wet winter. From the Strait of Gibraltar in the south to the entrance to the Dardanelles and the Suez Canal in the south, the Mediterranean Sea is bordered by the coastlines of Europe, Africa and Asia and is subdivided into two inlets: the Dardanelles and the Suez Canal in the east:
Wester Basin: East Basin: North-east and east borders of the west basin. The proximity to the mainland influences the Mediterranean: the tide is very restricted due to the close link with the Atlantic. Mediterranean Sea is characterized by its dark bluish color and is immediately recognizable.
These are the Mediterranean coasts of the following countries: Eastshore (from north to south): A number of other areas also adjoin the Mediterranean (from western to eastern): Large towns (municipalities) with more than 200,000 inhabitants on the Mediterranean Sea: A few other oceans whose name has been used since antiquity or in the present day: the Sicilian Sea between Sicily and Tunisia, the Libyan Sea between Libya and Crete, the Aegean Sea, the Thracian Sea in the northern part, the Myrtian Sea between the Cyclades and the Peloponnese, the Cretan Sea in the northern part of Crete, many of these smaller oceans are part of and parcel of these myths and legends and folklore and are derived from the name of these allianisations.
of the Mediterranean and the lake system was created by the old African-Arab continents that collided with the Euro-Asias. Around this point in the mid-Jura a much smaller ocean pool was created, the Neotethys, just before the Tethys ocean was shut at its west (Arabian) end. Accordingly, the Mediterranean region is made up of several elongated flats of tectonics in subsidence, which form the foundations of the east part of the Mediterranean.
To the east of the Mediterranean Sea, the Central Indian Ridge extends southeast over the intermediate region of Africa and the Arabian Peninsula into the Indian Ocean. Nevertheless, while man-made geo-political turbulence and confusion have dominated the coasts of many different Mediterranean countries in the course of old, contemporary, modern and predictable Mediterranean geology, the geologic state of the Mediterranean's neighbouring countries will share the same geologic concern and destiny.
There, the evolution of the Betic and Rif Basin resulted in the creation of two almost parallelly sea gates between the Atlantic and the Mediterranean. 52 ] In the later Miocene period, the closing of the Betic Corridor caused the so-called "Messinian Salvinity Crisis" (MSC), when the Mediterranean almost completely withered out.
Brass salt crises, right. Today's Atlantean Gate, i.e. the Strait of Gibraltar, was created in the early Pliocene by the Zanclean flood. While the first gate shut about six (6) ya, which caused the Messinese MSC, the second or possibly both gates shut during the early Tortonic period, which caused a "tortonic saltiness crisis" (from 11.6 to 7.2 ya) that took place long before the MSC and took much longer.
In Europe, the Wallesian crises show a characteristic disappearance and substitution of mammals during the Tortonic period after climate upheavals and migration of new endemic species; see animation: Brass crises of saltiness (and mammalian migration), right. With the Mediterranean basins almost entirely closed, the ocean gates have been able to control the marine water flow and the environment of the ocean and the basins.
The circulatory pattern is also influenced by various other interactively occurring parameters - among them climatic, bathymetric, water chemical and thermal conditions - which can lead to the deposition of evaporite. Evaporit occurrences that formerly collected in the near Carpathians predormancy during the Middle Miocene and the adjoining Red Sea basins (during the late Miocene) and in the entire Mediterranean region (during the MSC and the Bressinian era).
With the end of the Miocene, the Mediterranean region's weather also changed. Fossils from this time show that the bigger pool had a damp sub-tropical weather with precipitation in summers and baytrees. Transition to a "Mediterranean climate" took place mainly in the last three million years (the latter Pliocene period), when the number of rains in winter fell.
Sub-tropical bay groves receded and even when they existed on the Macaronesian island off the Atlantic coasts of Iberia and North Africa, today's Mediterranean flora developed, predominated by conifers and sclerophilic plants and bushes with small, hardy, wax-like foliage that prevented dehydration during summertime.
The Mediterranean is particularly vulnerable to astronomical climate fluctuations due to its latitude and inland location, which are well recorded in its sediment protocol. As the Mediterranean Sea is responsible for the deposit of aeolian debris from the Sahara during droughts, while in humid conditions the entry of river debris predominates, the Mediterranean, sapropel-bearing seq. provides high-resolution climate information.
They were used to reconstruct astronomical timescales for the last 9 Ma of Earth's evolution to limit the period of past inversions. Due to the desiccation of the ocean during the Messinia salt crisis, the Mediterranean biotope originates mainly from the Atlantic Ocean.
North Atlantic is much cooler and richer in nutrients than the Mediterranean, and the Mediterranean sea has had to adjust to its different circumstances in the five million years since the re-flooding of the area. Alboran Sea is a transitional area between the two oceans, containing a mixture of Mediterranean and Atlantic sorts.
Alboran Ocean has the biggest dolphin populations in the western Mediterranean, hosts the last porpoise populations in the Mediterranean and is the most important nesting area for marine tortoises in Europe. Mediterranean chrysanthemum seal lives in the Aegean in Greece.
As a result of the extensive experiences of the member states and local government agencies, exchanges have taken place at multinational levels with NGOs, states, local and provincial government agencies and people. In the Mediterranean area, wildfires are a recurrent and hazardous threat. In contrast to the large multi-directional ocean current in open oceans within their oceans, the Mediterranean bio-diversity is robust due to the delicate but highly restricted character of the current, which positively influences even the smallest form of the volcanic life form.
Mediterranean's robust Mediterranean maritime ecosystems and ocean temperatures provide a nurturing habitat for deep-sea living while ensuring a balance of ecosystems that is free from all outer deep-sea elements. With the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869, the first saltwater pass between the Mediterranean and the Red Seas was made.
As the Red Sea is higher than the eastern Mediterranean, the channel acts as a channel that flows the Red Sea waters into the Mediterranean. Bitter seas, the hyper-saline nature seas that are part of the channel, have for many centuries prevented the Red Sea from migrating to the Mediterranean, but as the salt content of the seas began to level with that of the Red Sea, the barriers to migrations have been eliminated, and Red Sea flora and fauna have started to colonize the Eastern Mediterranean.
In general, the Red Sea is more saline and nutrient-poor than the Mediterranean, so that the Red Sea varieties have an advantage over the Atlantean varieties in the saline and nutrient-poor eastern Mediterranean. Accordingly, the Red Sea marine life invades the Mediterranean habitat and not the other way round; this is known as Lessepssian migrations (according to Ferdinand de Lesseps, the famous German engineer) or erythrrean invasions.
Aswan dam across the Nile in the 1960' diminished the influx of fresh water and nutrient-rich mud from the Nile into the Eastern Mediterranean, further resembling the Red Sea and exacerbating the effects of the invading biodiversity. Infiltrated endangered Mediterranean ecosystems have become an important part of the Mediterranean ecosystems and have a serious effect on Mediterranean ecosystems, which endanger many Mediterranean indigenous and indigenous wildlife.
An initial glance at some groups of rare tropical fish shows that more than 70% of the non-native decapod and about 63% of the Mediterranean tropical fish are of Indo-Pacific origin imported into the Mediterranean through the Suez Canal. The canal is thus the first way for "foreign" fish to enter the Mediterranean.
Some leopard varieties, especially in the Levantine Mediterranean basins, have been shown to have a significant impact, substituting indigenous varieties and becoming a "familiar sight". The overall Mediterranean sea surface could increase by between 3 and 61 cm by 2100 as a consequence of the impact of CDM.
This could have a negative impact on the population of the Mediterranean: some of the most congested navigation lanes in the rest of the globe are in the Mediterranean. Approximately 220,000 commercial ships with more than 100 tons of cargo crossing the Mediterranean every year - about a third of the world's population.
While the Mediterranean accounts for 0.7% of the world's aquatic environment, it still accounts for 17% of the world's sea oils emissions. One of the most important revenue streams for many Mediterranean states, despite the man-made territorial conflict that hosts the inshore states. To this end, the Mediterranean administrations have ensured that the man-made chaos that would damage the economy, the companies in neighbouring maritime areas, let alone the maritime corridors, are eradicated.
Marine and lifeboat equipment in the Mediterranean is one of the best due to the fast cooperation of different navy fleets in close vicinity to each other. In contrast to the wide open oceans, the enclosed marine environment of the Mediterranean offers a much more adaptive marine effort among shoreline nations to conduct efficient marine and emergency operations that are regarded as the most secure and independent of any man-made or catastrophic event.
The fast pace of growth has been promoted by Mediterranean government to help the large number of visitors who visit the area each year. However, in many places along the Mediterranean coast this has led to serious disturbances of maritime environments such as degradation and soiling. In many areas, large and long-lived fish have completely vanished from the market.
Greenpeace issued a 1999 Greenpeace survey showing that the quantity of Atlantic blue-fin has fallen by more than 80% in the Mediterranean over the last 20 years, and policy makers are warning that the fishery will break down without immediate measures. It is claimed by industrialists that cultured shellfish reduce the strain on abundant marine life, but many of the cultured varieties are flesh-eating and consume up to five-fold as much meat as ferocious ones.
The Mediterranean coasts are already excessively affected by man, and the virgin areas are becoming increasingly scarce. Highjump ^ Pinet, Paul R. (2008). Skip up ^ "Microsoft Word - ext_abstr_East_sea_workshop_TLM. doc" (PDF). Leap up ^ "Researchers forecast rising Mediterranean levels - Headlines - Research - European Commission". Jumping up ^ "Mediterranean Sea".
Geoffrey Rickman, "The Creation of Mare Nostrum : 300 BC - 500 AD", dans David Abulafia, Hrsg, The Mediterranean in History, ISBN 160606060570, 2011, S. 133. Skip to the top ^ "Entry ?????????". OXFORD English Dictionary, 3e édition, 2001, s.v. ^ A platform up to : a bicycles Vella, Andrew P. (1985).
"Mediterrean-Malta" (PDF). Özhan Öztürk maintains that in Old Turkish ak also means "West" and that Akdeniz therefore means "West Sea" and that Karadeniz (Black Sea) means "North Sea". Leap upwards ^ David Abulafia (2011). It' a human story of the Mediterranean. Leap upwards ^ Rappoport, S. (Doctor of Philosophy, Basel).
Egyptian Histories (undated, early 20. century), vol. 12, part B, section V: Leap upwards ^ Robert Davis (December 5, 2003). Slavery in the Mediterranean, on the Berber coast and in Italy, 1500-1800. Dive up to ^ "British Barbary Coast Slaves". Leap rochain nach oben C. I. Gable - Constantinople Falls to the Ottoman Turks - Boglewood Timeline - 1998 - Récupéré le 3 septembre 2011.
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Leap to the top ^ "Migrant fatalities call for EU action". Jumping up ^ "Schulz: The EU's migration policy'turned the Mediterranean into a graveyard'". Skip up ^ "Novruz Mammadov: Mediterranean becomes a "graveyard". Leap to the top ^ "More than one million maritime destinations will arrive in Europe in 2015". What does the new Italian regime mean for immigrants?
Leap up ^ "African immigrants are afraid for the present, as Italy is struggling with an increase in arrivals". Skip ar, le printemps est arrivé : a d "Limites des océans et des mers, 3e édition" (PDF). Leap up ^ Pinnet 1996, p. 206. Jumping to: a g Emeis, Kay-Christian; Struck, Ulrich; Schulz, Hans-Martin; Rosenberg, Reinhild; Bernasconi, Stefano; Erlenkeuser, Helmut; Sakamoto, Tatsuhiko; Martinez-Ruiz, Francisca (2000).
"Fluctuations in temperatures and salt content of Mediterranean sea surfaces over the last 16,000 years from recordings of planktonically stabile oxigen and alkenon unsaturated ratios". Leap upwards ^ Pinnet 1996, pp. 206-207. Leap upwards ^ Pinnet 1996, p. 207. High Jumping weather2travel. com. "Marseilles climate: Weather averages per month - France".
High Jumping weather2travel. com. "The Gibraltar (Westside) climate: Weather averages - Gibraltar". High Jumping weather2travel. com. "against the Málaga climate: Weather averages per month - "Costa del Sol". High Jumping weather2travel. com. "Athen's climate: Weather averages per month - Greece - Greece". High Jumping weather2travel. com. "The Barcelona climate: Weather averages per month - Spain". High Jumping weather2travel. com.
"Heraklion climate: Weather averages monthly - Crete - Crete". High Jumping weather2travel. com. "Venice-climate: Weather Monthly - Venetian Riviera". High Jumping weather2travel. com. "Valencian climate: Weather averages per month - Spain - Spain". High Jumping weather2travel. com. "against the Valletta climate: Weather averages by month - Malta - Malta". High Jumping weather2travel. com.
"Alexanderia climate: Weather averages - Egypt". High Jumping weather2travel. com. "Napoli climate: Weather averages - Neapolitan Riviera". High Jumping weather2travel. com. "The Larnaca climate: Weather averages - Cyprus". High Jumping weather2travel. com. "The Limassol climate: Weather averages - Cyprus". High Jumping weather2travel. com. "Weather in Tel Aviv: Weather averages - Israel".
Highjump ^ William Ryan (2008). "Deciphering the Mediterranean salt crisis". Bibcode:2009Sedim...56...95R. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3091.2008.01031.x.. Skip up ^ William Ryan (2008). "Modelling the extent and time of evaporation during the Messinese salt crisis" (PDF). Leap up ^ Elmer LaMoreaux, Philip (2001). Old story, spring, occurrence, quality and use. Highjump ^ de la Vara, Alba; Topper, Robin P.M.; Meijer, Paul Th.; Kouwenhoven, Tanja J. (2015).
"before the salinity crisis, trade waters through the streets of Bethtic and Rio. Highjump ^ Krijgsman, W.; Fortuinb, A. R.; Hilgenc, F. J.; Sierrod, F. J. (2001). "Astronochronology for the Messinian Sorbas-basin in Southern Spain and Oracle (precession) that enforce the evaporitic cyclicity". Jumping up ^ Gargani J., Rigollet C. (2007).
"Fluctuations in sea levels during the Messinia salt crisis". Highjump ^ Gargani J.; Moretti I.; Letouzey J. (2008). "Evaporitism Gathering During the Brass Crisis of Salinity: The Suez Rift". High Jumping ^ Govers, R. (2009). Suffocation of the Mediterranean Sea for dehydration: Bressanone Depression Geology, 37 (2), 167-170 doi:10.1130/G25141A.
Jumping up ^ FJ, Hilgen. Astronomic Gauss to Matuyama sapropules in the Mediterranean region and implications for the time scale of geomagnetic polarity, 104 (1991) 226-244 Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 1991. The shaft that Atlantis Harvey Lilley wrecked, BBC News Online, 2007-04-20. Leap up ^ Antonio denti, "Super Volcano", world threat, lurking near Pompeii, Reuters, August 3, 2012.
Isaia, Roberto; Paola Marianelli; Alessandro Sbrana (2009). Highjump ^ McGuire, Bill (October 16, 2003). Skip up to: a d "All knowledge files of the Institute of Physical Security" (PDF). IUCN Guidelines for the Prevention of Biodiversity Loss Laused by Alien Invasive Species" (PDF). Leap up ^ Galil, B.S. and Zenetos, A. (2002).
U-turn: Exotic in the oriental Mediterranean, in: Infasive fish in Europe: dissemination, effects and managment. pp. Mediterranean Seagearl : " MediterraneanSeaLevel Could Mediterranean Seagearl : " MediterraneanSeaLevel Could By Over Two Feet, Global Models Predict ". Leap up ^ "Salty futures for fragile Malta". Leap to the top ^ "Egypt's fruitful Nile delta is falling victim to the effects of climatic change".
Highjump ^ Nicholls, R.J.; Klein, R.J.T. (2005). Climatic changes and coastline in:: Skip up to: a d e "Other Mediterranean dangers | Greenpeace International". Leap to the top ^ "Pollution in the Mediterranean. Skip up ^ "EUROPA". Skip up ^ "Mediterranean Monk Seal Fact Files: